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Fibroblast activation protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044515/the-human-pkp2-plakophilin-2-gene-is-induced-by-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-in-normal-and-colon-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#1
Núria Niell, María Jesús Larriba, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Isabel Sánchez-Pérez, Ramón Cantero, Francisco X Real, Luis Del Peso, Alberto Muñoz, José Manuel González-Sancho
Colorectal cancer results from the malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells. Stromal fibroblasts are the main component of the tumour microenvironment, and play an important role in the progression of this and other neoplasias. Wnt/β-catenin signalling is essential for colon homeostasis, but aberrant, constitutive activation of this pathway is a hallmark of colorectal cancer. Here we present the first transcriptomic study on the effect of a Wnt factor on human colonic myofibroblasts. Wnt3A regulates the expression of 1136 genes, of which 662 are upregulated and 474 are downregulated in CCD-18Co cells...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042989/microrna-22-may-promote-apoptosis-and-inhibit-the-proliferation-of-hypertrophic-scar-fibroblasts-by-regulating-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-kinase-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-p21-pathway
#2
Shihua Dong, Yanfeng Sun
Hypertrophic scarring (HS) is a common skin disorder that occurs during the wound healing process, and the pathogenesis of HS remains unclear. Increasing evidence indicated that specific microRNAs (miRs) may be involved in the onset and progression of HS. In the present study, the association between miR-22 and HS was investigated. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to examine the expression of miR-22 in 30 HS and matched normal skin tissues. In addition, human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs) were cultured and transfected with miR-22 mimics, and MTT and Annexin V apoptosis assays were performed to investigate the role of miR-22 in the proliferation and apoptosis of the human HSFBs...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042943/suxiao-jiuxin-pill-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-mitochondrial-injury-and-alters-gene-expression-during-ischemic-injury
#3
Xiaofen Ruan, Tiejun Chen, Xiaolong Wang, Yiping Li
Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (SX), a traditional Chinese medicine compound consisting primarily of tetramethylpyrazine and borneol, has been reported to protect against ischemic heart disease. However, the effects of SX on mitochondrial injury and gene expression in various signaling pathways are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of SX on mitochondrial injury and to screen the expression of genes potentially altered by SX using a cell culture model of ischemic injury. Simulated ischemia was established by culturing HL-1 cardiomyocytes in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium without glucose or serum in a hypoxic chamber containing 95% N2 and 5% CO2 for 24 h...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042680/sperm-borne-mir-449b-influences-cleavage-epigenetic-reprogramming-and-apoptosis-of-scnt-embryos-in-bovine
#4
Mengyun Wang, Yang Gao, Pengxiang Qu, Suzhu Qing, Fang Qiao, Yong Zhang, Jesse Mager, Yongsheng Wang
Accumulating evidence indicates the absence of paternally derived miRNAs, piwiRNAs, and proteins may be one important factor contributing to developmental failure in somatic cell cloned embryos. In the present study, we found microRNA-449b (miR-449b) was highly expressed in sperm. Target gene predictions and experimental verification indicate that several embryonic development-related genes, including CDK6, c-MYC, HDAC1 and BCL-2, are targets of miR-449b. We therefore investigated the role of miR-449b using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo model...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042665/gdc-0449-improves-the-antitumor-activity-of-nano-doxorubicin-in-pancreatic-cancer-in-a-fibroblast-enriched-microenvironment
#5
Quan Zhou, Yongcun Zhou, Xiangrui Liu, Youqing Shen
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human cancers that currently does not have effective therapies. Novel treatments including nanomedicines and combination therapies are thus urgently needed for these types of deadly diseases. A key feature of pancreatic cancer is its tumor protective dense stroma, which is generated by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). The interaction between CAFs and pancreatic cancer cells abnormally activates sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling and facilitates tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042082/the-proto-oncogene-tyrosine-protein-kinase-src-is-essential-for-macrophage-myofibroblast-transition-during-renal-scarring
#6
Patrick Ming-Kuen Tang, Shuang Zhou, Chun-Jie Li, Jinyue Liao, Jun Xiao, Qing-Ming Wang, Guang-Yu Lian, Jinhong Li, Xiao-Ru Huang, Ka-Fai To, Chi-Fai Ng, Charing Ching-Ning Chong, Ronald Ching-Wa Ma, Tin-Lap Lee, Hui-Yao Lan
Src activation has been associated with fibrogenesis after kidney injury. Macrophage-myofibroblast transition is a newly identified process to generate collagen-producing myofibroblasts locally in the kidney undergoing fibrosis in a TGF-β/Smad3-dependent manner. The potential role of the macrophage-myofibroblast transition in Src-mediated renal fibrosis is unknown. In studying this by RNA sequencing at single-cell resolution, we uncovered a unique Src-centric regulatory gene network as a key underlying mechanism of macrophage-myofibroblast transition...
