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mannitol AND hypertonic saline

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509350/high-sodium-continuous-veno-venous-hemodialysis-with-regional-citrate-anticoagulation-and-online-dialysate-generation-in-patients-with-acute-liver-failure-and-cerebral-edema
#1
Tamim Hamdi, Lenar Yessayan, Jerry Yee, Balazs Szamosfalvi
INTRODUCTION: Acute liver failure is associated with a high mortality rate. Induction of plasma hypertonicity with mannitol or hypertonic saline remains the cornerstone in the management of resultant cerebral edema. Significant disadvantages of this approach include poor or unpredictable control of serum sodium concentration and volume expansion, among others. METHODS: We used high sodium continuous veno-venous hemodialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation and online dialysate generation to accurately control the serum sodium in eleven patients with acute liver failure, renal failure, and cerebral edema...
May 16, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478873/the-use-of-mannitol-and-hypertonic-saline-therapies-in-patients-with-elevated-intracranial-pressure-a-review-of-the-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Briana Witherspoon, Nathan E Ashby
Patients with increased intracranial pressure generally require pharmacologic therapies and often more definitive treatments, such as surgical intervention. The overall goal of these interventions is to maintain or re-establish adequate cerebral blood flow and prevent herniation. Regardless of the cause of increased intracranial pressure, osmotherapy is considered the mainstay of medical therapy, and should be administered as soon as possible. This article reviews the history of hyperosmolar and hypertonic therapies, the Monro-Kellie hypothesis, and types of cerebral edema...
June 2017: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439440/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-20-mannitol-and-3-nacl-on-coagulation-parameters-in-vitro-using-rotem-a-prospective-randomized-crossover-study
#3
Achmet Ali, Bilge Şencan, Pulat Akın Sabancı, Demet Altun, Aylin Tetik, Lerzan Recep Doğan, İbrahim Özkan Akıncı
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of 20% mannitol and 3% NaCl on blood coagulation in vitro using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). METHODS: Twenty-millilitre blood samples were obtained from 15 volunteers. In each group, 2 mL blood samples were collected into both polypropylene tubes and EDTA tubes for ROTEM and hemogram analysis. After sampling, blood samples were diluted with test solutions. Group C (control): Only blood, Group M (mannitol): 7% vol 20% mannitol concentration in the blood, Group hypertonic saline (HS): 7% vol 3% hypertonic saline (NaCl) in the blood, Group M/H (mannitol and hydroxyethyl starch solutions [HES]): 6% vol 20% mannitol concentration and 8% vol HES in the blood and Group HS/H (hypertonic saline and HES): 6% vol 3% hypertonic saline concentration and 8% vol HES in the blood...
April 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431870/the-effect-of-hypertonic-saline-and-mannitol-on-coagulation-in-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#4
Haifeng Wang, Hongshi Cao, Xiaohong Zhang, Liang Ge, Li Bie
BACKGROUND: Hyperosmolar therapy, using either hypertonic saline (HTS) or mannitol (MT), is considered the treatment of choice for intracranial hypertension, a disorder characterized by high intracranial pressure (ICP). However, hyperosmolar agents have been postulated to impair coagulation and platelet function. The aim of this study was to identify whether HTS and MT could affect coagulation in moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. METHODS: In this prospective and randomized double-blind study, we included adult patients with moderate TBI...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419017/the-evaluation-of-trauma-care-the-comparison-of-2-high-level-pediatric-emergency-departments-in-the-united-states-and-turkey
#5
Alkan Bal, Michael Cooper, Amanda Lee, Murat Anil, Halim Hennes
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to compare the outcomes of pediatric trauma patients with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and motor vehicle versus pedestrian crashes (MPCs) at a level 1 pediatric trauma center in the United States and a pediatric trauma center in Turkey. METHODS: The medical records of all pediatric MVC and MPC subjects presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) of a level 3 hospital in Turkey (Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital [ITTRH]) and a level 1 pediatric trauma center in the United States (Children's Medical Center Dallas [CMCD]) over a 1-year period were reviewed...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397992/mucoactive-agents-for-chronic-non-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Benjamin J Tarrant, Caitlin Le Maitre, Lorena Romero, Ranjana Steward, Brenda M Button, Bruce R Thompson, Anne E Holland
Inhaled mucoactive agents are used in respiratory disease to improve mucus properties and enhance secretion clearance. The effect of mannitol, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease/dornase alfa (rhDNase) and hypertonic saline (HS) or normal saline (NS) are not well described in chronic lung conditions other than cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this review was to determine the benefit and safety of inhaled mucoactive agents outside of CF. We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL and CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of mucoactive agents on lung function, adverse events (AEs), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), hospitalization, length of stay, exacerbations, sputum clearance and inflammation...
