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Renal call cancer

Francesco Soria, Andrea I Beleni, David D'Andrea, Irene Resch, Kilian M Gust, Paolo Gontero, Shahrokh F Shariat
OBJECTIVES: A small subset of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors manifest atypical patterns of response, the so-called pseudoprogression (PP) and hyperprogression (HP). Their prevalence in urothelial (UC) and renal cancer (RCC) remains, to date, mostly uninvestigated. Therefore, we aimed to provide a summary of the current knowledge about PP and HP during immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in UC and RCC patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A systematic medline/pubmed© literature search was performed...
March 16, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Rosana D Meyer, Xueqing Zou, Marwa Ali, Esma Ersoy, Philip Apraku Bondzie, Mehrdad Lavaei, Ilya Alexandrov, Joel Henderson, Nader Rahimi
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a high-risk metastasizing tumor with a poor prognosis and poorly understood mechanism. In this study, we demonstrate that transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain-containing 1 (TMIGD1) is a novel tumor suppressor that is highly expressed in normal renal tubular epithelial cells, but it is downregulated in human renal cancer. We have identified CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteinβ (C/EBPβ, also called LAP) as a key transcriptional regulator of TMIGD1, whose loss of expression is responsible for downregulation of TMIGD1 in RCC...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Kosmas Daskalakis, Olov Norlen, Andreas Karakatsanis, Per Hellman, Rolf Larsson, Peter Nygren, Peter Stalberg
Small intestinal endocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are generally considered resistant to systemic treatment. To date, predictive markers for drug activity are lacking. Tumour samples from 27 patients with SI-NETs were analyzed ex vivo for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents using a short-term total cell kill assay. Samples of renal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), ovarian cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were included for comparison. For the SI-NET subset, drug sensitivity was analyzed in relation to clinico-pathological variables and pre-treatment biomarkers...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Giuseppe Badalamenti, Daniele Fanale, Lorena Incorvaia, Nadia Barraco, Angela Listì, Rossella Maragliano, Bruno Vincenzi, Valentina Calò, Juan Lucio Iovanna, Viviana Bazan, Antonio Russo
In recent years, multiple strategies for eliciting anti-tumor immunity have been developed in different clinical studies. Currently, immunotherapy was clinically validated as effective treatment option for many tumors such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Some surface receptors of immune cells, called immune checkpoint receptors, may inhibit activity of proinflammatory lymphocytes, following binding with specific ligands. Cancer cells exploit these mechanisms to inactivate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) to escape from immunosurveillance...
January 30, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Daniel Ortiz, Avis Harden, Fernando F Corrales-Medina, Gaurav Saigal, Akin Tekin, Jennifer Garcia
HBL is the most common malignant liver neoplasm in children. The etiology of HBL is largely unknown but there are certain syndromes, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, that have been clearly associated with an increased incidence of this malignancy. EBS, also known as prune belly syndrome, is a congenital anomaly characterized by lax abdominal musculature, bilateral cryptorchidism requiring, in some cases, hemodialysis due to significant kidney and urinary tract dysfunctions. Despite an improvement on the survival rates of patients with advanced-stage HBL, the presence of concomitant end-stage renal disease that occurs in patients with EBS constitutes a therapeutic challenge for the clinician not only due to the use of nephrotoxic chemotherapy but also due to the potential need for multi-organ transplant...
January 22, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Deepak Kumar Shukla, Dinesh Gupta, Arun Aggarwal, Deepak Kumar
Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) commonly occurs in hematological malignancies, but it is very rare in patients with a solid tumor. In cases of solid tumors, TLS usually occurs spontaneously or after the initiation of anticancer therapy, and it has a high mortality rate. This syndrome consists of a constellation of laboratory findings such as hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia known as laboratory TLS. When clinical complications such as seizures, acute renal failure, and cardiac dysrhythmias occur in patients with laboratory TLS, the syndrome is called clinical TLS...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Mouadh Mihoub, Jad Abdallah, Gilbert Richarme
DJ-1 and its prokaryotic homologs, Hsp31, YhbO and YajL from Escherichia coli and PfpI from Pyrococcus furiosus, repair proteins from glycation by glyoxals (R-CO-CHO), which constitute their major glycating agents. Glycation is a non-enzymatic covalent reaction discovered by Louis Camille Maillard in 1912, between reactive carbonyls (reducing sugars and glyoxals) and amino acids (cysteine, arginine and lysine), which inactivates proteins. By degrading Maillard adducts formed between carbonyls and thiols or amino groups, the DJ-1 family Maillard deglycases prevent the formation of the so-called advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that arise from Maillard adducts after dehydrations, oxidations and rearrangements...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Maria F Becerra, Ed Reznik, Almedina Redzematovic, Daniel M Tennenbaum, Mahyar Kashan, Mazyar Ghanaat, Jozefina Casuscelli, Brandon Manley, Philip Jonsson, Renzo G DiNatale, Kyle A Blum, Jeremy C Durack, Stephen B Solomon, Maria E Arcila, Caitlin Bourque, Nick Socci, Maria I Carlo, Chung-Han Lee, Martin H Voss, Darren R Feldman, Robert J Motzer, Jonathan A Coleman, Paul Russo, Emily H Cheng, A Ari Hakimi, James J Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies of matched pairs of primary and metastatic tumors in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been limited to small cohorts. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the discordance in somatic mutations between matched primary and metastatic RCC tumors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Primary tumor (P), metastasis (M), and germline DNA from 60 patients with RCC was subjected to NGS with a targeted exon capture-based assay of 341 cancer-associated genes...
