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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325618/neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation
#1
Susan J Hayflick, Manju A Kurian, Penelope Hogarth
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting children and adults. These rare disorders are often first suspected when increased basal ganglia iron is observed on brain magnetic resonance imaging. For the majority of NBIA disorders the genetic basis has been delineated, and clinical testing is available. The four most common NBIA disorders include pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) due to mutations in PANK2, phospholipase A2-associated neurodegeneration caused by mutation in PLA2G6, mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration from mutations in C19orf12, and beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration due to mutations in WDR45...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233709/metabolomics-analysis-of-alloxan-induced-diabetes-in-mice-using-uplc-q-tof-ms-after-crassostrea-gigas-polysaccharide-treatment
#2
Guanhua Zhao, Xilong Hou, Xingyao Li, Min Qu, Changqing Tong, Wei Li
Diabetes has become a global and serious health issues which causes a variety of complications. This study aims to explore the hypoglycemic effect of Crassostrea gigas polysaccharide (CGPS) and the dynamic changes in the endogenous small molecule metabolites of urine from normal group, model group and CGPS high dose group by metabolomic approach (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). In our study, the CGPS treatment could reduce the fasting blood glucose levels and recover the triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP) levels in serum of diabetic mice...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209902/dehydropropylpantothenamide-isolated-by-a-co-culture-of-nocardia-tenerifensis-ifm-10554t-in-the-presence-of-animal-cells
#3
Yasumasa Hara, Midori A Arai, Kanae Sakai, Naoki Ishikawa, Tohru Gonoi, Takashi Yaguchi, Masami Ishibashi
A new amide, named dehydropropylpantothenamide (1), was obtained by a co-culture of Nocardia tenerifensis IFM 10554T in the presence of the mouse macrophage-like cell line J774.1 in modified Czapek-Dox (mCD) medium. Compound 1 was synthesized from D-pantothenic acid calcium salt in 6 steps. The absolute configuration of natural compound 1 was determined by comparisons of the optical rotation and CD spectra of synthetic 1. In the present study, a new method for producing secondary metabolites was demonstrated using a "co-culture" in which the genus Nocardia was cultured in the presence of an animal cell line...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202018/precise-probing-of-residue-roles-by-post-translational-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-c-n-aza-michael-mutagenesis-in-enzyme-active-sites
#4
Jitka Dadová, Kuan-Jung Wu, Patrick G Isenegger, James C Errey, Gonçalo J L Bernardes, Justin M Chalker, Lluís Raich, Carme Rovira, Benjamin G Davis
Biomimicry valuably allows the understanding of the essential chemical components required to recapitulate biological function, yet direct strategies for evaluating the roles of amino acids in proteins can be limited by access to suitable, subtly-altered unnatural variants. Here we describe a strategy for dissecting the role of histidine residues in enzyme active sites using unprecedented, chemical, post-translational side-chain-β,γ C-N bond formation. Installation of dehydroalanine (as a "tag") allowed the testing of nitrogen conjugate nucleophiles in "aza-Michael"-1,4-additions (to "modify")...
November 22, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194776/endosymbiosis-and-its-significance-in-dermatology
#5
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kubiak, Hanna Sielawa, Wenchieh Chen, Ewa Dzika
Proposed at the beginning of the 20th to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival, and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168138/metabolomic-analysis-of-the-toxic-effect-of-chronic-exposure-of-cadmium-on-rat-urine
#6
Shuai Chen, Meiyan Zhang, Lu Bo, Siqi Li, Liyan Hu, Xiujuan Zhao, Changhao Sun
This study aimed to assess the toxic effect of chronic exposure to cadmium through a metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, low-dose cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (0.13 mg/kg body weight (bw)), middle-dose CdCl2 (0.8/kg bw), and high-dose CdCl2 (4.9 mg/kg bw). The rats continuously received CdCl2 via drinking water for 24 weeks. Rat urine samples were then collected at different time points to establish the metabolomic profiles...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160809/evaluation-of-dietary-intakes-and-supplement-use-in-paralympic-athletes
#7
Robyn F Madden, Jane Shearer, Jill A Parnell
Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18) and female (n = 22) athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108416/chlorflavonin-targets-acetohydroxyacid-synthase-catalytic-subunit-ilvb1-for-synergistic-killing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Nidja Rehberg, Herve Sergi Akone, Thomas R Ioerger, German Erlenkamp, Georgios Daletos, Holger Gohlke, Peter Proksch, Rainer Kalscheuer
The flavonoid natural compound chlorflavonin was isolated from the endophytic fungus Mucor irregularis, which was obtained from the Cameroonian medicinal plant Moringa stenopetala. Chlorflavonin exhibited strong growth inhibitory activity in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC90 1.56 μM) while exhibiting no cytotoxicity towards the human cell lines MRC-5 and THP-1 up to concentrations of 100 µM. Mapping of resistance-mediating mutations employing whole-genome sequencing, chemical supplementation assays, molecular docking studies as well as enzymatic characterization revealed that chlorflavonin specifically inhibits the acetohydroxyacid synthase catalytic subunit IlvB1, causing combined auxotrophies to branched chain amino acids and to pantothenic acid...
