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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458476/soybean-cyst-nematode-resistance-emerged-via-artificial-selection-of-duplicated-serine-hydroxymethyltransferase-genes
#1
Xiao-Yi Wu, Guang-Can Zhou, Yun-Xia Chen, Ping Wu, Li-Wei Liu, Fang-Fang Ma, Mian Wu, Cheng-Chen Liu, Ying-Jie Zeng, Alexander E Chu, Yue-Yu Hang, Jian-Qun Chen, Bin Wang
A major soybean (Forrest cultivar) quantitative trait locus (QTL) gene, Rhg4, which controls resistance to soybean cyst nematodes (SCN), encodes the enzyme serine hydroxylmethyltransferase (SHMT). The resistant allele possesses two critical missense mutations (P130R and N358Y) compared to that of the sensitive allele, rhg4. To understand the evolutionary history of this gene, sequences of 117 SHMT family members from 18 representative plant species were used to reconstruct their phylogeny. According to this phylogeny, the plant SHMT gene family can be divided into two groups and four subgroups (Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443667/overexpression-of-halophilic-serine-hydroxymethyltransferase-in-fresh-water-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc7942-results-in-increased-enzyme-activities-of-serine-biosynthetic-pathways-and-enhanced-salinity-tolerance
#2
Rungaroon Waditee-Sirisattha, Hakuto Kageyama, Yoshito Tanaka, Minoru Fukaya, Teruhiro Takabe
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) catalyzes the conversion of serine to glycine and provides activated one-carbon units required for synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins and numerous biological compounds. SHMT is involved in photorespiratory pathway of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Accumulating evidence revealed that SHMT plays vital role for abiotic stresses such as low CO2 and high salinity in plants, but its role in cyanobacteria remains to be clarified. In this study, we examined to overexpress the SHMT from halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica in freshwater cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942...
July 21, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347936/the-role-of-genetic-polymorphisms-as-related-to-one-carbon-metabolism-vitamin-b6-and-gene-nutrient-interactions-in-maintaining-genomic-stability-and-cell-viability-in-chinese-breast-cancer-patients
#3
Xiayu Wu, Weijiang Xu, Tao Zhou, Neng Cao, Juan Ni, Tianning Zou, Ziqing Liang, Xu Wang, Michael Fenech
Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene-nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323148/genetic-diversity-of-rhg1-and-rhg4-loci-in-wild-soybeans-resistant-to-soybean-cyst-nematode-race-3
#4
C P Yuan, Y J Wang, H K Zhao, L Zhang, Y M Wang, X D Liu, X F Zhong, Y S Dong
Over-utilization of germplasms that are resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) in soybean breeding programs can lead to genetic vulnerability in resistant cultivars. Resistant wild soybean (Glycine soja) is considered an invaluable gene source for increasing the genetic diversity of SCN resistance. In this study, we genotyped 23 G. soja accessions that are resistant to SCN race 3 for polymorphisms in the resistance genes, rhg1, Rhg4, and SHMT, and investigated their genetic relationship with eight Glycine max resistant cultivars...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277113/expression-of-serine-glycine-metabolism-related-proteins-is-different-according-to-the-thyroid-cancer-subtype
#5
Woo Young Sun, Hye Min Kim, Woo-Hee Jung, Ja Seung Koo
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical implications of proteins related to serine/glycine metabolism in different subtypes of thyroid cancer. METHODS: Tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed with tissues from 557 thyroid cancers, consisting of 244 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), 112 follicular carcinomas (FC), 70 medullary carcinomas (MC), 23 poorly differentiated carcinomas (PDC), and 8 anaplastic carcinomas (AC). Immunohistochemical staining of the serine/glycine metabolism-related molecules phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase, (PSAT), phosphoserine phosphatase (PSPH), serine hydromethyl transferase (SHMT), and glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) was performed with the TMA blocks and the results were analyzed together with clinicopathologic parameters...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258742/purification-and-characterization-of-serine-hydroxymethyltransferase-from-mitochondria-of-euglena-gracilis-z
#6
Masako Sakamoto, Tsutomu Masuda, Yukio Yanagimoto, Yoshihisa Nakano, Shozaburo Kitaoka, Yoshinori Tanigawa
Mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase, l-serine: tetrahydrofolate 5,10-hydroxymethyl-transferase (EC 2.1.2.1), (m-SHMT) was extracted and highly purified from Euglena gracilis z. The specific activity increased from the crude extract with 10% yield up to 580-fold through the following steps: ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and rechromatography, and affinity chromatography with l-lysine-Sepharose 4B. The molecular weight of the purified m-SHMT was 88,000 by gel filtration through Sephadex G-200, and 44,000 by SDS-PAGE...
