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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340201/a-systematic-review-of-the-relationship-of-physical-activity-and-health-status-in-adolescents
#1
Emily Granger, Francesco Di Nardo, Annie Harrison, Lesley Patterson, Raphael Holmes, Arpana Verma
Reduced physical activity is a known risk factor for many illnesses. Research in adolescent populations found increased physical activity levels improves objective health outcomes, but there is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between physical activity levels and self-reported health status. To synthesise current evidence on the association between physical activity and self-reported health status in adolescents. Secondary objectives are to assess whether the relationship is dose dependant, and the appropriateness of WHO recommendations on adolescents' physical activity...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333338/drug-discovery-for-male-subfertility-using-high-throughput-screening-a-new-approach-to-an-unsolved-problem
#2
Sarah J Martins da Silva, Sean G Brown, Keith Sutton, Louise V King, Halil Ruso, David W Gray, Paul G Wyatt, Mark C Kelly, Christopher L R Barratt, Anthony G Hope
STUDY QUESTION: Can pharma drug discovery approaches be utilized to transform investigation into novel therapeutics for male infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: High-throughput screening (HTS) is a viable approach to much-needed drug discovery for male factor infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is both huge demand and a genuine clinical need for new treatment options for infertile men. However, the time, effort and resources required for drug discovery are currently exorbitant, due to the unique challenges of the cellular, physical and functional properties of human spermatozoa and a lack of appropriate assay platform...
March 16, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333312/establishment-maintenance-and-functional-integrity-of-the-blood-testis-barrier-in-organotypic-cultures-of-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-prepubertal-mouse-testes
#3
C Rondanino, A Maouche, L Dumont, A Oblette, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Can the spatio-temporal formation of an intact blood-testis barrier (BTB), which is essential for the progression of spermatogenesis, be reproduced in cultures of fresh or frozen/thawed prepubertal mouse testes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Organotypic cultures allow the establishment and maintenance of major BTB components and the formation of a functional BTB in mouse testicular tissues. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro maturation of prepubertal testicular tissues is a promising approach to restore fertility in adult survivors of childhood cancer...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333301/preconception-maternal-lipoprotein-levels-in-relation-to-fecundability
#4
Sarah J Pugh, Enrique F Schisterman, Richard W Browne, Anne M Lynch, Sunni L Mumford, Neil J Perkins, Robert Silver, Lindsey Sjaarda, Joseph B Stanford, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Brian Wilcox, Katherine L Grantz
STUDY QUESTION: Are maternal preconception lipid levels associated with fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fecundability was reduced for all abnormal female lipid levels including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total triglyceride levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Subfecundity affects 7-15% of the population and lipid disorders are hypothesized to play a role since cholesterol acts as a substrate for the synthesis of steroid hormones...
March 15, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333300/comparison-of-global-gene-expression-profiles-of-microdissected-human-foetal-leydig-cells-with-their-normal-and-hyperplastic-adult-equivalents
#5
Grete Lottrup, Kirstine Belling, Henrik Leffers, John E Nielsen, Marlene D Dalgaard, Anders Juul, Niels E Skakkebæk, Søren Brunak, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts
STUDY QUESTION: Do human adult Leydig cells (ALCs) within hyperplastic micronodules display characteristics of foetal LCs (FLCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The gene expression profiles of FLCs and all ALC subgroups were clearly different, but there were no significant differences in expressed genes between the normally clustered and hyperplastic ALCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: LCs are the primary androgen producing cells in males throughout development and appear in chronologically distinct populations; FLCs, neonatal LCs and ALCs...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333293/intra-individual-purifying-selection-on-mitochondrial-dna-variants-during-human-oogenesis
#6
Sara De Fanti, Saverio Vicario, Martin Lang, Domenico Simone, Cristina Magli, Donata Luiselli, Luca Gianaroli, Giovanni Romeo
Study Question: Does selection for mtDNA mutations occur in human oocytes? Summary Answer: We provide statistical evidence in favor of the existence of purifying selection for mtDNA mutations in human oocytes acting between the expulsion of the first and second polar bodies (PBs). What is Known Already: Several lines of evidence in Metazoa, including humans, indicate that variation within the germline of mitochondrial genomes is under purifying selection...
