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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932883/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-canonical-wnt-signaling-during-embryonic-eye-development-and-posterior-capsular-opacification-pco
#1
Yichen Wang, Priyha Mahesh, Yan Wang, Samuel G Novo, Mahbubul H Shihan, Brielle Hayward-Piatkovskyi, Melinda K Duncan
The appropriate spatial and temporal regulation of canonical Wnt signaling is vital for eye development. However, the literature often conflicts on the distribution of canonical Wnt signaling in the eye. Here, using a sensitive mouse transgenic reporter line, we report a detailed re-evaluation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of canonical Wnt signaling in the developing eye. Canonical Wnt activity was dynamic in the optic vesicle and later in the retina, while it was absent from the ectodermal precursors of the lens and corneal epithelium...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931204/unpacking-policy-formulation-and-industry-influence-the-case-of-the-draft-control-of-marketing-of-alcoholic-beverages-bill-in-south-africa
#2
Adam Bertscher, Leslie London, Marsha Orgill
Alcohol is a major contributor to the Non-Communicable Disease burden in South Africa. In 2000, 7.1% of all deaths and 7% of total disability-adjusted life years were ascribed to alcohol-related harm in the country. Regulations proposed to restrict alcohol advertising in South Africa present an evidence-based upstream intervention. Research on policy formulation in low- and middle-income countries is limited. This study aims to describe and explore the policy formulation process of the 2013 draft Control of Marketing of Alcoholic Beverages Bill in South Africa between March 2011 and May 2017...
June 21, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931146/ethical-challenges-in-primary-care-a-focus-group-study-with-general-practitioners-nurses-and-informal-caregivers
#3
Ildikó Gágyor, Arndt Heßling, Susanne Heim, Andreas Frewer, Friedemann Nauck, Wolfgang Himmel
Background: General practitioners (GPs), nurses and informal caregivers are often jointly involved in healthcare situations in which ethical issues play an important role. Objectives: To describe ethical problems from the perspective of these three groups and to investigate whether there is a common experience of ethical issues in primary care. Methods: We conducted six focus groups with general practitioners, nurses and informal caregivers in Germany...
June 21, 2018: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930946/an-exercise-in-cardiac-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Stephen C Kolwicz
Research has demonstrated that the high capacity requirements of the heart are satisfied by a preference for oxidation of fatty acids. However, it is well known that a stressed heart, as in pathological hypertrophy, deviates from its inherent profile and relies heavily on glucose metabolism, primarily achieved by an acceleration in glycolysis. Moreover, it has been suggested that the chronically lipid overloaded heart augments fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride synthesis to an even greater degree and, thus, develops a lipotoxic phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928146/therapeutic-potential-of-medicinal-marijuana-an-educational-primer-for-health-care-professionals
#5
REVIEW
Yara Mouhamed, Andrey Vishnyakov, Bessi Qorri, Manpreet Sambi, Sm Signy Frank, Catherine Nowierski, Anmol Lamba, Umrao Bhatti, Myron R Szewczuk
With the proposed Canadian July 2018 legalization of marijuana through the Cannabis Act, a thorough critical analysis of the current trials on the efficacy of medicinal marijuana (MM) as a treatment option is necessary. This review is particularly important for primary care physicians whose patients may be interested in using MM as an alternative therapy. In response to increased interest in MM, Health Canada released a document in 2013 for general practitioners (GPs) as an educational tool on the efficacy of MM in treating some chronic and acute conditions...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927289/the-impact-of-marital-withdrawal-and-secure-base-script-knowledge-on-mothers-and-fathers-parenting
#6
Jill M Trumbell, Leah C Hibel, Evelyn Mercado, Germán Posada
The current study examines associations between marital conflict and negative parenting behaviors among fathers and mothers, and the extent to which internal working models (IWMs) of attachment relationships may serve as sources of risk or resilience during family interactions. The sample consisted of 115 families (mothers, fathers, and their 6-month-old infants) who participated in a controlled experiment. Couples were randomly assigned to engage in either a conflict or positive marital discussion, followed by parent-infant freeplay sessions and assessment of parental IWMs of attachment (i...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925582/contributions-of-metabolic-and-temporal-costs-to-human-gait-selection
#7
Erik M Summerside, Rodger Kram, Alaa A Ahmed
Humans naturally select several parameters within a gait that correspond with minimizing metabolic cost. Much less is understood about the role of metabolic cost in selecting between gaits. Here, we asked participants to decide between walking or running out and back to different gait specific markers. The distance of the walking marker was adjusted after each decision to identify relative distances where individuals switched gait preferences. We found that neither minimizing solely metabolic energy nor minimizing solely movement time could predict how the group decided between gaits...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922480/a-population-study-of-norwegian-psychiatric-patients-referred-for-clinical-brain-scanning
#8
Mona K Beyer, Turi O Dalaker, Ole J Greve, Siv E Pignatiello, Ingrid Agartz
Background: Patients with psychiatric conditions are often referred for a brain scan during the course of their diagnostic workup. Aims: The aim of our study is to determine frequency and type of organic brain pathology, the relationship to age, gender and psychiatric diagnosis. Method: We investigated magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography brain scans from consecutively referred patients over a 10-year period (January 2002-December 2011)...