January 1996: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198213/possible-selection-of-host-folate-pathway-gene-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-malaria-from-a-malaria-endemic-region-in-north-east-india
#7
Darshana Mirgal, Kanjaksha Ghosh, Jagadish Mahanta, Prafulla Dutta, Shrimati Shetty
BACKGROUND: Recent studies in experimental mice have shown that mild deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme confers protection against malaria, thus providing an important basis for the hypothesis that MTHFR polymorphism, i.e. C677T, might have been subjected to selection pressure against malaria. The present study was undertaken in a malaria endemic region in North East India to assess whether a similar selection advantage exists for other genes in folate metabolism pathway...
May 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993328/elucidation-of-salt-tolerance-metabolic-pathways-in-contrasting-rice-genotypes-and-their-segregating-progenies
#8
Pragya Mishra, Vagish Mishra, Teruhiro Takabe, Vandna Rai, Nagendra Kumar Singh
Differentially expressed antioxidant enzymes, amino acids and proteins in contrasting rice genotypes, and co-location of their genes in the QTLs mapped using bi-parental population, indicated their role in salt tolerance. Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint limiting rice productivity. Salt-tolerant 'CSR27', salt-sensitive 'MI48'and their extreme tolerant and sensitive recombinant inbred line (RIL) progenies were used for the elucidation of salt stress tolerance metabolic pathways. Salt stress-mediated biochemical and molecular changes were analyzed in the two parents along with bulked-tolerant (BT) and bulked-sensitive (BS) extreme RILs...
June 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26868981/inactivation-of-the-cytosolic-and-mitochondrial-serine-hydroxymethyl-transferase-genes-in-leishmania-major
#9
Gaétan Roy, Marc Ouellette
Leishmania has two serine hydroxylmethyl transferase (SHMT) genes, one coding for a cytosolic and the other for a mitochondrial enzyme. Trypanosoma cruzi has only the gene coding for the cytosolic enzyme and Trypanosoma brucei has no SHMT. We tested whether these genes were dispensable for growth in Leishmania major. By gene inactivation we succeeded in generating three cells lines one without the cytosolic cSHMT, one without the mitochondrial mSHMT, and finally one L. major line without any SHMT. SHMT is thus dispensable for growth of Leishmania in rich medium...
December 2015: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26717037/a-pyrazolopyran-derivative-preferentially-inhibits-the-activity-of-human-cytosolic-serine-hydroxymethyltransferase-and-induces-cell-death-in-lung-cancer-cells
#10
Marina Marani, Alessio Paone, Alessio Fiascarelli, Alberto Macone, Maurizio Gargano, Serena Rinaldo, Giorgio Giardina, Valentino Pontecorvi, David Koes, Lee McDermott, Tianyi Yang, Alessandro Paiardini, Roberto Contestabile, Francesca Cutruzzolà
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is a central enzyme in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells, providing activated one-carbon units in the serine-glycine one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies demonstrated that the cytoplasmic isoform of SHMT (SHMT1) plays a relevant role in lung cancer. SHMT1 is overexpressed in lung cancer patients and NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, SHMT1 is required to maintain DNA integrity. Depletion in lung cancer cell lines causes cell cycle arrest and uracil accumulation and ultimately leads to apoptosis...
