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pantothenic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108416/chlorflavonin-targets-acetohydroxyacid-synthase-catalytic-subunit-ilvb1-for-synergistic-killing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Nidja Rehberg, Herve Sergi Akone, Thomas R Ioerger, German Erlenkamp, Georgios Daletos, Holger Gohlke, Peter Proksch, Rainer Kalscheuer
The flavonoid natural compound chlorflavonin was isolated from the endophytic fungus Mucor irregularis, which was obtained from the Cameroonian medicinal plant Moringa stenopetala. Chlorflavonin exhibited strong growth inhibitory activity in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC90 1.56 μM) while exhibiting no cytotoxicity towards the human cell lines MRC-5 and THP-1 up to concentrations of 100 µM. Mapping of resistance-mediating mutations employing whole-genome sequencing, chemical supplementation assays, molecular docking studies as well as enzymatic characterization revealed that chlorflavonin specifically inhibits the acetohydroxyacid synthase catalytic subunit IlvB1, causing combined auxotrophies to branched chain amino acids and to pantothenic acid...
November 6, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100983/acetyl-coa-carboxylase-in-escherichia-coli-exhibits-a-pronounced-hysteresis-when-inhibited-by-palmitoyl-acyl-carrier-protein
#2
Alexandra Evans, Wendy Ribble, Erin Schexnaydre, Grover L Waldrop
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in bacteria is composed of three components: biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase. ACC catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid synthesis: the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA via a two-step reaction. In the first half-reaction, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the vitamin biotin covalently linked to biotin carboxyl carrier protein. In the second half-reaction, the carboxyl group is transferred from biotin to acetyl-CoA by the enzyme carboxyltransferase...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079738/the-antimalarial-activity-of-the-pantothenamide-%C3%AE-panam-is-via-inhibition-of-pantothenate-phosphorylation
#3
Joy E Chiu, Jose Thekkiniath, Jae-Yeon Choi, Benjamin A Perrin, Lauren Lawres, Mark Plummer, Azan Z Virji, Amanah Abraham, Justin Y Toh, Michael Van Zandt, Ahmed S I Aly, Dennis R Voelker, Choukri Ben Mamoun
The biosynthesis of the major acyl carrier Coenzyme A from pantothenic acid (PA) is critical for survival of Plasmodium falciparum within human erythrocytes. Accordingly, a PA analog α-PanAm showed potent activity against blood stage parasites in vitro; however, its efficacy in vivo and its mode of action remain unknown. We developed a new synthesis route for α-PanAm and showed that the compound is highly effective against blood stages of drug-sensitive and -resistant P. falciparum strains, inhibits development of P...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037329/smokers-report-lower-intake-of-key-nutrients-than-nonsmokers-yet-both-fall-short-of-meeting-recommended-intakes
#4
Susan K Raatz, Lisa Jahns, LuAnn K Johnson, Angela Scheett, Alicia Carriquiry, Andrine Lemieux, Motohiro Nakajima, Mustafa al'Absi
Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991455/pyrazinoic-acid-inhibits-mycobacterial-coenzyme-a-biosynthesis-by-binding-to-aspartate-decarboxylase-pand
#5
Pooja Gopal, Wilson Nartey, Priya Ragunathan, Jansy Sarathy, Firat Kaya, Michelle Yee, Claudia Setzer, Malathy Sony Subramanian Manimekalai, Véronique Dartois, Gerhard Grüber, Thomas Dick
Previously, we showed that a major in vitro and in vivo mechanism of resistance to pyrazinoic acid (POA), the bioactive component of the critical tuberculosis (TB) prodrug pyrazinamide (PZA), involves missense mutations in the aspartate decarboxylase PanD, an enzyme required for coenzyme A biosynthesis. What is the mechanism of action of POA? Upon demonstrating that treatment of M. bovis BCG with POA resulted in a depletion of intracellular coenzyme A and confirming that this POA-mediated depletion is prevented by either missense mutations in PanD or exogenous supplementation of pantothenate, we hypothesized that POA binds to PanD and that this binding blocks the biosynthetic pathway...
October 18, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975359/urine-metabolomics-insight-into-acute-kidney-injury-point-to-oxidative-stress-disruptions-in-energy-generation-and-h2s-availability
#6
Marta Martin-Lorenzo, Laura Gonzalez-Calero, Angeles Ramos-Barron, Maria D Sanchez-Niño, Carlos Gomez-Alamillo, Juan Manuel García-Segura, Alberto Ortiz, Manuel Arias, Fernando Vivanco, Gloria Alvarez-Llamas
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the main complications in acute care medicine and a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI incidence has increased; however, its diagnosis has limitations and physiopathological mechanisms are underexplored. We investigated urine samples, aiming to identify major metabolite changes during human AKI evolution. Metabolic signatures found were further explored for a potential link to severity of injury. Twenty-four control subjects and 38 hospitalized patients with AKI were recruited and urine samples were collected at the time of diagnosis, during follow-up and at discharge...
