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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165770/current-views-of-common-pediatric-cancers-an-update
#1
Q An, C-H Fan, S-M Xu
Advancements in pediatric cancers diagnostics clarity and treatments have greatly increased survival rates in the pediatric oncology population. Increased survival rates have turned new attention to studying psychosocial stressors and improvisation of the quality of life of the suffering cancer patients. The cancer treatment experience could be divided into three phases: diagnosis, treatment, and post-treatment/survivorship. The present review article would focus specifically on the three most common pediatric cancer diagnostic categories viz...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164616/protection-against-%C3%AE-amyloid-neurotoxicity-by-a-non-toxic-endogenous-n-terminal-%C3%AE-amyloid-fragment-and-its-active-hexapeptide-core-sequence
#2
Kelly H Forest, Naghum Alfulaij, Komal Arora, Ruth Taketa, Tessi Sherrin, Cedomir Todorovic, James L M Lawrence, Gene T Yoshikawa, Ho-Leung Ng, Victor J Hruby, Robert A Nichols
High levels (μM) of beta amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are known to trigger neurotoxic effects, leading to synaptic impairment, behavioral deficits and apoptotic cell death. The hydrophobic C-terminal domain of Aβ, together with sequences critical for oligomer formation, is essential for this neurotoxicity. However, Aβ at low levels (pM-nM) has been shown to function as a positive neuromodulator and this activity resides in the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of Aβ. An N-terminal Aβ fragment (1-15/16), found in cerebrospinal fluid, was also shown to be a highly active neuromodulator and to reverse Aβ-induced impairments of long-term potentiation...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163787/neural-crest-derived-progenitor-cells-contribute-to-tumor-stroma-and-aggressiveness-in-stage-4-m-neuroblastoma
#3
Pedro Linares-Clemente, Diana Aguilar-Morante, Ismael Rodríguez-Prieto, Gema Ramírez, Carmen de Torres, Vicente Santamaría, Diego Pascual-Vaca, Ana Colmenero-Repiso, Francisco M Vega, Jaume Mora, Rosa Cabello, Catalina Márquez, Eloy Rivas, Ricardo Pardal
Pediatric tumors arise upon oncogenic transformation of stem/progenitor cells during embryonic development. Given this scenario, the existence of non-tumorigenic stem cells included within the aberrant tumoral niche, with a potential role in tumor biology, is an intriguing and unstudied possibility. Here, we describe the presence and function of non-tumorigenic neural crest-derived progenitor cells in aggressive neuroblastoma (NB) tumors. These cells differentiate into neural crest typical mesectodermal derivatives, giving rise to tumor stroma and promoting proliferation and tumor aggressiveness...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163537/mycn-amplification-is-associated-with-repressed-cellular-immunity-in-neuroblastoma-an-in-silico-immunological-analysis-of-target-database
#4
Peng Zhang, Xiaofang Wu, Moushumi Basu, Chen Dong, Pan Zheng, Yang Liu, Anthony David Sandler
Purpose: RNA and DNA sequencing data are traditionally used to discern intrinsic cellular pathways in cancer pathogenesis, their utility for investigating the tumor microenvironment (TME) has not been fully explored. This study explores the use of sequencing data to investigate immunity within the TME. Experimental design: Here, we use immune cell fraction estimation analysis to determine the immune profiles in the microenvironment of neuroblastoma (NB) based on RNA-seq data in the TARGET database...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162685/tobacco-alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-neuroblastoma-systematic-review
#5
Eloise Müller-Schulte, Gerhard Kurlemann, Anja Harder
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prenatal and perinatal maternal consumption of alcohol, tobacco and/or illicit drugs is associated with risk of neuroblastoma. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Embase (both from inception to February 2017), and reference lists of included studies. STUDY SELECTION: To be eligible, a study had to be an original report including data on intake of alcohol, tobacco smoking and/or consumption of illicit drugs during pregnancy and risk of neuroblastoma in the child...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162485/expression-and-regulation-of-cyp17a1-and-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-in-cells-of-the-nervous-system-potential-effects-of-vitamin-d-on-brain-steroidogenesis
#6
Ida Emanuelsson, Mokhtar Almokhtar, Kjell Wikvall, Alfhild Grönbladh, Erik Nylander, Anne-Lie Svensson, Åsa Fex Svenningsen, Maria Norlin
Steroids are reported to have diverse functions in the nervous system. Enzymatic production of steroid hormones has been reported in different cell types, including astrocytes and neurons. However, the information on some of the steroidogenic enzymes involved is insufficient in many respects. Contradictory results have been reported concerning the relative importance of different cell types in the nervous system for expression of CYP17A1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). 3β-HSD is important in all basic steroidogenic pathways and CYP17A1 is required to form sex hormones...
November 18, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161719/palmitic-acid-curcumin-ester-facilitates-protection-of-neuroblastoma-against-oligomeric-a%C3%AE-40-insult
#7
Zhangyang Qi, Meihao Wu, Yun Fu, Tengfei Huang, Tingting Wang, Yanjie Sun, Zhibo Feng, Changzheng Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer's disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin) which can be cultivated on the cell membrane and investigated the neuroprotective effect of P-curcumin and its interaction with Aβ...