January 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26673393/methylation-diet-and-methyl-group-genetics-in-risk-for-adenomatous-polyp-occurrence
#11
Mark Lucock, Zoë Yates, Charlotte Martin, Jeong-Hwa Choi, Emma Beckett, Lyndell Boyd, Kathleen LeGras, Xiaowei Ng, Virginia Skinner, Ron Wai, Jeremy Kho, Paul Roach, Martin Veysey
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to explore whether a methylation diet influences risk for adenomatous polyps (AP) either independently, or interactively with one-carbon metabolism-dependent gene variants, and whether such a diet modifies blood homocysteine, a biochemical phenotype closely related to the phenomenon of methylation. METHODS: 249 subjects were examined using selective fluorescence, PCR and food frequency questionnaire to determine homocysteine, nine methylation-related gene polymorphisms, dietary methionine, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, vitamins B6 and B12...
June 2015: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26574511/2-aminoacrylate-stress-induces-a-context-dependent-glycine-requirement-in-rida-strains-of-salmonella-enterica
#12
Dustin C Ernst, Diana M Downs
UNLABELLED: The reactive enamine 2-aminoacrylate (2AA) is a metabolic stressor capable of damaging cellular components. Members of the broadly conserved Rid (RidA/YER057c/UK114) protein family mitigate 2AA stress in vivo by facilitating enamine and/or imine hydrolysis. Previous work showed that 2AA accumulation in ridA strains of Salmonella enterica led to the inactivation of multiple target enzymes, including serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GlyA). However, the specific cause of a ridA strain's inability to grow during periods of 2AA stress had yet to be determined...
November 16, 2015: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26441084/metabolic-flux-analysis-of-the-halophilic-archaeon-haladaptatus-paucihalophilus
#13
Guangxiu Liu, Manxiao Zhang, Tianlu Mo, Lian He, Wei Zhang, Yi Yu, Qi Zhang, Wei Ding
This work reports the (13)C-assisted metabolic flux analysis of Haladaptatus paucihalophilus, a halophilic archaeon possessing an intriguing osmoadaption mechanism. We showed that the carbon flow is through the oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle whereas the reductive TCA cycle is not operative in H. paucihalophilus. In addition, both threonine and the citramalate pathways contribute to isoleucine biosynthesis, whereas lysine is synthesized through the diaminopimelate pathway and not through the α-aminoadipate pathway...
November 27, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26438087/comparative-analysis-of-four-disease-prediction-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Nadella Kumudini, Shaik Mohammad Naushad, Balraj Alex Stanley, Manoharan Niveditha, Gunasekaran Sharmila, Konda Kumaraswami, Rupam Borghain, Rukmini Mridula, Vijay Kumar Kutala
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multi-factorial disorder with high-penetrant mutations accounting for small percentage of PD. Our previous studies demonstrated individual association of genetic variants in folate, xenobiotic, and dopamine metabolic pathways with PD risk. The rational of the study was to develop a risk prediction model for PD using these genetic polymorphisms along with synuclein (SNCA) polymorphism. We have generated additive, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), recursive partitioning (RP), and artificial neural network (ANN) models using 21 SNPs as inputs and disease outcome as output...
January 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26416585/engineering-of-high-yield-production-of-l-serine-in-escherichia-coli
#15
Hemanshu Mundhada, Konstantin Schneider, Hanne Bjerre Christensen, Alex Toftgaard Nielsen
L-serine is a widely used amino acid that has been proposed as a potential building block biochemical. The high theoretical yield from glucose makes a fermentation based production attractive. In order to achieve this goal, serine degradation to pyruvate and glycine in E. coli MG1655 was prevented by deletion of three L-serine deaminases sdaA, sdaB, and tdcG, as well as serine hydroxyl methyl transferase (SHMT) encoded by glyA. Upon overexpression of the serine production pathway, consisting of a feedback resistant version of serA along with serB and serC, this quadruple deletion strain showed a very high serine production yield (0...