December 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966518/therapeutic-efficacy-of-combination-therapy-using-oral-cyclosporine-with-a-dietary-supplement-pantogar%C3%A2-in-twenty-nail-dystrophy
#7
Su Jin Oh, Jeong Eun Kim, Joo Yeon Ko, Young Suck Ro
BACKGROUND: Twenty-nail dystrophy (TND) is an acquired idiopathic disease characterized by dull, thin, lusterless, and fragile nails with fissuring, small regular pits, and excessive longitudinal ridging. Although various treatment modalities have been performed in order to treat TND, the effects of these treatments are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of oral cyclosporine in TND. METHODS: A total of 38 patients with TND were treated with combination therapy using oral cyclosporine with a pantothenic acid complex-based dietary supplement (Pantogar®; Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Germany), whereas 44 patients were treated with the pantothenic acid complex-based dietary supplement alone...
October 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941230/effects-of-rumen-protected-pantothenate-supplementation-on-lactation-performance-ruminal-fermentation-nutrient-digestion-and-blood-metabolites-in-dairy-cows
#8
Wang Cong, Liu Qiang, Li He Qiong, Wu Xiao Xu, Gang Guo, Wen Jie Huo, Pei Cai Xia, Zhang Yan Li, Zhang Shuan Lin
BACKGROUND: Lactation performance of dairy cow has considerably increased with animal breeding and management improvement in recent years. Ruminal net synthesized pantothenic acid is insufficient to meet the requirement of high producing dairy cows. The objective was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected pantothenate (RPP) on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion and blood metabolites in dairy cows. RESULTS: Dry matter (DM) intake tended to increase, whereas milk yields, milk fat percentage and yield, body condition score (BCS) changes and net energy output except for maintance increased linearly with increasing RPP supplementation...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922393/a-set-of-nutrient-limitations-trigger-yeast-cell-death-in-a-nitrogen-dependent-manner-during-wine-alcoholic-fermentation
#9
Camille Duc, Martine Pradal, Isabelle Sanchez, Jessica Noble, Catherine Tesnière, Bruno Blondin
Yeast cell death can occur during wine alcoholic fermentation. It is generally considered to result from ethanol stress that impacts membrane integrity. This cell death mainly occurs when grape musts processing reduces lipid availability, resulting in weaker membrane resistance to ethanol. However the mechanisms underlying cell death in these conditions remain unclear. We examined cell death occurrence considering yeast cells ability to elicit an appropriate response to a given nutrient limitation and thus survive starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911222/ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-for-imaging-of-pantetheinase-in-living-cells
#10
Yiming Hu, Hongyu Li, Wen Shi, Huimin Ma
Pantetheinase, which catalyzes the cleavage of pantetheine to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and cysteamine, is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, pantothenate recycling and cell migration. However, further elucidating the cellular function of this enzyme is largely limited by the lack of a suitable fluorescence imaging probe. By conjugating pantothenic acid with cresyl violet, herein we develop a new fluorescence probe CV-PA for the assay of pantetheinase. The probe not only possesses long analytical wavelengths but also displays linear ratiometric (I628/582 nm) fluorescence response to pantetheinase in the range of 5-400 ng/mL with a detection limit of 4...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857456/integration-of-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-data-reveals-enhanced-steroid-hormone-biosynthesis-in-mouse-uterus-during-decidualization
#11
Ji-Long Liu, Wen-Qian Zhang, Miao Zhao, Ming-Yu Huang
It has been long recognized that decidualization is accompanied by significant changes in metabolic pathways. In the present study, we used the GC-TOF-MS approach to investigate the global metabolite profile changes associated with decidualization of mouse uterus on day 8 of pregnancy. We identified a total of 20 differentially accumulated metabolites, of which 9 metabolites were down-regulated and 11 metabolites were up-regulated. As expected, 7 differentially accumulated metabolites were involved in carbohydrate metabolism...
August 31, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780108/the-effect-of-bleaching-agents-on-the-degradation-of-vitamins-and-carotenoids-in-spray-dried-whey-protein-concentrate
#12
M A Stout, C W Park, M A Drake
Previous research has shown that bleaching affects flavor and functionality of whey proteins. The role of different bleaching agents on vitamin and carotenoid degradation is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of bleaching whey with traditional annatto (norbixin) by hydrogen peroxide (HP), benzoyl peroxide (BP), or native lactoperoxidase (LP) on vitamin and carotenoid degradation in spray-dried whey protein concentrate 80% protein (WPC80). An alternative colorant was also evaluated...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743678/the-saliva-exposome-for-monitoring-of-individuals-health-trajectories
#13
Vincent Bessonneau, Janusz Pawliszyn, Stephen M Rappaport
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that environmental, rather than genetic, factors are the major causes of most chronic diseases. By measuring entire classes of chemicals in archived biospecimens, exposome-wide association studies (EWAS) are being conducted to investigate associations between a myriad of exposures received during life and chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: Because the intraindividual variability in biomarker levels, arising from changes in environmental exposures from conception onwards, leads to attenuation of exposure-disease associations, we posit that saliva can be collected repeatedly in longitudinal studies to reduce exposure-measurement errors in EWAS...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739188/the-long-term-relationship-between-dietary-pantothenic-acid-vitamin-b5-intake-and-c-reactive-protein-concentration-in-adults-aged-40-years-and-older
#14
S Jung, M K Kim, B Y Choi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-grade inflammation, represented by minor C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation, has a critical role in the early stages of atherosclerosis, and pantothenic acid (PA) may have an antioxidant effect in inflammatory process. However, the long-term relationship between PA intake and CRP has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long-term relationship of PA intake to CRP concentration in healthy adults aged 40 years or older living in a rural area of South Korea...