2018: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920064/quantitative-assessment-of-nanoparticle-biodistribution-by-fluorescence-imaging-revisited
#9
Fanfei Meng, Jianping Wang, Qineng Ping, Yoon Yeo
Fluorescence-based whole body imaging is widely used in the evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) in small animals, often combined with quantitative analysis to indicate their spatiotemporal distribution following systemic administration. An underlying assumption is that the fluorescence label represents NPs and the intensity increases with the amount of NPs and/or the labeling dyes accumulated in the region of interest. We prepare DiR-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs with different surface layers (polyethylene glycol with and without folate terminus) and compare the distribution of fluorescence signals in a mouse model of folate-receptor expressing tumor by near infrared fluorescence whole body imaging...
June 19, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912758/role-of-cholecystectomy-after-endoscopic-sphincterotomy-in-the-management-of-choledocholithiasis-in-high-risk-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Muhammad Ali Khan, Zubair Khan, Claudio R Tombazzi, Chiranjeevi Gadiparthi, Wade Lee, C Mel Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with subsequent cholecystectomy is the standard of care for the management of patients with choledocholithiasis. There is conflicting evidence in terms of mortality reduction, prevention of complications specifically biliary pancreatitis and cholangitis with the use of early cholecystectomy particularly in high-risk surgical and elderly patients. AIMS: We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare the early cholecystectomy versus wait and watch strategy after ES...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912374/luteal-phase-anovulatory-follicles-result-in-the-production-of-competent-oocytes-intra-patient-paired-case-control-study-comparing-follicular-versus-luteal-phase-stimulations-in-the-same-ovarian-cycle
#11
Danilo Cimadomo, Alberto Vaiarelli, Silvia Colamaria, Elisabetta Trabucco, Carlo Alviggi, Roberta Venturella, Erminia Alviggi, Ramona Carmelo, Laura Rienzi, Filippo Maria Ubaldi
STUDY QUESTION: Are the mean numbers of blastocysts obtained from sibling cohorts of oocytes recruited after follicular phase and luteal phase stimulations (FPS and LPS) in the same ovarian cycle similar? SUMMARY ANSWER: The cohorts of oocytes obtained after LPS are larger than their paired-FPS-derived cohorts and show a comparable competence, thus resulting in a larger mean number of blastocysts. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Three theories of follicle recruitment have been postulated to date: (i) the 'continuous recruitment' theory, (ii) the 'single recruitment episode' theory and (iii) the 'wave' theory...
June 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912343/impact-on-testicular-function-of-a-single-ablative-activity-of-3-7-gbq-radioactive-iodine-for-differentiated-thyroid-carcinoma
#12
N Bourcigaux, C Rubino, I Berthaud, M E Toubert, B Donadille, L Leenhardt, I Petrot-Keller, S Brailly-Tabard, J Fromigué, F de Vathaire, T Simon, J P Siffroi, M Schlumberger, P Bouchard, S Christin-Maitre
STUDY QUESTION: What are the consequences of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: A single activity of 3.7 GBq RAI for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) treatment in young men transiently altered Sertoli cell function and induced sperm chromosomal abnormalities. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Few studies, mainly retrospective, have reported the potential impacts of RAI on endocrine and exocrine testicular function...
June 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912336/reproductive-life-in-women-with-celiac-disease-a-nationwide-population-based-matched-cohort-study
#13
L Grode, B H Bech, O Plana-Ripoll, M Bliddal, I E Agerholm, P Humaidan, C H Ramlau-Hansen
STUDY QUESTION: How does celiac disease (CD) influence women's reproductive life, both prior to and after the diagnosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Prior to the diagnosis of CD, an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was seen, whereas after the diagnosis, no influence on reproductive outcomes was found. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: CD has been associated with several conditions influencing female reproduction and pregnancy outcomes including spontaneous abortion and stillbirth...
