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NGAL review

Byung Kwan Kim, Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cells (WBCs) for predicting acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children with febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 138 children with febrile UTIs (APN 59, lower UTI 79) were reviewed retrospectively. Levels of NGAL, PCT, CRP, and WBCs in blood were measured on admission...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Daniel Muthas, Anna Reznichenko, Clare A Balendran, Gerhard Böttcher, Ib Groth Clausen, Carina Kärrman Mårdh, Tomas Ottosson, Mohib Uddin, Thomas T MacDonald, Silvio Danese, Mark Berner Hansen
OBJECTIVES: This review article describes the role of neutrophils in mucosal injury and the resulting crypt abscesses characteristic of ulcerative colitis. We also review selected biomarkers for monitoring neutrophil presence and activity in the mucosa as well as their potential as therapeutic targets. MATERIAL: We have collated and selectively reviewed data on the most prominent well-established and emerging neutrophil-related biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets (calprotectin, lactoferrin, CXCR1, CXCR2, MMP-9, NGAL, elafin, HNE, pANCAs, MPO, CD16, CD177, CD64, HNPs, SLPI and PTX3) in ulcerative colitis...
September 9, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
Diabetic nephropathy constitutes a devastating complication in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and its diagnosis is traditionally based on microalbuminuria. The aim of this review is to update through the medical literature the suggested early natural course of diabetic nephropathy, the theories behind the pathways of its pathogenesis, and its diagnosis. Poor glycemic control, dyslipidemia, smoking, advanced glycation end products, and environmental and genetic clues play an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy...
July 25, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Temesgen Fiseha, Zemenu Tamir
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology
Oruç Alper Onk, Didem Onk, Fatih Ozcelik, Murat Gunay, Kultigin Turkmen
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of cardiac surgery due to its high mortality. The aim of the present study was to detect the factors leading to AKI in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS) and also to determine the optimal timing for detecting AKI using the biomarker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 375 patients who underwent CABS were reviewed in this case-control study...
May 2016: Cardiorenal Medicine
Marco Cannistrà, Michele Ruggiero, Alessandra Zullo, Giuseppe Gallelli, Simone Serafini, Mazzitelli Maria, Agostino Naso, Raffaele Grande, Raffaele Serra, Bruno Nardo
Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is not only a pathophysiological process involving the liver, but also a complex systemic process affecting multiple tissues and organs. Hepatic IRI can seriously impair liver function, even producing irreversible damage, which causes a cascade of multiple organ dysfunction. Many factors, including anaerobic metabolism, mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and secretion of ROS, intracellular Ca(2+) overload, cytokines and chemokines produced by KCs and neutrophils, and NO, are involved in the regulation of hepatic IRI processes...
September 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Sollip Kim, Hyun-Jung Kim, Hyeong-Sik Ahn, Ji Yang Song, Tae-Hyun Um, Chong-Rae Cho, Hoon Jung, Hyeon-Kyoung Koo, Joo Hyun Park, Sung-Soon Lee, Hye Kyeong Park
PURPOSE: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the diagnostic value of NGAL for predicting AKI in sepsis patients is unclear. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify research publications. RESULTS: Twelve studies from 9 countries including a total of 1582 patients, of whom 315 (19.9%) developed AKI, were included in the study; plasma NGAL levels were significantly higher in adult sepsis patients with AKI than in those without AKI (mean difference, 274...
June 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Georgios Karaolanis, Demetrios Moris, Viktoria-Varvara Palla, Euridiki Karanikola, Chris Bakoyiannis, Sotirios Georgopoulos
Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a protein derived from neutrophils has recently been the field of investigation in a wide range of diseases (renal disease, coronary artery disease, etc). The MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched for publications with the medical subject heading "NGAL" and keywords "Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)," "biomarker," and "growth". We restricted our search to date. In this review, we included 38 articles and abstracts that were accessible and available in English...
December 2015: Indian Journal of Surgery
Hilde R H de Geus, Claudio Ronco, Michael Haase, Laurent Jacob, Andrew Lewington, Jean-Louis Vincent
Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as a rise in serum creatinine (functional AKI), is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery. The expression pattern of acute tubular damage biomarkers such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been shown to precede functional AKI and, therefore, may be useful to identify very early tubular damage. The term subclinical AKI represents acute tubular damage in the absence of functional AKI (biomarker positivity without a rise in serum creatinine) and affects hard outcome measures...
June 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Lina Jiang, Hong Cui
BACKGROUND: Blood neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been shown to be helpful for acute kidney injury (AKI) in pediatric patients and adults. Whether this is true in neonates remains unclear. METHODS: A systemic review and diagnostic meta-analysis was performed. Keywords included blood NGAL/serum NGAL, neonate/newborn, and AKI/acute kidney failure. Eligible studies measured blood or serum NGAL levels in neonates with AKI (first 30 days of life)...