March 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333286/high-prevalence-of-moderate-and-severe-depressive-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Laura G Cooney, Iris Lee, Mary D Sammel, Anuja Dokras
Study question: Do women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms compared with control women, and do these symptoms correlate with age, BMI, testosterone, hirsutism or insulin resistance (IR)? Summary answer: Women with PCOS have significantly increased odds of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, independent of obesity, and the symptoms are weakly associated with age, BMI, elevated testosterone, hirsutism and IR...
March 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333280/hcg-activates-the-erk1-2-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-in-human-endometrial-stromal-cells-transiently-increasing-the-progesterone-receptor-and-regulating-genes-associated-with-endometrial-receptivity
#8
Alejandro Tapia-Pizarro, Sebastián Archiles, Felipe Argandoña, Cecilia Valencia, Keyla Zavaleta, María Cecilia Johnson, Reinaldo González-Ramos, Luigi Devoto
STUDY QUESTION: How does hCG signal in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and what is its role in regulating ESC function? SUMMARY ANSWER: CG signaling in ESCs activates the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) pathway through exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) and transiently increases progesterone receptor (PR) transcript and protein expression and its transcriptional function. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: hCG is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the endometrium, which abundantly expresses LH/hCG receptors...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333279/inhibition-of-pim1-kinase-attenuates-inflammation-induced-pro-labour-mediators-in-human-fetal-membranes-in-vitro
#9
Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
STUDY QUESTION: Does proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemic virus (PIM)1 kinase play a role in regulating the inflammatory processes of human labour and delivery? SUMMARY ANSWER: PIM1 kinase plays a critical role in fetal membranes in regulating pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infection and inflammation have strong causal links to preterm delivery by stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and collagen degrading enzymes, which can lead to rupture of membranes...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333275/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-inhibits-activation-and-growth-of-bovine-ovarian-follicles-in-vitro-and-is-localized-to-growing-follicles
#10
M Y Yang, R A Cushman, J E Fortune
STUDY QUESTION: Does anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) inhibit activation (initiation of growth) of primordial follicles and attenuate the growth of primary follicles in cattle, an excellent animal model for human ovarian follicular development? SUMMARY ANSWER: AMH inhibited activation of bovine primordial follicles and attenuated the growth of activated follicles in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In mice null mutant for AMH, the pool of primordial follicles is depleted prematurely and AMH inhibits follicle activation in vitro...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333272/family-building-using-embryo-adoption-relationships-and-contact-arrangements-between-provider-and-recipient-families-a-mixed-methods-study
#11
Lucy Frith, Eric Blyth, Steve Lui
STUDY QUESTION: What contact arrangements are established between providers and recipients of embryos using Snowflakes® Embryo Adoption Program? SUMMARY ANSWER: Contact arrangements varied considerably and were generally positively described, although some challenges were acknowledged. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Reproductive technologies create new and diverse family forms, and the ways in which families created by embryo adoption are negotiated in practice have not been extensively investigated...
March 8, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333271/impact-of-thyroid-autoimmunity-in-euthyroid-women-on-live-birth-rate-after-iui
#12
D Unuane, B Velkeniers, B Bravenboer, P Drakopoulos, H Tournaye, J Parra, M De Brucker
STUDY QUESTION: Does thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) predict live birth rate in euthyroid women after one treatment cycle in IUI patients? SUMMARY ANSWER: TAI as such does not influence pregnancy outcome after IUI treatment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The role of TAI on pregnancy outcome in the case of IVF/ICSI is largely debated in the literature. This is the first study to address this issue in the case of IUI. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a retrospective cohort study...
February 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333256/analgesia-use-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-cryptorchidism-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Jason Gurney, Lorenzo Richiardi, Katherine A McGlynn, Virginia Signal, Diana Sarfati
STUDY QUESTION: Are boys who are born to mothers who use analgesics during pregnancy at increased risk of cryptorchidism compared to those born to mothers who do not take analgesia? SUMMARY ANSWER: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 10 published studies, we observed only weak evidence of an association between analgesia use during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism in the son. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Concentrations of analgesia relevant to human exposure have been implicated as causing endocrine disturbances in the developing foetal testis...