June 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912297/distinct-roles-for-the-cerebellum-angular-gyrus-and-middle-temporal-gyrus-in-action-feedback-monitoring
#14
Bianca M van Kemenade, B Ezgi Arikan, Kornelius Podranski, Olaf Steinsträter, Tilo Kircher, Benjamin Straube
Action-feedback monitoring is essential to ensure meaningful interactions with the external world. This process involves generating efference copy-based sensory predictions and comparing these with the actual action-feedback. As neural correlates of comparator processes, previous fMRI studies have provided heterogeneous results, including the cerebellum, angular and middle temporal gyrus. However, these studies usually comprised only self-generated actions. Therefore, they might have induced not only action-based prediction errors, but also general sensory mismatch errors...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911075/trace-element-status-in-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#15
Namrata Sanjeevi, Jeanne Freeland-Graves, S Natasha Beretvas, Prageet K Sachdev
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that has been associated with alterations in the status of trace elements, including zinc, copper, iron and manganese. However, clinical studies reporting statuses of these trace elements in type 2 diabetes patients compared to controls have shown conflicting results. Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to summarize the existing literature on the statuses of zinc, copper, iron, and manganese in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907553/development-and-evaluation-of-an-ethical-guideline-for-decisions-to-limit-life-prolonging-treatment-in-advanced-cancer-protocol-for-a-monocentric-mixed-method-interventional-study
#16
Katsiaryna Laryionava, Katja Mehlis, Elena Bierwirth, Friederike Mumm, Wolfgang Hiddemann, Pia Heußner, Eva C Winkler
BACKGROUND: Many patients with advanced cancer receive chemotherapy close to death and are referred too late to palliative or hospice care, and therefore die under therapy or in intensive care units. Oncologists still have difficulties in involving patients appropriately in decisions about limiting tumor-specific or life-prolonging treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this Ethics Policy for Advanced Care Planning and Limiting Treatment Study is to develop an ethical guideline for end-of-life decisions and to evaluate the impact of this guideline on clinical practice regarding the following target goals: reduction of decisional conflicts, improvement of documentation transparency and traceability, reduction of distress of the caregiver team, and better knowledge and consideration of patients' preferences...
June 15, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905515/diagnosis-of-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-an-official-american-thoracic-society-clinical-practice-guideline
#17
Adam J Shapiro, Stephanie D Davis, Deepika Polineni, Michele Manion, Margaret Rosenfeld, Sharon D Dell, Mark A Chilvers, Thomas W Ferkol, Maimoona A Zariwala, Scott D Sagel, Maureen Josephson, Lucy Morgan, Ozge Yilmaz, Kenneth N Olivier, Carlos Milla, Jessica E Pittman, M Leigh Anne Daniels, Marcus Herbert Jones, Ibrahim A Janahi, Stephanie M Ware, Sam J Daniel, Matthew L Cooper, Lawrence M Nogee, Billy Anton, Tori Eastvold, Lynn Ehrne, Elena Guadagno, Michael R Knowles, Margaret W Leigh, Valery Lavergne
BACKGROUND: This document presents the American Thoracic Society clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). TARGET AUDIENCE: Clinicians investigating adult and pediatric patients for possible PCD. METHODS: Systematic reviews and, when appropriate, meta-analyses were conducted to summarize all available evidence pertinent to our clinical questions. Evidence was assessed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach for diagnosis and discussed by a multidisciplinary panel with expertise in PCD...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903608/management-of-pediatric-patients-with-dsd-and-ambiguous-genitalia-balancing-the-child-s-moral-claims-to-self-determination-with-parental-values-and-preferences
#18
David A Diamond, Jonathan Swartz, Amy Tishelman, Judith Johnson, Yee-Ming Chan
INTRODUCTION: A central ethical dilemma in management of the patient with a disorder of sex development (DSD) is the potential conflict between respect for the fundamental right of the child for physical and emotional integrity and self-determination, and the right of parents to serve as surrogate decision-makers and act in their child's best interest. METHODS: Over the past 2 years we have encountered three complex DSD cases on the spectrum of mixed gonadal dysgenesis to ovotesticular DSD in which gender assignment and therefore optimal surgical management was uncertain...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899979/getting-more-light-into-the-dark-room-of-editorial-conflicts-of-interest
#19
EDITORIAL
Ana Marušić, Rafael Dal-Ré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897449/icsi-does-not-increase-the-cumulative-live-birth-rate-in-non-male-factor-infertility
#20
Z Li, A Y Wang, M Bowman, K Hammarberg, C Farquhar, L Johnson, N Safi, E A Sullivan
STUDY QUESTION: What is the cumulative live birth rate following ICSI cycles compared with IVF cycles for couples with non-male factor infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: ICSI resulted in a similar cumulative live birth rate compared with IVF for couples with non-male factor infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The ICSI procedure was developed for couples with male factor infertility. There has been an increased use of ICSI regardless of the cause of infertility...
June 12, 2018: Human Reproduction
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