Read by QxMD icon Read

mannitol AND hypertonic saline

Nadia Roumeliotis, Christian Dong, Géraldine Pettersen, Louis Crevier, Guillaume Emeriaud
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to describe the use of hyperosmolar therapy in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine its effect on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). DESIGN: A retrospective review of patients with severe TBI admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were ICP monitoring and administration of a hyperosmolar agent (20 % mannitol or 3 % hypertonic saline) within 48 h of PICU admission; for which dose and timing were recorded...
August 27, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Clizia Cazzarolli, Chiara Tartali, Ugo Pradal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Aniruddha Tekkatte Jagannatha, Sriganesh Kamath, Indira Devi, Umamaheswara G S Rao
INTRODUCTION: Osmotherapy forms an integral part in the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). An ideal choice between mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS) remains to be conclusively proven. More importantly, attention has not been paid to the long-term osmolarity changes during the therapy. The current prospective randomized study aims at evaluating the effect of serum and urine osmolarity and sodium achieved with mannitol and HTS on intracranial pressure (ICP) and outcome...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Eva Millqvist
Temperatures above and below what is generally regarded as "comfortable" for the human being have long been known to induce various airway symptoms, especially in combination with exercise in cold climate with temperatures below 0°C, which is naturally since exercise is followed by enhanced ventilation and thus greater amounts of inhaled cold air. The aim was to highlight the knowledge we have today on symptoms from the airways (here also including the eyes) arisen from various temperatures; the mechanisms, the pathophysiology and their clinical significance...
April 2015: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
Çağatay Çalıkoğlu, Mehmet Hüseyin Akgül, Osman Akgül, Ayşe Karataş
BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia is a cause of serious morbidity and mortality. Strategies that would protect cerebral tissue against ischemic injury are important. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of surgical and medical treatments, either alone or in combination, on infarction area in an experimental rat model of cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were divided into 6 groups, each including 5 experimental animals. Cerebral ischemia was created by right common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) under anesthesia...
December 2015: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Connie Yang, Mark Chilvers, Mark Montgomery, Sarah J Nolan
BACKGROUND: Dornase alfa is currently used as a mucolytic to treat pulmonary disease (the major cause of morbidity and mortality) in cystic fibrosis. It reduces mucus viscosity in the lungs, promoting improved clearance of secretions. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the use of dornase alfa in cystic fibrosis is associated with improved mortality and morbidity compared to placebo or other medications that improve airway clearance, and to identify any adverse events associated with its use...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sudheer Ambekar, Venkatesh Madhugiri, Paritosh Pandey, Dileep R Yavagal
BACKGROUND: The management of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) varies widely depending upon a number of factors. OBJECTIVE: To understand the variations in practice patterns in the treatment of IAs in India. METHODS: The survey consisted of 23 questions. Two group emails were sent to members of the Neurological Society of India and the Neurological Surgeons Society of India. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed where appropriate. RESULTS: The response rate was 10...
March 2016: Neurology India
Y Y Deng, F C Shen, D Xie, Q P Han, M Fang, C B Chen, H K Zeng
Cerebral edema causes intracranial hypertension (ICH) which leads to severe outcome of patients in the clinical setting. Effective anti-edema therapy may significantly decrease the mortality in a variety of neurological conditions. At present drug treatment is a cornerstone in the management of cerebral edema. Osmotherapy has been the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy. Mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) are the most commonly used osmotic agents. The relative safety and efficacy of HS and mannitol in the treatment of cerebral edema and reduction of enhanced ICP have been demonstrated in the past decades...
2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Aniruddha Tekkatte Jagannatha, Kamath Sriganesh, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Ganne Sesha Umamaheswara Rao
The impact of hypertonic saline (HTS) on long term control of intracranial hypertension (ICH) is yet to be established. The current prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in 38 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Over 450 episodes of refractory ICH were treated with equiosmolar boluses of 20% mannitol in 20 patients and 3.0% HTS in 18 subjects. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was monitored for 6days. ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were comparable between the groups. The mannitol group had a progressive increase in the ICP over the study period (p=0...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Sandra D Anderson
Indirect challenges act to provoke bronchoconstriction by causing the release of endogenous mediators and are used to identify airway hyper-responsiveness. This paper reviews the historical development of challenges, with exercise, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) of dry air, wet hypertonic saline, and with dry powder mannitol, that preceded their use in clinical practice. The first challenge developed for clinical use was exercise. Physicians were keen for a standardized test to identify exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and to assess the effect of drugs such as disodium cromoglycate...
2016: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
Audrey Leasure, W Taylor Kimberly, Lauren H Sansing, Kristopher T Kahle, Golo Kronenberg, Hagen Kunte, J Marc Simard, Kevin N Sheth
Cerebral edema (i.e., "brain swelling") is a common complication following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Perihematomal edema (PHE) accumulates during the first 72 h after hemorrhage, and during this period, patients are at risk of clinical deterioration due to the resulting tissue shifts and brain herniation. First-line medical therapies for patients symptomatic of PHE include osmotic agents, such as mannitol in low- or high-dose bolus form, or boluses of hypertonic saline (HTS) at varied concentrations with or without subsequent continuous infusion...