September 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676844/genetic-characterization-of-coenzyme-a-biosynthesis-reveals-essential-distinctive-functions-during-malaria-parasite-development-in-blood-and-mosquito
#15
Robert J Hart, Amanah Abraham, Ahmed S I Aly
Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential universal cofactor for all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In nearly all non-photosynthetic cells, CoA biosynthesis depends on the uptake and phosphorylation of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid or pantothenate). Recently, putative pantothenate transporter (PAT) and pantothenate kinases (PanKs) were functionally characterized in P. yoelii. PAT and PanKs were shown to be dispensable for blood stage development, but they were essential for mosquito stages development. Yet, little is known about the cellular functions of the other enzymes of the CoA biosynthesis pathway in malaria parasite life cycle stages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656061/metabolomics-identifies-metabolic-markers-of-maturation-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#16
Vijesh J Bhute, Xiaoping Bao, Kaitlin K Dunn, Kylie R Knutson, Eric C McCurry, Gyuhyung Jin, Wei-Hua Lee, Sarah Lewis, Akihiro Ikeda, Sean P Palecek
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) hold immense clinical potential and recent studies have enabled generation of virtually pure hPSC-CMs with high efficiency in chemically defined and xeno-free conditions. Despite these advances, hPSC-CMs exhibit an immature phenotype and are arrhythmogenic in vivo, necessitating development of strategies to mature these cells. hPSC-CMs undergo significant metabolic alterations during differentiation and maturation...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655181/pantothenate-auxotrophy-in-zymomonas-mobilis-zm4-is-due-to-a-lack-of-aspartate-decarboxylase-activity
#17
Jennifer R Gliessman, Timothy A Kremer, Amee A Sangani, Sara E Jones-Burrage, James B McKinlay
The bacterium Zymomonas mobilis naturally produces ethanol at near theoretical maximum yields, making it of interest for industrial ethanol production. Zymomonas mobilis requires the vitamin pantothenate for growth. Here we characterized the genetic basis for the Z. mobilis pantothenate auxotrophy. We found that this auxotrophy is due to the absence of a single gene, panD, encoding aspartate-decarboxylase. Heterologous expression of Escherichia coli PanD in Z. mobilis or supplementation of the growth medium with the product of PanD activity, β-alanine, eliminated the need for exogenous pantothenate...
July 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641834/establishment-and-molecular-modeling-study-of-maltodextrin-based-synergistic-enantioseparation-systems-with-two-new-hydroxy-acid-chiral-ionic-liquids-as-additives-in-capillary-electrophoresis
#18
Xuan Yang, Yingxiang Du, Zijie Feng, Zongran Liu, Jingtang Li
Discovering more superior performance of ionic liquids for the separation science has triggered increasing interest. In this work, two new Hydroxy acid-based chiral ionic liquids (CILs) (tertramethylammonium-d-pantothenate (TMA-d-PAN), tertramethylammonium-d-quinate (TMA-d-QUI)) were designed and first used as additives to establish the maltodextrin-based synergistic systems for enantioseparation in capillary electrophoresis (CE). Compared to traditional single maltodextrin chiral separation system, significantly improved separations of all tested drugs in the CIL/Maltodextrin synergistic systems were obtained...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629539/uplc-esi-qtof-ms-based-metabolomics-survey-on-the-toxicity-of-triptolide-and-detoxication-of-licorice
#19
Zhuo Wang, Jian-Qun Liu, Jin-Di Xu, He Zhu, Ming Kong, Guo-Hua Zhang, Su-Min Duan, Xiu-Yang Li, Guang-Fu Li, Li-Fang Liu, Song-Lin Li
Triptolide (TP) from Tripterygium wilfordii has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anticancer activities. TP is specially used for the treatment of awkward rheumatoid arthritis, but its clinical application is confined by intense side effects. It is reported that licorice can obviously reduce the toxicity of TP, but the detailed mechanisms involved have not been comprehensively investigated. The current study aimed to explore metabolomics characteristics of the toxic reaction induced by TP and the intervention effect of licorice water extraction (LWE) against such toxicity...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592011/-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-urinary-metabolomics-in-very-low-birth-weight-premature-infants
#20
S T Li, X L Huang, S G Wu, Y M Ma, C C Shi, X Xiao, H Hao
Objective: To investigate the urinary metabolic spectrum and pathways in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants. Method: A prospective case-control study was conducted to collect and compare the data of VLBW premature infants and full term infants from the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yet-Sen University in 2014. Within 24 hours after birth, urine specimens in each group were collected. Metabolites of urine samples including amino acid, fatty acid and organic acid were detected using the urease pre-processing and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology...
June 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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