2015: Clinical Laboratory
An Zhang, Ying Cai, Peng-Fei Wang, Jian-Ning Qu, Zhen-Chun Luo, Xiao-Dong Chen, Bin Huang, Yi Liu, Wen-Qi Huang, Jing Wu, Yue-Hui Yin
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been identified as an early biomarker for prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the utility of NGAL to predict the occurrence of AKI in septic patients remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the evidence on diagnosis of sepsis AKI and the prediction of other clinical outcomes. METHOD: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, and CNKI databases were systematically searched up to August 19, 2015...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Branislava Medić, Branislav Rovcanin, Katarina Savic Vujovic, Danilo Obradovic, Dusan Duric, Milica Prostran
Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, the mortality rate in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) remains very high. Early detection of patients with impaired renal function may help to ensure more aggresive treatment and to improve clinical outcome. Serum creatinine is still gold standard of kidney injury, although it is well known as an insensitive and unreliable biomarker (for example, its concentration does not increase significantly until about half of the kidney function is lost)...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Maria C Mir, Nicola Pavan, Dipen J Parekh
PURPOSE: Partial nephrectomy is the accepted standard of care for treatment of patients with small renal masses. The primary goal while performing partial nephrectomy is cancer control with a secondary important goal of maximizing renal function preservation with minimal perioperative morbidity. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of renal parenchymal quality and quantity postoperatively rather than duration of ischemia in determining long-term renal function. We review the available data regarding perioperative renal function optimization with special interest in ischemia during partial nephrectomy, highlighting the controversies and establishing future lines of investigation...
June 2016: Journal of Urology
Vanessa Abella, Morena Scotece, Javier Conde, Rodolfo Gómez, Ana Lois, Jesús Pino, Juan J Gómez-Reino, Francisca Lago, Ali Mobasheri, Oreste Gualillo
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is a secreted glycoprotein that belongs to a group of transporters of small lipophilic molecules in circulation. LCN2 has been recently characterized as an adipose-derived cytokine. This adipokine is believed to bind small substances, such as steroids and lipopolysaccharides, and has been reported to have roles in the induction of apoptosis in hematopoietic cells, transport of fatty acids and iron, modulation of inflammation, and metabolic homeostasis...
2015: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
William H Chappell, Stephen L Abrams, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Timothy L Fitzgerald, Alberto M Martelli, Lucio Cocco, Dariusz Rakus, Agnieszka Gizak, David Terrian, Linda S Steelman, James A McCubrey
Approximately one in six men will be diagnosed with some form of prostate cancer in their lifetime. Over 250,000 men worldwide die annually due to complications from prostate cancer. While advancements in prostate cancer screening and therapies have helped in lowering this statistic, better tests and more effective therapies are still needed. This review will summarize the novel roles of the androgen receptor (AR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the EGFRvIII variant, TP53, long-non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRs), NF-kappa-B, chromosomal translocations, neutrophil associated gelatinase, (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), the tumor microenvironment and cancer stem cells (CSC) have on the diagnosis, development and treatment of prostate cancer...
January 2016: Advances in Biological Regulation
Yee Kwan Chan, Hye Kyoung Sung, Gary Sweeney
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has recently become established as an important contributor to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, it is now viewed as an attractive candidate as a biomarker for various disease states, and in particular has recently become regarded as one of the best diagnostic biomarkers available for acute kidney injury. Nevertheless, the precise physiological effects of NGAL on the heart and the significance of their alterations during the development of heart failure are only now beginning to be characterized...
November 2015: Clinical Science (1979-)
Saverio Candido, Stephen L Abrams, Linda S Steelman, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Timothy L Fitzgerald, Alberto M Martelli, Lucio Cocco, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Jerry Polesel, Massimo Libra, James A McCubrey
Various, diverse molecules contribute to the tumor microenvironment and influence invasion and metastasis. In this review, the roles of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the tumor microenvironment and sensitivity to therapy will be discussed. The lipocalin family of proteins has many important functions. For example when NGAL forms a complex with MMP-9 it increases its stability which is important in cancer metastasis. Small hydrophobic molecules are bound by NGAL which can alter their entry into and efflux from cells...
March 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Julie Ho, Navdeep Tangri, Paul Komenda, Amit Kaushal, Manish Sood, Ranveer Brar, Kamal Gill, Simon Walker, Kerry MacDonald, Brett M Hiebert, Rakesh C Arora, Claudio Rigatto
BACKGROUND: Early accurate detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) occurring after cardiac surgery may improve morbidity and mortality. Although several novel biomarkers have been developed for the early detection of AKI, their clinical utility in the critical intraoperative and immediate postoperative period remains unclear. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING & POPULATION: Adult patients having cardiac surgery. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and PubMed from January 1990 until January 2015 were systematically searched for cohort studies reporting the utility of novel biomarkers for the early diagnosis of AKI after adult cardiac surgery...
December 2015: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Temesgen Fiseha
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes associated with increased risk of mortality, and cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Diagnostic markers to detect DN at early stage are important as early intervention can slow loss of kidney function and improve patient outcomes. Urinary biomarkers may be elevated in diabetic patients even before the appearance of microalbuminuria, and can be used as useful marker for detecting nephropathy in patients with normoalbuminuria (early DN). We reviewed some new and important urinary biomarkers, such as: Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), Cystatin C, alpha 1-microglobulin, immunoglobulin G or M, type IV collagen, nephrin, angiotensinogen and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) associated with early DN in type 2 diabetic patients...
2015: Biomarker Research
Fangfang Zhou, Qun Luo, Lailiang Wang, Lina Han
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been identified as one of the most sensitive and specific biomarkers for predicting cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI); however, variable performance characteristics have been reported. We therefore performed a diagnostic meta-analysis to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of NGAL in early (within 12 h postoperatively) diagnosis of CSA-AKI using established guidelines. The search was carried out electronically with Medline (through PubMed interface), Embase, Cochrane library, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and ClinicalTrials...
March 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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