March 8, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333245/euploidy-rates-in-donor-egg-cycles-significantly-differ-between-fertility-centers
#14
S Munné, M Alikani, L Ribustello, P Colls, Pedro A Martínez-Ortiz, D H McCulloh
STUDY QUESTION: Do external factors affect euploidy in egg donor cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: The study demonstrates that during human assisted reproduction, embryonic chromosome abnormalities may be partly iatrogenic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Chromosome abnormalities have been linked in the past to culture conditions such as temperature and Ph variations, as well as hormonal stimulation. Those reports were performed with older screening techniques (FISH), or ART methods no longer in use, and the subjects studied were not a homogeneous group...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333241/dysmorphic-patterns-are-associated-with-cytoskeletal-alterations-in-human-oocytes
#15
Mariabeatrice Dal Canto, Maria Cristina Guglielmo, Mario Mignini Renzini, Rubens Fadini, Clarissa Moutier, Maria Merola, Elena De Ponti, Giovanni Coticchio
Study Question: Are specific morphological anomalies in human mature oocytes, as revealed by transmitted light microscopy, associated with intrinsic damage to the meiotic spindle and actin cytoskeleton? SUMMARY ANSWER: Aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and domains of centrally localized granular cytoplasm (GC) reflect intrinsic damage to the oocyte cytoskeleton, namely alterations in spindle size, chromosome misalignment and cortical actin disorganization...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333238/clustering-of-pcos-like-traits-in-naturally-hyperandrogenic-female-rhesus-monkeys
#16
D H Abbott, B H Rayome, D A Dumesic, K C Lewis, A K Edwards, K Wallen, M E Wilson, S E Appt, J E Levine
STUDY QUESTION: Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333228/efficacy-of-ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation-for-fertility-preservation-lessons-learned-from-545-cases
#17
P Jadoul, A Guilmain, J Squifflet, M Luyckx, R Votino, C Wyns, M M Dolmans
STUDY QUESTION: How effective is ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: In our cohort of patients who underwent OTC, premature ovarian failure (POF) rates, return rates and pregnancy rates after autotransplantation were 31.5, 4.4 and 33%, respectively. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: OTC for fertility purposes has been performed for >20 years now. With over 86 live births reported worldwide and success rates of ~30% after autotransplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian cortex, the procedure should no longer be considered experimental...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333222/ivf-or-iui-as-first-line-treatment-in-unexplained-subfertility-the-conundrum-of-treatment-selection-markers
#18
R I Tjon-Kon-Fat, P Tajik, M H Zafarmand, A J Bensdorp, P M M Bossuyt, G J E Oosterhuis, R van Golde, S Repping, M D A Lambers, E Slappendel, D Perquin, M J Pelinck, J Gianotten, J W M Maas, M J C Eijkemans, F van der Veen, B W Mol, M van Wely
STUDY QUESTION: Are there treatment selection markers that could aid in identifying couples, with unexplained or mild male subfertility, who would have better chances of a healthy child with IVF with single embryo transfer (IVF-SET) than with IUI with ovarian stimulation (IUI-OS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: We did not find any treatment selection markers that were associated with better chances of a healthy child with IVF-SET instead of IUI-OS in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility...
February 24, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333218/gay-fathers-motivations-for-and-feelings-about-surrogacy-as-a-path-to-parenthood
#19
L Blake, N Carone, E Raffanello, Jenna Slutsky, A A Ehrhardt, S Golombok
STUDY QUESTION: Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Little is known of gay fathers' motivations to use surrogacy as a path to parenthood over and above other forms of family building, such as adoption, and no studies have examined fathers' satisfaction with the surrogacy process...
February 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333210/levels-of-trophectoderm-mitochondrial-dna-do-not-predict-the-reproductive-potential-of-sibling-embryos
#20
Nathan R Treff, Yiping Zhan, Xin Tao, Meir Olcha, Michael Han, Jessica Rajchel, Liza Morrison, Scott J Morin, Richard T Scott
STUDY QUESTION: What is the predictive value of trophectoderm mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) quantity for blastocyst reproductive potential? SUMMARY ANSWER: This study demonstrates that, within a given cohort, mtDNA quantitation does not distinguish between embryos that implant and embryos that do not implant after double embryo transfer (DET). WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: An association between implantation failure and increased quantities of mtDNA has been observed in two studies but not in a third...
February 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
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