October 14, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039786/tgf-%C3%AE-induced-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-fibrotic-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Evangelia Pardali, Gonzalo Sanchez-Duffhues, Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto, Peter Ten Dijke
Fibrotic diseases are characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in affected organs leading to their dysfunction and ultimate failure. Myofibroblasts have been identified as the cells responsible for the progression of the fibrotic process, and they originate from several sources, including quiescent tissue fibroblasts, circulating CD34⁺ fibrocytes and the phenotypic conversion of various cell types into activated myofibroblasts. Several studies have demonstrated that endothelial cells can transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cells through a process termed endothelial- mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and that this can give rise to activated myofibroblasts involved in the development of fibrotic diseases...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039451/anti-inhibitory-potential-of-an-ethanolic-extract-of-distromium-decumbens-on-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-nasal-polyp-derived-fibroblasts
#8
Dae-Sung Lee, Chang-Min Lee, Seong Kook Park, Mi-Jin Yim, Jeong Min Lee, Grace Choi, Jong Su Yoo, Won-Kyo Jung, Saegwang Park, Su-Kil Seo, Won Sun Park, Il-Whan Choi
Marine algae are rich sources of biologically active compounds that may present useful leads in the development of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and functional foods. The main aim of this study was to identify the possible anti-inflammatory effects of Distromium decumbens in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDFs) and its associated mechanism of action. NPDFs were stimulated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (PA-LPS) and treated with an ethanolic extract of Distromium decumbens (DDE). The production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in the supernatant, the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) molecules [extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK] and Akt, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were assayed in the PA-LPS-stimulated NPDFs untreated or treated with DDE...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038621/tweak-fn14-activation-participates-in-skin-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Qilu Liu, Shengxiang Xiao, Yumin Xia
Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) participates in multiple biological activities via binding to its sole receptor-fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14). The TWEAK/Fn14 signaling pathway is activated in skin inflammation and modulates the inflammatory responses of keratinocytes by activating nuclear factor-κB signals and enhancing the production of several cytokines, including interleukins, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038245/mitochondrial-calcium-dysregulation-contributes-to-dendrite-degeneration-mediated-by-pd-lbd-associated-lrrk2-mutants
#10
Manish Verma, Jason Callio, P Anthony Otero, Israel Sekler, Zachary P Wills
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to development of late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD), with clinical features of motor and cognitive dysfunction indistinguishable from sporadic PD. Calcium dysregulation plays an important role in PD pathogenesis, but the mechanisms of neurodegeneration remain unclear. Recent reports indicate enhanced excitatory neurotransmission in cortical neurons expressing mutant LRRK2, which occurs prior to the well-characterized phenotype of dendritic shortening...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030851/cellular-approaches-in-investigating-argonaute2-dependent-rna-silencing
#11
Cai Zhang, Joonbae Seo, Takahisa Nakamura
In mammals, there are four Argonaute (Ago) family proteins that play crucial roles in RNA silencing, a process wherein microRNA (miRNA) mediates inhibition of target mRNA translation. Among the Ago proteins, Argonaute2 (Ago2) uniquely possesses an endoribonuclease (slicer) activity that is critical for the biogenesis of specific miRNAs and mRNA cleavage. This Ago2 slicer activity is required for postnatal development. Despite its important roles, there are still gaps in our understanding of the mechanistic basis of Ago2's unique functions in vivo due to a limited availability of experimental tools...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029852/human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-inhibit-the-activity-of-keloid-fibroblasts-and-fibrosis-in-a-keloid-model-by-paracrine-signaling
#12
Jianlan Liu, Jie Ren, Lina Su, Shimeng Cheng, Jing Zhou, Xiaolu Ye, Yabin Dong, Silei Sun, Fazhi Qi, Zhifei Liu, Jonathon Pleat, Hongjun Zhai, Ningwen Zhu
BACKGROUND: Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have potential utility as modulators of the regeneration of tissue that is inflamed or scarred secondary to injuries such as burns or trauma. However, the effect of ASCs on one particular type of scarring, keloidal disease, remains unknown. The absence of an optimal model for investigation has hindered the development of an effective therapy using ASCs for keloids. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of ASCs on angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, and inflammatory cell influx in keloids...
October 10, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029393/intermittent-treatment-with-farnesyltransferase-inhibitor-and-sulforaphane-improves-cellular-homeostasis-in-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-fibroblasts
#13
Diana Gabriel, Dinah Dorith Shafry, Leslie B Gordon, Karima Djabali
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic condition associated with mutations in the LMNA gene. This disease recapitulates some aspects of normal aging, such as hair loss, thin skin, joint stiffness, and atherosclerosis. The latter leads to heart attack or stroke that causes death at an average age of 14.6 years in children with HGPS. The typical LMNA mutation results in the production of a truncated prelamin A protein, progerin, that remains permanently farnesylated and abnormally associated with the nuclear envelope...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026081/extracellular-matrix-stiffness-and-cell-contractility-control-rna-localization-to-promote-cell-migration
#14
Tianhong Wang, Susan Hamilla, Maggie Cam, Helim Aranda-Espinoza, Stavroula Mili
Numerous RNAs are enriched within cellular protrusions, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We had shown that the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) protein controls localization of some RNAs at protrusions. Here, using protrusion-isolation schemes and RNA-Seq, we find that RNAs localized in protrusions of migrating fibroblasts can be distinguished in two groups, which are differentially enriched in distinct types of protrusions, and are additionally differentially dependent on APC. APC-dependent RNAs become enriched in high-contractility protrusions and, accordingly, their localization is promoted by increasing stiffness of the extracellular matrix...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026005/low-expression-of-mir-30a-5p-induced-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-oral-cancer-via-promoting-the-expression-of-fap
#15
Peng Ruan, Aili Tan, Zezhang Tao
The study aimed at investigating the effects of miR-30a-5p on the biological functions of oral cancer cells and figuring out the potential mechanism. We firstly verified the low expression of miR-30a-5p and high expression of FAP (Homo sapiens fibroblast activation protein alpha) in oral cancerous tissues and their negative correlation. Then, the target relationship between miR-30a-5p and FAP was validated by dual luciferase reporter assay and biotin-coupled miRNA pulldown assay. After transfection in Tca-8113 cells and SCC-15 cells, MTT, colony formation, Transwell and wound healing assays were performed to investigate how miR-30a-5p and FAP adjusted propagation, invasiveness and migration respectively...
