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Renal call cancer

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: 41 Background: New cancer treatments have become increasingly costly. Although new drugs may be sufficiently cost-efficiency for a primary indication (i1) to receive funding, subsequent indications (ia) may not prove cost-effective. A financial risk-sharing agreement to increase access is proposed. A potential 2012 real-world implementation in Canada for pazopanib use in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as i1, and soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) as ia is presented. METHODS: The market value of an indication can be approximated by its net-present-value (NPV) of expected cash flows...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Daan Joost De Maeseneer, Brant Delafontaine, Sylvie Rottey
Both urothelial (UC) and renal cell cancer (RCC) are highly immunogenic tumours. Recent advances in cellular immunity understanding have resulted in a successful new class of therapeutic agents. Interaction between the programmed cell death 1 (PD1) on regulatory T-cells (Treg) and programmed cell death 1 ligand (PDL1) on cancer cells inhibits an effective immune response and is an important mechanism for cancer cells to evade the immune system. Monoclonal anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 antibodies inhibit this interaction and are called checkpoint inhibitors...
February 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
M Vedanayagam, B Bhattacharya, S Sriprasad
The incidence of small renal masses (SRM) has been increasing, and this is mainly attributed to the incidental finding of such masses on imaging performed in asymptomatic patients. Consequently, this calls for careful evaluation and management of these masses to determine their nature and need for treatment. This article reviews current literature regarding the evaluation and management of SRM. It focuses on the specific use of MRI in the diagnosis and management of SRM. A Medline review of the literature was performed from 1996 to the present time...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Shi Wei, Gene P Siegal
It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone...
March 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Sergio Fernández-Pello, Fabian Hofmann, Rana Tahbaz, Lorenzo Marconi, Thomas B Lam, Laurence Albiges, Karim Bensalah, Steven E Canfield, Saeed Dabestani, Rachel H Giles, Milan Hora, Markus A Kuczyk, Axel S Merseburger, Thomas Powles, Michael Staehler, Alessandro Volpe, Börje Ljungberg, Axel Bex
CONTEXT: While vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition are effective strategies in treating clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most effective therapeutic approach for patients with non-clear cell RCC (non-ccRCC) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review relevant literature comparing the oncological outcomes and adverse events of different systemic therapies for patients with metastatic non-ccRCC...
March 2017: European Urology
Albino Eccher, Luigino Boschiero, Brett Delahunt, Luca Cima, Francesca Fior, Francesco Nacchia, Momo Rostand, Amedeo Carraro, Umberto Tedeschi, Gianluigi Zaza, Marilena Casartelli Liviero, Laura Zampicinini, Marco Chilosi, Giuseppe Feltrin, Claudio Rago, Antonietta D'Errico, Claudio Ghimenton, Guido Martignoni, Matteo Brunelli
BACKGROUND De novo renal neoplasia developing after kidney transplantation at Verona Kidney Transplant Center were reviewed according to new 2016 WHO Renal Tumor Classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS Primary renal tumors developed in native or transplanted kidneys de novo following renal transplantation were retrieved and histologically reviewed by three expert uropathologists. Immunoexpression of the diagnostic antigens CD13, CD10, CK7, CK34bE12, AMACR, CAIX, AE1/AE3, CK14, GATA-3, HMB-45, cathepsin-k, S100A1, and parvalbumin was assessed...
December 6, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Matthew J Roberts
If the history of critical care is to be addressed, the starting point must be the fundamental and defining qualities of intensive care units. These are the concentration of the sickest patients in a defined area of the hospital, staffed by the personnel most able to care for them (by virtue of specialist training), and the application of the most advanced monitoring or therapeutic techniques available at the time. In the military environment, the ability to provide critical care to ill or injured servicemen has developed in tandem with the civilian experience, but the pressures of the austere environment of the battlefield have, at times, held back military medical services from providing the highest level of care that servicemen might deserve and, indeed, expect in civilian life...
October 2016: Journal of Anesthesia History
Li-Xia Chen, Gui-Yang Xia, Hao He, Jian Huang, Feng Qiu, Xiao-Lin Zi
Physalis pubescens L. plant produces nutritious and healthy fruits, called husk tomato or hairy ground cherry. However, its bioactive components are largely unknown. Four new withanolide steroids (1-4) together with one known withanolide (5) were isolated from the extract of P. pubescens L. and their chemical structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 3 and 5 showed potent growth inhibitory effects against four human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines (i.e. 786-O, A-498, Caki-2 and ACHN)...
2016: RSC Advances
Jimena Soutelo, Sofía Moldes, Cielo Frisone, Laura Salvá, Cecilia Agostinis, Gabriel Faraj
Paraneoplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of malignant diseases caused by events which involve endocrine, immune and metabolic aspects and whose symptoms vary according to the substance produced and the primary tumor. Hypercalcemia is a frequent complication in cancer patients. Prognosis of cancer patients with hypercalcemia is usually poor. A factor called parathyroid hormone related peptide, whose actions are similar to those of the parathyroid hormone, is thought to be the most common cause of malignancy associated hypercalcemia...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
M Bagheri, J R Speakman, F Shemirani, K Djafarian
BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects increasing body mass index (BMI) leads to greater mortality from a range of causes. Following onset of specific diseases, however, the reverse is often found: called the 'obesity paradox'. But we recently observed the phenomenon called the 'paradox within the paradox' for stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to examine the effect of each unit increase in BMI on renal cancer-specific survival (CSS), cancer-specific mortality, overall survival (OS) and overall mortality...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
M-O Grimm
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are establishing itselves as a new systemic treatment option (in addition to chemotherapy and targeted therapy) for metastatic tumours. (Re)activating the immune system, these antibodies may lead to impressive remissions lasting for a long time in some patients. Regarding urological tumours, the anti-PD-1 antibody Nivolumab (Opdivo(®)) has been approved this year for advanced, previously treated renal cell carcinoma. In the United States, Atezolizumab (Tecentriq(®)) has been approved for metastatic urothelial carcinoma after platinum-based chemotherapy...