February 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Sarah Burgess, Riyad B Abu-Laban, Richard S Slavik, Erik N Vu, Peter J Zed
OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate hypertonic sodium (HTS) and mannitol in patients following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the outcomes of all-cause mortality, neurological disability, intracranial pressure (ICP) change from baseline, ICP treatment failure, and serious adverse events. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,, and WHO ICTRP (World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) were searched (inception to November 2015) using hypertonic saline solutions, sodium chloride, mannitol, osmotic diuretic, traumatic brain injury, brain injuries, and head injury...
April 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Steven L Shein, Nikki M Ferguson, Patrick M Kochanek, Hülya Bayir, Robert S B Clark, Ericka L Fink, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Stephen R Wisniewski, Ye Tian, G K Balasubramani, Michael J Bell
OBJECTIVES: To describe acute cerebral hemodynamic effects of medications commonly used to treat intracranial hypertension in children with traumatic brain injury. Currently, data supporting the efficacy of these medications are insufficient. DESIGN: In this prospective observational study, intracranial hypertension (intracranial pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg for > 5 min) was treated by clinical protocol. Administration times of medications for intracranial hypertension (fentanyl, 3% hypertonic saline, mannitol, and pentobarbital) were prospectively recorded and synchronized with an automated database that collected intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure every 5 seconds...
March 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Myles Dustin Boone, Achikam Oren-Grinberg, Timothy Matthew Robinson, Clark C Chen, Ekkehard M Kasper
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hypertension, defined as an intracranial pressure (ICP) >20 mmHg for a period of more than 5 min, worsens neurologic outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI). While several mechanisms contribute to poor outcome, impaired cerebral perfusion appears to be a highly significant common denominator. Management guidelines from the Brain Trauma Foundation recommend measuring ICP to guide therapy. In particular, hyperosmolar therapy, which includes mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS), is frequently administered to reduce ICP...
2015: Surgical Neurology International
Joaquín Hernández-Palazón, Diego Fuentes-García, Paloma Doménech-Asensi, Claudio Piqueras-Pérez, Luis Falcón-Araña, Sebastián Burguillos-López
BACKGROUND: The authors investigated the effect of equiosmolar, equivolemic solutions of 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and 20% mannitol on blood coagulation assessed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and standard coagulation tests during elective craniotomy. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, 40 patients undergoing elective craniotomy were randomized to receive 5 mL/kg of either 20% mannitol or 3% HS for intraoperative brain relaxation...
November 17, 2015: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Joaquín Hernández-Palazón, Diego Fuentes-García, Paloma Doménech-Asensi, Claudio Piqueras-Pérez, Luis Falcón-Araña, Sebastián Burguillos-López
BACKGROUND: Hyperosmolar solutions have been used in neurosurgery to reduce brain volume and facilitate surgical exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of equivolume, equiosmolar solutions of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) on brain relaxation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, postoperative outcomes and incidence of side-effects in patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy. METHODS: In a randomised, prospective, double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy were randomised 1:1 to receive 3 ml/kg of either 20% mannitol or 3% HS...
2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Xue-cai Huang, Ling-ling Yang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of 3% hypertonic saline solution with 20% mannitol in treatment of intracranial hypertension in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: An alternating treatment protocol was used to compare the efficacy of 160 mL 3% hypertonic saline solution (HSS) with 150 mL 20% mannitol for episodes of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The dependent variables were the extent and duration of reduction of increased ICP after each event...
July 2015: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Rodolfo Gatto, Mihir Chauhan, Neelima Chauhan
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of disability and death which begins with the formation of edema as the persistent primary causative factor in TBI. Although medical management of cerebral edema by hypothermia, ventriculostomy, mannitol or hypertonic saline have been effective in treating edema, many of these therapies end up with some neurologic deficits, necessitating novel treatment options for treating post-TBI edema. This study investigated edema reducing effects of recombinant human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) in reducing acute brain edema in the CCI mouse model of TBI...
2015: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Michael N Diringer
For almost a century, it has been known that hypertonic solutions shrink cerebral tissue. Early attempts used hypertonic solutions of ions (sodium, magnesium) and sugars (glucose, dextrose, sucrose), concentrated albumin, and, later, urea. These early attempts were largely abandoned because the effect was short lived and often followed by a period of rebound edema. This was a result, to a great extent, of the osmotic agent either being metabolized or crossing the cell membrane.Renewed interest in osmotic therapy came in the 1960s, with the introduction of intracranial pressure monitoring in head injury and the use of mannitol as an osmotic agent...
2016: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Sarah J Nolan, Judith Thornton, Clare S Murray, Tiffany Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Several agents are used to clear secretions from the airways of people with cystic fibrosis. Inhaled dry powder mannitol is now available in Australia and some countries in Europe. The exact mechanism of action of mannitol is unknown, but it increases mucociliary clearance. Phase III trials of inhaled dry powder mannitol for the treatment of cystic fibrosis have been completed. The dry powder formulation of mannitol may be more convenient and easier to use compared with established agents which require delivery via a nebuliser...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"