April 11, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342705/comparison-of-20-mannitol-and-3-hypertonic-saline-on-intracranial-pressure-and-systemic-hemodynamics
#7
Navdeep Sokhal, Girija Prasad Rath, Arvind Chaturvedi, Manmohan Singh, Hari Hara Dash
Mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) are most commonly used hyperosmotic agents for intraoperative brain relaxation. We compared the changes in ICP and systemic hemodynamics after infusion of equiosmolar solutions of both agents in patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial tumors. Forty enrolled adults underwent a standard anesthetic induction. Apart from routine monitoring parameters, subdural ICP with Codmann catheter and cardiac indices by Vigileo monitor, were recorded. The patients were randomized to receive equiosmolar solutions of either 20% mannitol (5ml/kg) or 3% HS (5...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279755/purinergic-p2-receptors-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-are-involved-in-hyperosmotic-induced-sympathoexcitation
#8
H C Ferreira-Neto, I M R Ribeiro, T S Moreira, S T Yao, V R Antunes
Increases in plasma osmolality activates the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) which in turn mounts a physiological response by increasing the release of arginine vasopressin and sympathetic nerve activity to end organs such as the kidney. The PVN expresses an abundance of purinergic receptors including P2X2 receptors. In the present study, we sought to determine (1) whether P2X2-expressing PVN neurons are activated by hypertonic saline or hypertonic mannitol and (2) what effects P2X receptor blockade has on sympathetic nerve activation mediated by a hyperosmotic stimulus...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258418/comparison-of-equiosmolar-hypertonic-saline-and-mannitol-for-brain-relaxation-during-craniotomies-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
REVIEW
Jingxue Fang, Yanzhang Yang, Wei Wang, Yang Liu, Tong An, Meijuan Zou, Gang Cheng
There is a controversy about the effects of hypertonic saline (HS) used for brain relaxation in patients requiring craniotomies. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of equiosmolar hypertonic saline with mannitol on intraoperative brain relaxation in patients undergoing craniotomies. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases, and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The outcome indicators included brain relaxation, hemodynamic status, fluid volume, and blood chemistry...
March 3, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187815/principles-of-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
M Czosnyka, J D Pickard, L A Steiner
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is governed by volumes of intracranial blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue. Expansion of any of these volumes will trigger compensatory changes in the other compartments, resulting in initially limited change in ICP. Due to the rigid skull, once compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, ICP rises very rapidly. Intracranial hypertension is associated with unfavorable outcome in brain-injured patients. This chapter discusses the pathophysiology of raised ICP, as well as typical waveforms, monitoring techniques, and clinical management...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175535/376%C3%A2-the-salt-versus-sugar-debate-urinary-sodium-losses-following-hypertonic-saline-administration-curtails-its-superior-osmolar-effect-in-comparison-to-mannitol-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Aniruddha Tekkatte Jagannatha, Sriganesh Kamath, Indira Devi, Umamaheswara G S Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777397/evaluation-of-the-maintained-effect-of-3-hypertonic-saline-solution-in-an-animal-model-of-intracranial-hypertension
#12
Leonardo M Sousa, Almir F de Andrade, Alessandro R Belon, Matheus S Soares, Robson Luis Amorim, Jose Pinhata Otochi, Manoel J Teixeira, Wellingson S Paiva
BACKGROUND Current clinical treatment methods for refractory intracranial hypertension include elevation of the decubitus, ventilation adjustment, and use of hypertonic solutions such as hypertonic saline and mannitol solutions. Previous studies have shown that hypertonic solutions are particularly effective. Although several concentrations of saline solution have been proposed, a 3% solution is the most widely used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maintained efficacy of a 3% hypertonic saline solution in an experimental model of intracranial hypertension...
