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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548907/evaluation-of-thermal-optical-analysis-method-of-elemental-carbon-for-marine-fuel-exhaust
#1
Maija K Lappi, Jyrki P Ristimäki
The awareness of black carbon (BC) as the second largest anthropogenic contributor in global warming and an ice melting enhancer has increased. Due to prospected increase in shipping especially in the Arctic reliability of BC emissions and their invented amounts from ships is gaining more attention. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is actively working towards estimation of quantities and effects of BC especially in the Arctic. IMO has launched work towards constituting a definition for BC and agreeing appropriate methods for its determination from shipping emission sources...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548476/is-cold-blood-cardioplegia-absolutely-superior-to-cold-crystalloid-cardioplegia-in-aortic-valve-surgery
#2
Daniel A Lerman, Matilde Otero-Losada, Kiddy Ume, Pablo A Salgado, Sai Prasad, Kelvin Lim, Bruno Péault, Nasri Alotti
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests that blood cardioplegia (BCP) may be superior to cold crystalloid cardioplegia (CCP) for myocardial protection. However, robust clinical data are lacking. We compared post-operative outcome of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) using cold anterograde-retrograde intermittent BCP versus anterograde (CCP). METHODS: Adult consecutive isolated AVR performed between April 2006 and February 2011 at the Royal Infirmary Hospital of Edinburgh were retrospectively analyzed...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539119/towards-the-concept-of-disease-modifier-in-post-stroke-or-vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-consensus-report
#3
Régis Bordet, Ralf Ihl, Amos D Korczyn, Giuseppe Lanza, Jelka Jansa, Robert Hoerr, Alla Guekht
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a complex spectrum encompassing post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and small vessel disease-related cognitive impairment. Despite the growing health, social, and economic burden of VCI, to date, no specific treatment is available, prompting the introduction of the concept of a disease modifier. CONSENSUS AND SUGGESTIONS: Within this clinical spectrum, VCI and PSCI remain advancing conditions as neurodegenerative diseases with progression of both vascular and degenerative lesions accounting for cognitive decline...
May 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538984/accuracy-of-medical-claims-for-identifying-cardiovascular-and-bleeding-events-after-myocardial-infarction-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-translate-acs-study
#4
Patricia O Guimarães, Arun Krishnamoorthy, Lisa A Kaltenbach, Kevin J Anstrom, Mark B Effron, Daniel B Mark, Patrick L McCollam, Linda Davidson-Ray, Eric D Peterson, Tracy Y Wang
Importance: Pragmatic clinical trial designs have proposed the use of medical claims data to ascertain clinical events; however, the accuracy of billed diagnoses in identifying potential events is unclear. Objectives: To compare the 1-year cumulative incidences of events when events were identified by medical claims vs by physician adjudication and to assess the accuracy of bill-identified events using physician adjudication as the criterion standard. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of a clinical trial assessed the medical claims forms and records for all rehospitalizations at 233 US hospitals within 1 year of the index acute myocardial infarction (MI) of 12 365 patients enrolled in the Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRANSLATE-ACS) study between April 1, 2010, and October 31, 2012...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538402/dissection-extending-from-extra-to-intracranial-arteries-a-case-report-of-progressive-ischemic-stroke
#5
Fu-Liang Zhang, Zhen-Ni Guo, Yang Liu, Yun Luo, Yi Yang
RATIONALE: Cervicocephalic artery dissections, once considered a rare disease, have become increasingly recognized as a cause of stroke in young and middle-aged individuals. Early diagnosis is mandatory because anticoagulation or antithrombotic therapy can help prevent primary or secondary ischemic events. However, the diagnosis is still a crucial challenge for radiologists and neurologists. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a rare case of 33-year-old patient with progressive ischemic stroke due to dissection from an intimal tear in the right proximal internal carotid artery to distal middle cerebral artery...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537517/sepsis-current-definition-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-management
#6
Abdalsamih M Taeb, Michael H Hooper, Paul E Marik
Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that results from the dysregulated inflammatory response to infection that leads to organ dysfunction. The resulting losses to society in terms of financial burden, morbidity, and mortality are enormous. We provide a review of sepsis, its underlying pathophysiology, and guidance for diagnosis and management of this common disease. Current established treatments include appropriate antimicrobial agents to target the underlying infection, optimization of intravascular volume to improve stroke volume, vasopressors to counteract vasoplegic shock, and high-quality supportive care...
June 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532180/premature-atrial-complexes-in-an-ischemic-stroke-population-and-risk-of-recurrent-stroke-a-systematic-review
#7
Michala Herskind Sejr, Sam Riahi, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen, Jens Cosedis Nielsen, Peter Brønnum Nielsen
Premature atrial complexes (PACs) have been proposed as a possible mediator between normal sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to summarize the available knowledge of association between PACs and recurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in ischemic stroke patients. Areas covered: In this systematic review, we investigated the risk of recurrent events in patients who experienced ischemic stroke or TIA. Occurrence of PACs in electrocardiographic monitoring after index stroke/TIA was required...