October 12, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026003/neutralization-of-either-il-17a-or-il-17f-is-sufficient-to-inhibit-house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-asthma-in-mice
#16
Pauline Chenuet, Louis Fauconnier, Fahima Madouri, Tiffany Marchiol, Nathalie Rouxel, Aurélie Ledru, Pascal Mauny, Rachel Lory, Catherine Uttenhove, Jacques van Snick, Yoichiro Iwakura, Franco di Padova, Valérie Quesniaux, Dieudonnée Togbe, Bernhard Ryffel
T helper (Th)17 immune response participates in allergic lung inflammation and asthma is reduced in the absence of interleukin (IL)-17 in mice. Since IL-17A and IL-17F are induced and bind the shared receptor IL-17RA, we asked whether both IL-17A and IL-17F contribute to house dust mite (HDM) induced asthma. We report that allergic lung inflammation is attenuated in absence of either IL-17A or IL-17F with reduced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, cytokine and chemokine production as found in absence of IL-17RA...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025374/the-prognostic-significance-of-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#17
Hyunjin Park, Yangkyu Lee, Hyejung Lee, Jin-Won Kim, Jin-Hyeok Hwang, Jaihwan Kim, Yoo-Seok Yoon, Ho-Seong Han, Haeryoung Kim
Cancer-associated fibroblasts are abundant in the desmoplastic stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and are considered to play important roles in tumor progression. In this study, we investigated the expression status of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, periostin, fibroblast-activated protein, and the newly developed proCOL11A1 antibody in the stroma of surgically resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and their prognostic implications. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 155 surgically resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and paired non-neoplastic pancreata and from another independent set of 48 normal/benign pancreata, and immunohistochemical stains were performed for proCOL11A1, fibroblast-activated protein, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, and periostin...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024528/photobiomodulation-alters-matrix-protein-activity-in-stressed-fibroblast-cells-in-vitro
#18
S M Ayuk, H Abrahamse, N N Houreld
A balance is maintained between matrix synthesis and degradation, and a prolonged increase in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) affects healing. Photobiomodulation (PBM) speeds up healing and alters wound environment. The study aimed to determine changes in protein and gene expression of collagen type 1 (Col-I), MMP-3 and -9 and TIMP-1 in fibroblasts irradiated at 660 or 830 nm. Commercially purchased human skin fibroblast cells were modeled into five groups: namely, normal, normal wounded, diabetic wounded, hypoxic wounded and diabetic hypoxic wounded...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024443/bioglass-enhanced-wound-healing-ability-of-urine-derived-stem-cells-through-promoting-paracrine-effects-between-stem-cells-and-recipient-cells
#19
Yunlong Zhang, Xin Niu, Xin Dong, Yang Wang, Haiyan Li
In cell therapy, tissue regeneration ability of stem cells relies on the paracrine effects between stem cells and recipient cells. Our recent studies demonstrated that, in tissue engineering, bioactive silicates could stimulate paracrine effects between stem cells and recipient cells, which enhanced tissue generation. Therefore, we proposed that, in cell therapy, it may be an effective method to improve tissue regeneration ability of stem cells through activating the paracrine effects between stem cells and recipient cells with bioactive silicates...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022008/inflammatory-activation-of-human-cardiac-fibroblasts-leads-to-altered-calcium-signaling-decreased-connexin-43-expression-and-increased-glutamate-secretion
#20
Eva Skiöldebrand, Annika Lundqvist, Ulrika Björklund, Mikael Sandstedt, Anders Lindahl, Elisabeth Hansson, Lillemor Mattsson Hultén
Cardiac fibroblasts, which are abundant in heart tissue, are involved not only in extracellular matrix homeostasis and repair, but also in cardiac remodeling after a myocardial infarction that, in turn, can lead to loss of cardiac function and heart failure. Ca(2+) signaling is functionally important in many cell types, but the roles of fibroblast signaling and inflammation in the pathogenesis of heart disease are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inflammatory activation affects cardiac fibroblasts, both in terms of Ca(2+) signaling and their capacity for intercellular communication through the gap junction channel protein connexin 43 (Cx43)...
October 2017: Heliyon
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