September 2016: Aktuelle Urologie
Jean Gabriel de Souza, Katia L.P. Morais, Eduardo Anglés-Cano, Pamela Boufleur, Evandro Sobroza de Mello, Durvanei Augusto Maria, Clarice Silvia Taemi Origassa, Hamilton de Campos Zampolli, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Carolina Maria Berra, Rosemary Viola Bosch, Ana Marisa Chudzinski-Tavassi
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also called kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma, is highly resistant to current treatments. It has been previously reported that a Kunitz-type inhibitor domain-containing protein, isolated from the salivary glands of the Amblyomma cajennense tick, triggers apoptosis in murine renal adenocarcinoma cells (Renca) by inhibiting the proteasome and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Of note, Amblyomin-X is the corresponding recombinant protein identified in the cDNA library from A. cajennense salivary glands...
20, 2016: Oncotarget
Jia-Horng Kao, Tarik Asselah, Xiao-Guang Dou, Kamal Hamed
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most serious health problems worldwide with a high risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Several antiviral agents have been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis (CHB), leading to a rapid reduction in HBV DNA and normalization of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Telbivudine, a potent inhibitor of HBV replication, has been shown to be well tolerated. Due to the emergence of drug resistance, optimization strategies for telbivudine therapy have been shown to improve patient responses...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kwok Ying Chan, Rock Yuk Yan Leung, Ka Chi Cheung, Clarence Lam, Eleanor Koo, Sylvia Ng
OBJECTIVES: It is quite common to have advanced cancer or end-stage renal disease patients for regular or even frequent blood transfusion in palliative care. However, due to geographical reason in some hospice centers, blood transfusion is sometimes difficult if blood bank is closed during non-office hour or not available. METHODS: Here, we reported a new blood releasing system, that is, remote blood releasing system, that could be used safely by nursing staff alone when the blood bank was closed during the night time and holiday...
2016: SAGE open medical case reports
Chien-Chia Huang, Wei-Lung Chen, Chien-Chin Hsu, Hung-Jung Lin, Shih-Bin Su, How-Ran Guo, Chien-Cheng Huang, Pi-Ching Chen
Backgrounds and Aim. Taiwan's population is gradually aging; however, there are no comparative data on emergency medical services (EMS) use between the elderly and nonelderly. Methods. We analyzed the emergency calls dealt with between January 1 and April 4, 2014, by EMS in one city in Taiwan. All calls were divided into two groups: elderly (≥65 years) and nonelderly (<65 years). Nontransport and transport calls were compared between the groups for demographic characteristics, transport time, reasons for calling EMS, vital signs, and emergency management...
2016: BioMed Research International
Carole Helissey, Cécile Vicier, Stéphane Champiat
Monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoint molecules CTLA-4, PD-1 or PD-L1 are emerging as promising anticancer therapeutics in multiple cancer subtypes resulting in remarkable and long-lasting clinical responses. These immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) have already obtained approval for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, advanced/refractory non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell cancer. ICBs enhance immune responses against cancer cells but can also lead to inflammatory side effects called immune-related adverse events (irAEs)...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
H Oppel-Heuchel, M-O Grimm
Nivolumab was recently approved as the first inhibitor of the programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligand (PD-L1) for the treatment of urological cancer, namely metastasized renal cell carcinoma after prior therapy. The use of this new immunotherapy requires special therapy monitoring and management of side effects. An increase of immune cells around the tumor can initially mimic progression (so-called pseudoprogression). Treatment-associated side effects of higher grade according to the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE grades 3 or 4) are relatively rare; however, new immune-mediated side effects can occur and affect the skin, liver (hepatitis), kidneys (nephritis), gastrointestinal tract (diarrhea and colitis), lungs (pneumonitis) and endocrine organs (hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and hypophysitis)...
May 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
M-O Grimm, Y Winkler, I Fetter, H Oppel-Heuchel
With the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy has gained new importance in oncology. Current research is focused on the cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoints. The CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab (melanoma) as well as the PD-1 antibodies nivolumab (melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) and pembrolizumab (melanoma) are approved for the treatment of metastatic disease in Europe. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (re)activate the immune system against cancer cells and appear to be more effective than current standards for many tumors...
May 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
R Rasenack, N Gaupp, B Rautenberg, E Stickeler, H Prömpeler
The increasing number of pregnant breast cancer patients calls for a therapy that is as efficient as possible. After 10 years of collecting data on pregnant breast cancer patients in the German Breast Group (GBG), proposals for diagnostic measures and therapy regarding this special situation have been developed on the basis of 500 observed cases. Chemotherapy is regarded as safe from the 14(th) week of gestation on, but it is strongly advised not to use trastuzumab. Adverse outcomes for the newborn were predominantly observed in cases of early preterms...
April 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
Jonathan Clark, Steven Wang
In many regions of the world, the most common type of parotid malignancy is metastatic malignancy. Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic melanoma are the most common pathologies that metastasize to the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. Other more rare metastatic malignancies from cutaneous primary sites include Merkel cell carcinoma, pleomorphic sarcoma (previously called malignant fibrous histiocytoma) and metastatic basal cell carcinoma. Systemic metastases can also occur from tumors such as renal cell carcinoma...
2016: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
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