May 22, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527771/aspirin-versus-aspirin-plus-clopidogrel-as-antithrombotic-treatment-following-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-with-a-balloon-expandable-valve-the-arte-aspirin-versus-aspirin%C3%A2-clopidogrel-following%C3%A2-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-randomized%C3%A2
#8
Josep Rodés-Cabau, Jean-Bernard Masson, Robert C Welsh, Bruno Garcia Del Blanco, Marc Pelletier, John G Webb, Faisal Al-Qoofi, Philippe Généreux, Gabriel Maluenda, Martin Thoenes, Jean-Michel Paradis, Chekrallah Chamandi, Vicenç Serra, Eric Dumont, Mélanie Côté
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare aspirin plus clopidogrel with aspirin alone as antithrombotic treatment following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for the prevention of ischemic events, bleeding events, and death. BACKGROUND: Few data exist on the optimal antithrombotic therapy following TAVR. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial comparing aspirin (80 to 100 mg/day) plus clopidogrel (75 mg/day) (dual-antiplatelet therapy [DAPT]) versus aspirin alone (single-antiplatelet therapy [SAPT]) in patients undergoing TAVR with a balloon-expandable valve...
May 11, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522098/study-of-association-of-severity-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-and-functional-outcome-in-stroke-patients
#9
Rohit Kumar, J C Suri, Rajesh Manocha
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a prevalent yet underrecognized condition that may have major adverse consequences for those affected by it. We performed a prospective observational study to seek a correlation of severity of SDB with the severity of stroke and its functional outcome. METHODS: Patients with history of recent-onset stroke were recruited and underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) after the acute phase of the stroke was over; for defining hypopneas, 3% and 4% desaturation limits were used, and the apnea-hypopnea index was respectively calculated as AHI3% and AHI4%...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512585/understanding-the-mechanisms-of-recovery-and-or-compensation-following-injury
#10
REVIEW
Michael J Hylin, Abigail L Kerr, Ryan Holden
Injury due to stroke and traumatic brain injury result in significant long-term effects upon behavioral functioning. One central question to rehabilitation research is whether the nature of behavioral improvement observed is due to recovery or the development of compensatory mechanisms. The nature of functional improvement can be viewed from the perspective of behavioral changes or changes in neuroanatomical plasticity that follows. Research suggests that these changes correspond to each other in a bidirectional manner...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507269/randomized-multicenter-trial-of-artss-2-argatroban-with-recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-for-acute-stroke
#11
Andrew D Barreto, Gary A Ford, Loren Shen, Claudia Pedroza, Jon Tyson, Chunyan Cai, Mohammad H Rahbar, James C Grotta
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We conducted a randomized exploratory study to assess safety and the probability of a favorable outcome with adjunctive argatroban, a direct thrombin-inhibitor, administered to recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA)-treated ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: Patients treated with standard-dose r-tPA, not receiving endovascular therapy, were randomized to receive no argatroban or argatroban (100 μg/kg bolus) followed by infusion of either 1 (low dose) or 3 μg/kg per minute (high dose) for 48 hours...
June 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506981/contemporary-trends-in-oral-anticoagulant-prescription-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients-at-low-to-moderate-risk-of-stroke-after-guideline-recommended-change-in-use-of-the-chads2-to-the-cha2ds2-vasc-score-for-thromboembolic-risk-assessment-analysis-from-the-national
#12
David F Katz, Thomas M Maddox, Mintu Turakhia, Anil Gehi, Emily C O'Brien, Steven A Lubitz, Alexander Turchin, Gheorghe Doros, Lanyu Lei, Paul Varosy, Lucas Marzec, Jonathan C Hsu
BACKGROUND: Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc score instead of the CHADS2 score for thromboembolic risk stratification and initiation of oral anticoagulation (OAC) was recommended in the 2014 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Heart Rhythm Society atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines. We sought to define the proportion of patients with AF qualifying for and receiving OAC in contemporary practice by applying the CHA2DS2-VASc score to patients with a low CHADS2 score. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among patients with AF enrolled in the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry's outpatient Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence registry (2008-2014) CHADS2 score of 0 or 1, we calculated the impact of adoption of the CHA2DS2-VASc score on the proportion of patients with an indication for OAC...
May 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504077/routine-shunting-during-carotid-endarterectomy-in-patients-with-acute-watershed-stroke
#13
Paolo Perini, Domenico Marco Bonifati, Sebastiano Tasselli, Filippo Sogaro
AIM: To evaluate the protective role of routine shunting in patients with acute watershed stroke (WS) undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). METHODS: A total of 138 patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (SCS) who underwent CEA after acute ischemic stroke from March 2008 to March 2015 were included in this study. Transient ischemic attacks were excluded. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the topographic pattern of the stroke on magnetic resonance imaging: group 1, territorial strokes (TS) caused by emboli of carotid origin, and group 2, WS caused by a hemodynamic mechanism related to an SCS...