October 25, 2016: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568371/hyperosmolar-therapy-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-study
#13
Nadia Roumeliotis, Christian Dong, Géraldine Pettersen, Louis Crevier, Guillaume Emeriaud
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to describe the use of hyperosmolar therapy in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine its effect on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). DESIGN: A retrospective review of patients with severe TBI admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were ICP monitoring and administration of a hyperosmolar agent (20 % mannitol or 3 % hypertonic saline) within 48 h of PICU admission; for which dose and timing were recorded...
December 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563742/the-advantages-of-adding-hyaluronic-acid-or-mannitol-to-hypertonic-saline-inhalation-treatment-in-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Clizia Cazzarolli, Chiara Tartali, Ugo Pradal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399574/376%C3%A2-the-salt-versus-sugar-debate-urinary-sodium-losses-following-hypertonic-saline-administration-curtails-its-superior-osmolar-effect-in-comparison-to-mannitol-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Aniruddha Tekkatte Jagannatha, Sriganesh Kamath, Indira Devi, Umamaheswara G S Rao
INTRODUCTION: Osmotherapy forms an integral part in the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). An ideal choice between mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS) remains to be conclusively proven. More importantly, attention has not been paid to the long-term osmolarity changes during the therapy. The current prospective randomized study aims at evaluating the effect of serum and urine osmolarity and sodium achieved with mannitol and HTS on intracranial pressure (ICP) and outcome...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227021/trp-channels-and-temperature-in-airway-disease-clinical-significance
#16
REVIEW
Eva Millqvist
Temperatures above and below what is generally regarded as "comfortable" for the human being have long been known to induce various airway symptoms, especially in combination with exercise in cold climate with temperatures below 0°C, which is naturally since exercise is followed by enhanced ventilation and thus greater amounts of inhaled cold air. The aim was to highlight the knowledge we have today on symptoms from the airways (here also including the eyes) arisen from various temperatures; the mechanisms, the pathophysiology and their clinical significance...
April 2015: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054631/effects-of-decompressive-craniectomy-hypertonic-saline-solution-and-mannitol-on-an-experimental-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#17
Çağatay Çalıkoğlu, Mehmet Hüseyin Akgül, Osman Akgül, Ayşe Karataş
BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia is a cause of serious morbidity and mortality. Strategies that would protect cerebral tissue against ischemic injury are important. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of surgical and medical treatments, either alone or in combination, on infarction area in an experimental rat model of cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were divided into 6 groups, each including 5 experimental animals. Cerebral ischemia was created by right common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) under anesthesia...
December 2015: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043279/dornase-alfa-for-cystic-fibrosis
#18
REVIEW
Connie Yang, Mark Chilvers, Mark Montgomery, Sarah J Nolan
BACKGROUND: Dornase alfa is currently used as a mucolytic to treat pulmonary disease (the major cause of morbidity and mortality) in cystic fibrosis. It reduces mucus viscosity in the lungs, promoting improved clearance of secretions. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the use of dornase alfa in cystic fibrosis is associated with improved mortality and morbidity compared to placebo or other medications that improve airway clearance, and to identify any adverse events associated with its use...
April 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954971/cerebral-aneurysm-treatment-in-india-results-of-a-national-survey-regarding-practice-patterns-in-india
#19
Sudheer Ambekar, Venkatesh Madhugiri, Paritosh Pandey, Dileep R Yavagal
BACKGROUND: The management of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) varies widely depending upon a number of factors. OBJECTIVE: To understand the variations in practice patterns in the treatment of IAs in India. METHODS: The survey consisted of 23 questions. Two group emails were sent to members of the Neurological Society of India and the Neurological Surgeons Society of India. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed where appropriate. RESULTS: The response rate was 10...
March 2016: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948324/progress-in-drug-treatment-of-cerebral-edema
#20
REVIEW
Y Y Deng, F C Shen, D Xie, Q P Han, M Fang, C B Chen, H K Zeng
Cerebral edema causes intracranial hypertension (ICH) which leads to severe outcome of patients in the clinical setting. Effective anti-edema therapy may significantly decrease the mortality in a variety of neurological conditions. At present drug treatment is a cornerstone in the management of cerebral edema. Osmotherapy has been the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy. Mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) are the most commonly used osmotic agents. The relative safety and efficacy of HS and mannitol in the treatment of cerebral edema and reduction of enhanced ICP have been demonstrated in the past decades...
2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
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