November 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159937/diffusion-weighted-mri-and-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-model-for-diagnosis-of-pediatric-solid-abdominal-tumors
#8
Emma M Meeus, Niloufar Zarinabad, Karen A Manias, Jan Novak, Heather E L Rose, Hamid Dehghani, Katharine Foster, Bruce Morland, Andrew C Peet
BACKGROUND: Pediatric retroperitoneal tumors in the renal bed are often large and heterogeneous, and their diagnosis based on conventional imaging alone is not possible. More advanced imaging methods, such as diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI and the use of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), have the potential to provide additional biomarkers that could facilitate their noninvasive diagnosis. PURPOSE: To assess the use of an IVIM model for diagnosis of childhood malignant abdominal tumors and discrimination of benign from malignant lesions...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159280/insertion-of-the-type-i-ifn-decoy-receptor-b18r-in-a-mirna-tagged-semliki-forest-virus-improves-oncolytic-capacity-but-results-in-neurotoxicity
#9
Tina Sarén, Mohanraj Ramachandran, Miika Martikainen, Di Yu
Oncolytic Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been suggested as a potential candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma and neuroblastoma. However, the oncolytic capacity of SFV is restricted by the anti-viral type-I interferon (IFN) response. The aim of this study was to increase the oncolytic capacity of a microRNA target tagged SFV against glioblastoma by arming it with the Vaccinia-virus-encoded type-I IFN decoy receptor B18R (SFV4B18RmiRT) to neutralize type-I IFN response. Expression of B18R by SFV4B18RmiRT aided neutralization of IFN-β, which was shown by reduced STAT-1 phosphorylation and improved virus spread in plaque assays...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158813/vascularized-tissue-engineered-model-for-studying-drug-resistance-in-neuroblastoma
#10
A Villasante, K Sakaguchi, J Kim, N K Cheung, M Nakayama, H Parsa, T Okano, T Shimizu, G Vunjak-Novakovic
Neuroblastoma is a vascularized pediatric tumor derived from neural crest stem cells that displays vasculogenic mimicry and can express a number of stemness markers, such as SOX2 and NANOG. Tumor relapse is the major cause of succumbing to this disease, and properties attributed to cancer stem-like cells (CSLC), such as drug-resistance and cell plasticity, seem to be the key mechanisms. However, the lack of controllable models that recapitulate the features of human neuroblastoma limits our understanding of the process and impedes the development of new therapies...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158321/assembly-and-turnover-of-neurofilaments-in-growing-axonal-neurites
#11
Edward F Boumil, Rishel Vohnoutka, Sangmook Lee, Harish Pant, Thomas B Shea
Neurofilaments (NFs) are thought to provide stability to the axon. We examined NF dynamics within axonal neurites of NB2a/d1 neuroblastoma by transient transfection with green fluorescent protein-tagged NF-H (GFP-H) under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Immunofluorescent and biochemical analyses demonstrated that GFP-H expressed early during neurite outgrowth associated with a population of centrally-situated, highly-phosphorylated crosslinked NFs along the length of axonal neurites ("bundled NFs")...
November 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156825/targeting-p-selectin-blocks-neuroblastoma-growth
#12
Riitta Nolo, Shelley Herbrich, Arvind Rao, Patrick Zweidler-McKay, Sankaranarayanan Kannan, Vidya Gopalakrishnan
Selectins and their ligands have been implicated in tumor growth and progression in carcinomas, but their role in neuroblastoma has not been systematically examined. In the current study we evaluated L-, P- and E-selectin binding to neuroblastoma cells and the expression of some of their known ligands, namely CD44, CD24 and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). Genetic loss of PSGL-1 or CD24 and pharmacological inhibition of P-selectin reduced P-selectin binding to neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Targeting P-selectin using specific antibodies promoted a significant reduction in the growth of neuroblastoma tumors in vivo...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156716/using-droplet-digital-pcr-to-analyze-mycn-and-alk-copy-number-in-plasma-from-patients-with-neuroblastoma
#13
Marco Lodrini, Annika Sprüssel, Kathy Astrahantseff, Daniela Tiburtius, Robert Konschak, Holger N Lode, Matthias Fischer, Ulrich Keilholz, Angelika Eggert, Hedwig E Deubzer
The invasive nature of surgical biopsies deters sequential application, and single biopsies often fail to reflect tumor dynamics, intratumor heterogeneity and drug sensitivities likely to change during tumor evolution and treatment. Implementing molecular characterization of cell-free neuroblastoma-derived DNA isolated from blood plasma could improve disease assessment for treatment selection and monitoring of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. We established droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) protocols for MYCN and ALK copy number status in plasma from neuroblastoma patients...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156632/neurotropism-in-vitro-and-mouse-models-of-severe-and-mild-infection-with-clinical-strains-of-enterovirus-71
#14
Pin Yu, Linlin Bao, Lili Xu, Fengdi Li, Qi Lv, Wei Deng, Yanfeng Xu, Chuan Qin
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and fatal neurological diseases in children. The neuropathogenicity of severe EV71 infection has been documented, but studies comparing mouse models of severe and mild EV71 infection are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the neurovirulence of EV71 strains and the differences in serum cytokine and chemokine levels in mouse models of severe and mild EV71 infection. Nine EV71 isolates belonging to the C4 subgenogroup (proposed as genotype D) displayed infectivity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells; moreover, ultrastructural observation confirmed viral particle replication...