January 1, 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494691/central-poststroke-pain-a-systematic-review
#14
Jonathan Singer, Alyssa Conigliaro, Elizabeth Spina, Susan W Law, Steven R Levine
Background Physical, psychological, and/or social impairment can result after a stroke and can be exacerbated by pain. One type of pain after stroke, central poststroke pain, is believed to be due to primary central nervous system mechanisms. Estimated prevalence of central poststroke pain ranges widely from 8% to 55% of stroke patients, suggesting a difficulty in reliably, accurately, and consistently identifying central poststroke pain. This may be due to the absence of a generally accepted definition. Aim We aimed to clarify the role of thalamic strokes and damage to the spinothalamic pathway in central poststroke pain patients...
June 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489279/dipeptidyl-peptidase-dpp-4-inhibitors-and-glucagon-like-peptide-glp-1-analogues-for-prevention-or-delay-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-associated-complications-in-people-at-increased-risk-for-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
REVIEW
Bianca Hemmingsen, David P Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
May 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488268/electromechanical-assisted-training-for-walking-after-stroke
#16
REVIEW
Jan Mehrholz, Simone Thomas, Cordula Werner, Joachim Kugler, Marcus Pohl, Bernhard Elsner
BACKGROUND: Electromechanical- and robotic-assisted gait-training devices are used in rehabilitation and might help to improve walking after stroke. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of automated electromechanical- and robotic-assisted gait-training devices for improving walking after stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 9 August 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE in Ovid (1950 to 15 August 2016), Embase (1980 to 15 August 2016), CINAHL (1982 to 15 August 2016), AMED (1985 to 15 August 2016), Web of Science (1899 to 16 August 2016), SPORTDiscus (1949 to 15 September 2012), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (searched 16 August 2016), and the engineering databases COMPENDEX (1972 to 16 November 2012) and Inspec (1969 to 26 August 2016)...
May 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487153/prognostic-factors-of-infective-endocarditis-in-patients-on-hemodialysis-a-case-series-from-a-national-multicenter-registry
#17
Antonio Ramos-Martínez, Fernado Roque, Maria Carmen Fariñas, Patricia Muñoz, Eduardo Verde, Gregorio Pablo Cuerpo, Arístides de Alarcón, José Antonio Lepe, José María Miró, Antonio Plata, Miguel Ángel Goenaga, Dácil García-Rosado, Amparo Martínez-Monzonis, Javier de la Torre, Pablo García-Pavía
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe complication associated with high mortality. OBJECTIVES: To examine the clinical characteristics of IE in hemodialysis (HD) patients and to determine prognostic factors related to HD. METHODS: From January 2008 to April 2015, 2488 consecutive patients with definite IE were included. Clinical characteristics of IE patients on HD were compared with those of IE patients who were not on HD. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients (63% male, median age: 66years; IQR: 54-74years) with IE (5...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485090/risk-of-stroke-in-prescription-and-other-amphetamine-type-stimulants-use-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Blanca Iciar Indave, Luis Sordo, María José Bravo, Ana Sarasa-Renedo, Sonia Fernández-Balbuena, Luis De la Fuente, Michela Sonego, Gregorio Barrio
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are a putative cause of stroke with high abuse potential. We aim to systematically review the association between use of ATS and stroke. DESIGN AND METHODS: To assure a sensitive search strategy, a broad definition of ATS was used. Cochrane Plus, EMBASE, IBECS/Lilacs, ISI WOK, Medline and Scopus were searched through 2016. Three researchers independently reviewed studies (Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses)...
May 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475274/remote-ischaemic-preconditioning-for-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-with-or-without-valve-surgery
#19
REVIEW
Carina Benstoem, Christian Stoppe, Oliver J Liakopoulos, Julia Ney, Dirk Hasenclever, Patrick Meybohm, Andreas Goetzenich
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial improvements in myocardial preservation strategies, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is still associated with severe complications. It has been reported that remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) reduces reperfusion injury in people undergoing cardiac surgery and improves clinical outcome. However, there is a lack of synthesised information and a need to review the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of remote ischaemic preconditioning in people undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, with or without valve surgery...
May 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469496/use-and-misuse-of-aspirin-in-primary-cardiovascular-prevention
#20
REVIEW
Sergio Coccheri
The use of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) events in healthy or apparently healthy people is a widely debated topic. Many arguments indicate that "primary prevention" is only a conventional definition and that the transition from primary to secondary prevention represents a continuum of increasing levels of CV risk. Although there are no direct proofs of a different efficacy of aspirin at different CV risk levels, in low-risk populations aspirin will appear to be less efficient...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
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