November 6, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100983/acetyl-coa-carboxylase-in-escherichia-coli-exhibits-a-pronounced-hysteresis-when-inhibited-by-palmitoyl-acyl-carrier-protein
#9
Alexandra Evans, Wendy Ribble, Erin Schexnaydre, Grover L Waldrop
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in bacteria is composed of three components: biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase. ACC catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid synthesis: the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA via a two-step reaction. In the first half-reaction, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the vitamin biotin covalently linked to biotin carboxyl carrier protein. In the second half-reaction, the carboxyl group is transferred from biotin to acetyl-CoA by the enzyme carboxyltransferase...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079738/the-antimalarial-activity-of-the-pantothenamide-%C3%AE-panam-is-via-inhibition-of-pantothenate-phosphorylation
#10
Joy E Chiu, Jose Thekkiniath, Jae-Yeon Choi, Benjamin A Perrin, Lauren Lawres, Mark Plummer, Azan Z Virji, Amanah Abraham, Justin Y Toh, Michael Van Zandt, Ahmed S I Aly, Dennis R Voelker, Choukri Ben Mamoun
The biosynthesis of the major acyl carrier Coenzyme A from pantothenic acid (PA) is critical for survival of Plasmodium falciparum within human erythrocytes. Accordingly, a PA analog α-PanAm showed potent activity against blood stage parasites in vitro; however, its efficacy in vivo and its mode of action remain unknown. We developed a new synthesis route for α-PanAm and showed that the compound is highly effective against blood stages of drug-sensitive and -resistant P. falciparum strains, inhibits development of P...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037329/smokers-report-lower-intake-of-key-nutrients-than-nonsmokers-yet-both-fall-short-of-meeting-recommended-intakes
#11
Susan K Raatz, Lisa Jahns, LuAnn K Johnson, Angela Scheett, Alicia Carriquiry, Andrine Lemieux, Motohiro Nakajima, Mustafa al'Absi
Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991455/pyrazinoic-acid-inhibits-mycobacterial-coenzyme-a-biosynthesis-by-binding-to-aspartate-decarboxylase-pand
#12
Pooja Gopal, Wilson Nartey, Priya Ragunathan, Jansy Sarathy, Firat Kaya, Michelle Yee, Claudia Setzer, Malathy Sony Subramanian Manimekalai, Véronique Dartois, Gerhard Grüber, Thomas Dick
Previously, we showed that a major in vitro and in vivo mechanism of resistance to pyrazinoic acid (POA), the bioactive component of the critical tuberculosis (TB) prodrug pyrazinamide (PZA), involves missense mutations in the aspartate decarboxylase PanD, an enzyme required for coenzyme A biosynthesis. What is the mechanism of action of POA? Upon demonstrating that treatment of M. bovis BCG with POA resulted in a depletion of intracellular coenzyme A and confirming that this POA-mediated depletion is prevented by either missense mutations in PanD or exogenous supplementation of pantothenate, we hypothesized that POA binds to PanD and that this binding blocks the biosynthetic pathway...
November 10, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975359/urine-metabolomics-insight-into-acute-kidney-injury-point-to-oxidative-stress-disruptions-in-energy-generation-and-h2s-availability
#13
Marta Martin-Lorenzo, Laura Gonzalez-Calero, Angeles Ramos-Barron, Maria D Sanchez-Niño, Carlos Gomez-Alamillo, Juan Manuel García-Segura, Alberto Ortiz, Manuel Arias, Fernando Vivanco, Gloria Alvarez-Llamas
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the main complications in acute care medicine and a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI incidence has increased; however, its diagnosis has limitations and physiopathological mechanisms are underexplored. We investigated urine samples, aiming to identify major metabolite changes during human AKI evolution. Metabolic signatures found were further explored for a potential link to severity of injury. Twenty-four control subjects and 38 hospitalized patients with AKI were recruited and urine samples were collected at the time of diagnosis, during follow-up and at discharge...