October 20, 2017: European Urology Focus
Guang Hua Li, Shinya Akatsuka, Shan Hwu Chew, Li Jiang, Takahiro Nishiyama, Akihiko Sakamoto, Takashi Takahashi, Mitsuru Futakuchi, Hiromu Suzuki, Kunihiko Sakumi, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Shinya Toyokuni
Oxidative stress including iron excess has been associated with carcinogenesis. The level of 8-oxoguanine, a major oxidatively modified base in DNA, is maintained very low by three distinct enzymes, encoded by OGG1, MUTYH and MTH1. Germline biallelic inactivation of MUTYH represents a familial cancer syndrome called MUTYH-associated polyposis. Here, we used Mutyh-deficient mice to evaluate renal carcinogenesis induced by ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA). Although the C57BL/6 background is cancer-resistant, a repeated intraperitoneal administration of Fe-NTA induced a high incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC; 26...
October 13, 2017: Pathology International
Parveen Sidhu, Alexander M Menzies, Georgina Long, Matteo Carlino, Shirleen Lorens, Rony Kapoor
Immunotherapy drugs work by stimulating the patient's own immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. This subclass of drugs is increasingly administered to patients with advanced melanoma. They are also commonly incorporated into other cancer therapies such as non-small cell lung cancer, renal cancer, head and neck cancers and Hodgkin lymphoma. The most commonly administered immunotherapeutic agents in the treatment of melanoma include programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors and a subclass of cytokines...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
David Broadbent, Mohammad M Ahmadzai, Ananth K Kammala, Canchai Yang, Christopher Occhiuto, Rupali Das, Hariharan Subramanian
Multicellular organisms are equipped with an array of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate cell-cell signaling allowing them to adapt to environmental cues and ultimately survive. This is mechanistically possible through complex intracellular GPCR machinery that encompasses a vast network of proteins. Within this network, there is a group called scaffolding proteins that facilitate proper localization of signaling proteins for a quick and robust GPCR response. One protein family within this scaffolding group is the PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) family which is important for GPCR localization, internalization, recycling, and downstream signaling...
2017: Advances in Immunology
S Buti, M Puligandla, M Bersanelli, R S DiPaola, J Manola, S Taguchi, N B Haas
Background: Prognostic scores have been developed to estimate the risk of recurrence and the probability of survival after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The use of these tools, despite being helpful to plan a customized schedule of follow-up, to the patient's tailored counselling and to select individuals who could potentially benefit from adjuvant treatment, currently is not routine, due to their relative complexity and to the lack of histological data (i.e. necrosis). Patients and methods: We developed a simple score called GRade, Age, Nodes and Tumor (GRANT) based on four easily obtained parameters: Fuhrman grade, age, pathological nodal status and pathological tumor size...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Chinmoy K Bose
Although the idea, called "cancer immunotherapy," is very appealing and has previously been shown to work in several mouse models of cancer, it has in general been very difficult to translate cancer immunotherapy approaches to humans. Because of this frustration, by the 1990s, many scientists and biotechnology companies had given up on the idea of cancer immunotherapy. After few years, first detection T-cell suppression of effect of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) molecule was established. Antibody (Ab) to CTLA4 could increase T-cell starting a completely new age of tumor immunology...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Ryoko Sawada, Yusuke Shinoda, Aya Niimi, Tohru Nakagawa, Masachika Ikegami, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Sakae Tanaka, Yukio Homma, Nobuhiko Haga
Metastasis may occur in any bone but more commonly occurs in the spine, pelvis, or other axial bones. Metastasis in peripheral bones located distal to the elbow or knee, so-called acrometastasis, is rare. Although the mechanism of acrometastasis development is not completely understood, it is thought to be the result of a massive dissemination of cancer cells; thus the prognosis of patients with acrometastasis is relatively poor. Here, we report the case of renal pelvic cancer with multiple acrometastases in both the upper and lower extremities without axial bone metastasis in a 68-year-old man...