November 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156121/the-toxmatrix-chemo-genomic-profiling-identifies-interactions-that-reveal-mechanisms-of-toxicity
#15
Zhi-Bin Tong, Ruili Huang, Yuhong Wang, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, John Braisted, Zina Itkin, Paul Shinn, Menghang Xia, Anton Simeonov, David Gerhold
A chemical genomics 'Toxmatrix' method was developed to elucidate mechanisms of cytotoxicity using neuronal models. Quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) was applied to systematically screen each toxicant against a panel of 70 modulators, drugs or chemicals that act on a known target, to identify interactions that either protect or sensitize cells to each toxicant. Thirty-two toxicants were tested at 10 concentrations for cytotoxicity to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, with results fitted to the Hill equation to determine an IC50 for each toxicant...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156009/discovering-cancer-vulnerabilities-using-high-throughput-micro-rna-screening
#16
Iva Nikolic, Benjamin Elsworth, Eoin Dodson, Sunny Z Wu, Cathryn M Gould, Pieter Mestdagh, Glenn M Marshall, Lisa G Horvath, Kaylene J Simpson, Alexander Swarbrick
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are potent regulators of gene expression and cellular phenotype. Each miRNA has the potential to target hundreds of transcripts within the cell thus controlling fundamental cellular processes such as survival and proliferation. Here, we exploit this important feature of miRNA networks to discover vulnerabilities in cancer phenotype, and map miRNA-target relationships across different cancer types. More specifically, we report the results of a functional genomics screen of 1280 miRNA mimics and inhibitors in eight cancer cell lines, and its presentation in a sophisticated interactive data portal...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154838/tp-0903-inhibits-neuroblastoma-cell-growth-and-enhances-the-sensitivity-to-conventional-chemotherapy
#17
Sanja Aveic, Diana Corallo, Elena Porcù, Marcella Pantile, Daniele Boso, Carlo Zanon, Giampietro Viola, Viktoryia Sidarovich, Elena Mariotto, Alessandro Quattrone, Giuseppe Basso, Gian Paolo Tonini
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an embryonal tumor with low cure rate for patients classified as high-risk. This class of NB tumors shows a very complex genomic background and requires aggressive treatment strategies. In this work we evaluated the efficacy of the novel multi-kinase inhibitor TP-0903 in impairing NB cells' growth, proliferation and motility. In vitro studies were performed using cell lines with different molecular background, and in vivo studies were done using the zebrafish experimental model. Our results confirmed a strong cytotoxicity of TP-0903 already at the sub-micro molar concentrations...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152653/elaidic-acid-induces-cell-apoptosis-through-induction-of-ros-accumulation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-sh%C3%A2-sy5y-cells
#18
Wei-Wei Ma, Lei Zhao, Lin-Hong Yuan, Huan-Ling Yu, Hui Wang, Xin-Yuan Gong, Feng Wei, Rong Xiao
Elaidic acid, which is a major trans fatty acid, has been reported to be involved in neurotoxicity; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms underlying its neurotoxic effects remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying elaidic acid‑induced neuronal damage in vitro. The SH‑SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line was used as a model in the present study. Following treatment of cells with various concentrations of elaidic acid or with vehicle for 24 h, cell viability was measured using the MTT assay...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152258/in-vitro-screening-of-neuroprotective-activity-of-indian-medicinal-plant-withania-somnifera
#19
Manjeet Singh, Charles Ramassamy
Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition characterised by changes in decline in learning and memory patterns. The neurodegenerative features of CCD in ageing dogs and cats are similar to human ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discovering neuroprotective disease-modifying therapies against CCD and AD is a major challenge. Strong evidence supports the role of amyloid β peptide deposition and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of CCD and AD. In both the human and canine brain, oxidative damage progressively increases with age...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152118/sensitization-of-neuroblastoma-for-vincristine-induced-apoptosis-by-smac-mimetic-lcl161-is-attended-by-g2-cell-cycle-arrest-but-is-independent-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-rip1-and-tnf-%C3%AE
#20
Doerte Langemann, Magdalena Trochimiuk, Birgit Appl, Patrick Hundsdoerfer, Konrad Reinshagen, Georg Eschenburg
We demonstrated sensitization for chemotherapy by Smac mimetic (SM) LCL161, a potent antagonist of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP), in neuroblastoma (NB). Vinca alkaloids, particularly vincristine (VCR), displayed the strongest impact on inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis induction in combination with LCL161. The underlying signaling pathways remain elusive, though. LCL161 induces a quick degradation of cellular IAP 1 (cIAP-1). Combination of LCL161 with VCR had only marginal effects on X-linked IAP (XIAP) protein expression...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
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