December 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966518/therapeutic-efficacy-of-combination-therapy-using-oral-cyclosporine-with-a-dietary-supplement-pantogar%C3%A2-in-twenty-nail-dystrophy
#14
Su Jin Oh, Jeong Eun Kim, Joo Yeon Ko, Young Suck Ro
BACKGROUND: Twenty-nail dystrophy (TND) is an acquired idiopathic disease characterized by dull, thin, lusterless, and fragile nails with fissuring, small regular pits, and excessive longitudinal ridging. Although various treatment modalities have been performed in order to treat TND, the effects of these treatments are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of oral cyclosporine in TND. METHODS: A total of 38 patients with TND were treated with combination therapy using oral cyclosporine with a pantothenic acid complex-based dietary supplement (Pantogar®; Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Germany), whereas 44 patients were treated with the pantothenic acid complex-based dietary supplement alone...
October 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941230/effects-of-rumen-protected-pantothenate-supplementation-on-lactation-performance-ruminal-fermentation-nutrient-digestion-and-blood-metabolites-in-dairy-cows
#15
Wang Cong, Liu Qiang, Li He Qiong, Wu Xiao Xu, Gang Guo, Wen Jie Huo, Pei Cai Xia, Zhang Yan Li, Zhang Shuan Lin
BACKGROUND: Lactation performance of dairy cow has considerably increased with animal breeding and management improvement in recent years. Ruminal net synthesized pantothenic acid is insufficient to meet the requirement of high producing dairy cows. The objective was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected pantothenate (RPP) on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion and blood metabolites in dairy cows. RESULTS: Dry matter (DM) intake tended to increase, whereas milk yields, milk fat percentage and yield, body condition score (BCS) changes and net energy output except for maintance increased linearly with increasing RPP supplementation...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922393/a-set-of-nutrient-limitations-trigger-yeast-cell-death-in-a-nitrogen-dependent-manner-during-wine-alcoholic-fermentation
#16
Camille Duc, Martine Pradal, Isabelle Sanchez, Jessica Noble, Catherine Tesnière, Bruno Blondin
Yeast cell death can occur during wine alcoholic fermentation. It is generally considered to result from ethanol stress that impacts membrane integrity. This cell death mainly occurs when grape musts processing reduces lipid availability, resulting in weaker membrane resistance to ethanol. However the mechanisms underlying cell death in these conditions remain unclear. We examined cell death occurrence considering yeast cells ability to elicit an appropriate response to a given nutrient limitation and thus survive starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911222/ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-for-imaging-of-pantetheinase-in-living-cells
#17
Yiming Hu, Hongyu Li, Wen Shi, Huimin Ma
Pantetheinase, which catalyzes the cleavage of pantetheine to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and cysteamine, is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, pantothenate recycling and cell migration. However, further elucidating the cellular function of this enzyme is largely limited by the lack of a suitable fluorescence imaging probe. By conjugating pantothenic acid with cresyl violet, herein we develop a new fluorescence probe CV-PA for the assay of pantetheinase. The probe not only possesses long analytical wavelengths but also displays linear ratiometric (I628/582 nm) fluorescence response to pantetheinase in the range of 5-400 ng/mL with a detection limit of 4...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857456/integration-of-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-data-reveals-enhanced-steroid-hormone-biosynthesis-in-mouse-uterus-during-decidualization
#18
Ji-Long Liu, Wen-Qian Zhang, Miao Zhao, Ming-Yu Huang
It has been long recognized that decidualization is accompanied by significant changes in metabolic pathways. In the present study, we used the GC-TOF-MS approach to investigate the global metabolite profile changes associated with decidualization of mouse uterus on day 8 of pregnancy. We identified a total of 20 differentially accumulated metabolites, of which 9 metabolites were down-regulated and 11 metabolites were up-regulated. As expected, 7 differentially accumulated metabolites were involved in carbohydrate metabolism...
August 31, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780108/the-effect-of-bleaching-agents-on-the-degradation-of-vitamins-and-carotenoids-in-spray-dried-whey-protein-concentrate
#19
M A Stout, C W Park, M A Drake
Previous research has shown that bleaching affects flavor and functionality of whey proteins. The role of different bleaching agents on vitamin and carotenoid degradation is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of bleaching whey with traditional annatto (norbixin) by hydrogen peroxide (HP), benzoyl peroxide (BP), or native lactoperoxidase (LP) on vitamin and carotenoid degradation in spray-dried whey protein concentrate 80% protein (WPC80). An alternative colorant was also evaluated...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743678/the-saliva-exposome-for-monitoring-of-individuals-health-trajectories
#20
Vincent Bessonneau, Janusz Pawliszyn, Stephen M Rappaport
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that environmental, rather than genetic, factors are the major causes of most chronic diseases. By measuring entire classes of chemicals in archived biospecimens, exposome-wide association studies (EWAS) are being conducted to investigate associations between a myriad of exposures received during life and chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: Because the intraindividual variability in biomarker levels, arising from changes in environmental exposures from conception onwards, leads to attenuation of exposure-disease associations, we posit that saliva can be collected repeatedly in longitudinal studies to reduce exposure-measurement errors in EWAS...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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