April 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26316272/genotype-b-vitamin-status-and-androgens-affect-spaceflight-induced-ophthalmic-changes
#16
Sara R Zwart, Jesse F Gregory, Steven H Zeisel, Charles R Gibson, Thomas H Mader, Jason M Kinchen, Per M Ueland, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Martina A Heer, Scott M Smith
Ophthalmic changes have occurred in a subset of astronauts on International Space Station missions. Visual deterioration is considered the greatest human health risk of spaceflight. Affected astronauts exhibit higher concentrations of 1-carbon metabolites (e.g., homocysteine) before flight. We hypothesized that genetic variations in 1-carbon metabolism genes contribute to susceptibility to ophthalmic changes in astronauts. We investigated 5 polymorphisms in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes and their association with ophthalmic changes after flight in 49 astronauts...
January 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26210439/inhibition-of-cisplatin-resistance-by-rna-interference-targeting-metallothionein-using-reducible-oligo-peptoplex
#17
Jong-Hwan Lee, Ji-Won Chae, Jang Kyoung Kim, Hyung Jin Kim, Jee Young Chung, Yong-Hee Kim
Effective intracellular level of a platinum anti-cancer drug, cisplatin, following repeated injections can be decreased either by the active efflux via ATP pump or by interactions with glutathione and metallothionein. Cisplatin in cytoplasm preferably binds to cysteine-rich proteins such as glutathione and metallothionein (MT). Detoxification of cisplatin by intracellular thiol-containing proteins has been considered to be major hurdles to overcome. The short hairpin RNA targeting MT (shMT) was tested to down-regulate MT and recover cisplatin resistance...
October 10, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26191072/the-molecular-cloning-and-clarification-of-a-photorespiratory-mutant-oscdm1-using-enhancer-trapping
#18
Jinxia Wu, Zhiguo Zhang, Qian Zhang, Xiao Han, Xiaofeng Gu, Tiegang Lu
Enhancer trap systems have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of gene identification in rice. In this study, a chlorophyll-deficient mutant, named oscdm1, was screened and characterized in detail from a T-DNA enhancer-tagged population. The oscdm1 plants were different from other chlorophyll-deficient mutants; they produced chlorotic leaves at the third leaf stage, which gradually died with further growth of the plants. However, the oscdm1 plants were able to survive exposure to elevated CO2 levels, similar to photorespiratory mutants...
2015: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26103880/mir-370-and-mir-373-regulate-the-pathogenesis-of-osteoarthritis-by-modulating-one-carbon-metabolism-via-shmt-2-and-mecp-2-respectively
#19
Jinsoo Song, Dongkyun Kim, Churl-Hong Chun, Eun-Jung Jin
The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism underlying the association between one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation during chronic degenerative joint disorder, osteoarthritis (OA). Articular chondrocytes were isolated from human OA cartilage and normal cartilage biopsied, and the degree of cartilage degradation was determined by safranin O staining. We found that the expression levels of SHMT-2 and MECP-2 were increased in OA chondrocytes, and 3'UTR reporter assays showed that SHMT-2 and MECP-2 are the direct targets of miR-370 and miR-373, respectively, in human articular chondrocytes...
October 2015: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25999742/positive-correlation-between-expression-level-of-mitochondrial-serine-hydroxymethyltransferase-and-breast-cancer-grade
#20
Ke Yin
Metabolic reprogramming plays an essential role in supporting the survival and proliferation of cancer cells. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) directs serine to the metabolism of one-carbon unit and the synthesis of thymidilate as a key factor in this metabolic shift. Although the mitochondrial isoform of SHMT (SHMT2) has been proven to be a crucial factor in the serine/glycine metabolism in several cancer cell types, the expression pattern of SHMT2 and the correlation of expression level of SHMT2 and other clinicopathological parameters in clinical breast cancer remain to be explored...
2015: OncoTargets and Therapy
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