2017: Case Reports in Urology
Wei Zhang, Maowei Ni, Ying Su, Hua Wang, Shaoxin Zhu, An Zhao, Guorong Li
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes are emerging as clinically useful tools for cancer detection. However, little is known about their diagnostic impact in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether miRNAs in serum exosomes can serve as biomarkers in ccRCC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Serum samples were obtained from 82 patients with ccRCC and 80 healthy volunteers. Exosomes were extracted and purified to selectively capture exosomes positive for tumor-associated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) via a magnetic bead technique...
October 14, 2016: European Urology Focus
Jocelyn Charlton, Sabine Irtan, Christophe Bergeron, Kathy Pritchard-Jones
Wilms tumour (WT) is the most common paediatric kidney cancer and affects approximately one in 10 000 children. The tumour is associated with undifferentiated embryonic lesions called nephrogenic rests (NRs) or, when diffuse, nephroblastomatosis. WT or NRs can occur in both kidneys, termed bilateral disease, found in only 5-8% of cases. Management of bilateral WT presents a major clinical challenge in terms of maximising survival, preserving renal function and understanding underlying genetic risk. In this review, we compile clinical data from 545 published cases of bilateral WT and discuss recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of bilateral WT and its associated precursor NRs in the context of the latest radiological, surgical and epidemiological features...
July 18, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Marcello Napoli, Maria Luisa Lefons, Giovanni Sandri, Efisio Sozzo, Carmela Ambrosino
The AKI in intensive care has been widely treated by international and national guidelines. The treatment of AKI in patients not requiring admission in Intensive Care Unit, but often hospitalized in Nephrology Unit, it is showed of less relevance. For over 5 years we have used for the treatment of AKI of patients admitted in Nephrology Unit an intermittent slow technique, implemented in approximately 600 patients with AKI for a total of about 3000 treatments. In this study we report the clinical results obtained in 100 consecutive patients referred to our Nephrology Unit from 1st January 2014...
June 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Hyeon Woo Kim, Joho Yun, Jeong Zoo Lee, Dong Gil Shin, Jong-Hyun Lee
A hypodermic needle has been introduced incorporating an electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensor, called micro-EIS-on-a-needle for depth profiling (μEoN-DP). The μEoN-DP can locate endophytic renal tumors as well as determine tumor margins by detecting the impedance difference between normal and cancer tissues. To evaluate the μEoN-DP as a novel tool to determine the optimal surgical margin during partial nephrectomy (PN), the electrical impedance differences between renal parenchymal tissues and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumors are investigated with regard to the distance from the tumors...
July 11, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Guoying Zhou, Dave Sprengers, Patrick P C Boor, Michail Doukas, Hannah Schutz, Shanta Mancham, Alexander Pedroza-Gonzalez, Wojciech G Polak, Jeroen de Jonge, Marcia Gaspersz, Haidong Dong, Kris Thielemans, Qiuwei Pan, Jan N M IJzermans, Marco J Bruno, Jaap Kwekkeboom
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ligand binding to inhibitory receptors on immune cells, such as programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA4), down-regulates the T-cell-mediated immune response (called immune checkpoints). Antibodies that block these receptors increase antitumor immunity in patients with melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, and renal cell cancer. Tumor-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been found to be functionally compromised...
October 2017: Gastroenterology
Raymond Vanholder, Lieven Annemans, Edwina Brown, Ron Gansevoort, Judith J Gout-Zwart, Norbert Lameire, Rachael L Morton, Rainer Oberbauer, Maarten J Postma, Marcello Tonelli, Wim Van Biesen, Carmine Zoccali
The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) imposes substantial societal costs. Expenditure is highest for renal replacement therapy (RRT), especially in-hospital haemodialysis. Redirection towards less expensive forms of RRT (peritoneal dialysis, home haemodialysis) or kidney transplantation should decrease financial pressure. However, costs for CKD are not limited to RRT, but also include nonrenal health-care costs, costs not related to health care, and costs for patients with CKD who are not yet receiving RRT...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
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