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stearoyl desaturase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043214/vitamin-a-improves-hyperglycemia-and-glucose-intolerance-through-regulation-of-intracellular-signaling-pathways-and-glycogen-synthesis-in-wnin-gr-ob-obese-rat-model
#1
Shanmugam M Jeyakumar, Alex Sheril, Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari
Vitamin A and its metabolites modulate insulin resistance and regulate stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), which are also known to affect insulin resistance. Here, we tested, whether vitamin A-mediated changes in insulin resistance markers are associated with SCD1 regulation or not. For this purpose, 30-week old male lean and glucose-intolerant obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain were given either a stock or vitamin A-enriched diet, i.e. 2.6 mg or 129 mg vitamin A/kg diet, for 14 weeks. Compared to the stock diet, vitamin A-enriched diet feeding improved hyperglycemia and glucose-clearance rate in obese rats and no such changes were seen in lean rats receiving identical diets...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037332/dihydrosterculic-acid-from-cottonseed-oil-suppresses-desaturase-activity-and-improves-liver-metabolomic-profiles-of-high-fat-fed-mice
#2
Chad M Paton, Roger A Vaughan, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Fariba Assadi-Porter, Michael K Dowd
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diets are thought to provide beneficial effects toward metabolic health in part through their bioactive properties. We hypothesized that increasing PUFA intake in mice would increase peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARδ) expression and activity, and we sought to examine the effect of different PUFA-enriched oils on muscle PPARδ expression. One of the oils we tested was cottonseed oil (CSO) which is primarily linoleic acid (53%) and palmitic acid (24%)...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982014/the-role-of-suppression-of-hepatic-scd1-expression-in-the-metabolic-effects-of-dietary-methionine-restriction
#3
Laura A Forney, Kirsten P Stone, Desiree Wanders, James M Ntambi, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) produces concurrent increases in energy intake and expenditure, but the proportionately larger increase in energy expenditure (EE) effectively limits weight gain and adipose tissue accretion over time. Increased hepatic FGF21 is essential to MR-dependent increases in EE, but it is unknown whether the downregulation of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) by MR could also be a contributing factor. Global deletion of SCD1 mimics cold exposure in mice housed at 23°C by compromising the insular properties of the skin...
October 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980402/is-palmitoleic-acid-a-plausible-non-pharmacological-strategy-to-prevent-or-control-chronic-metabolic-and-inflammatory-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Camila O Souza, Gretchen K Vannice, José C Rosa Neto, Philip C Calder
Although dietary fatty acids can modulate metabolic and immune responses, the effects of palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) remain unclear. Since this monounsaturated fatty acid was described as a lipokine, studies with cell culture and rodent models have suggested it enhances whole body insulin sensitivity, stimulates insulin secretion by β-cells, increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation, improves the blood lipid profile, and alters macrophage differentiation. However, human studies report elevated blood levels of palmitoleic acid in people with obesity and metabolic syndrome...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972163/an-n-terminal-di-proline-motif-is-essential-for-fatty-acid-dependent-degradation-of-%C3%AE-9-desaturase-in-drosophila
#5
Akira Murakami, Kohjiro Nagao, Naoto Juni, Yuji Hara, Masato Umeda
Δ9-fatty acid desaturase introduces a double bond at the Δ9 position of the acyl moiety of acyl-CoA and regulates the cellular levels of unsaturated fatty acids. However, it is unclear how Δ9-desaturase expression is regulated in response to changes in the levels of fatty acid desaturation. In this study, we found that the degradation of DESAT1, the sole Δ9-desaturase in Drosophila cell line S2, was significantly enhanced when the amounts of unsaturated acyl chains of membrane phospholipids were increased by supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acids...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962884/lipid-accumulation-oxidative-stress-and-immune-related-molecules-affected-by-tributyltin-exposure-in-muscle-tissues-of-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#6
Jiliang Zhang, Chunnuan Zhang, Dongdong Ma, Min Liu, Shuntao Huang
Tributyltin (TBT) is reported to induce adipogenesis in fish, which might affect nutritional qualities and health status. Muscle tissues account for the majority of body mass, and have been described as a major site of fat deposition and an immunologically active organ. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate whether chronic exposures of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 ng/L, affects lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune status in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)...
September 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946872/suppression-of-adipocyte-differentiation-and-lipid-accumulation-by-stearidonic-acid-sda-in-3t3-l1-cells
#7
Yueru Li, Yinghui Rong, Lisui Bao, Ben Nie, Guang Ren, Chen Zheng, Rajesh Amin, Robert D Arnold, Ramesh B Jeganathan, Kevin W Huggins
BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids found in cold-water fish and fish oil has been reported to protect against obesity. A potential mechanism may be through reduction in adipocyte differentiation. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based ω-3 fatty acid, has been targeted as a potential surrogate for fish-based fatty acids; however, its role in adipocyte differentiation is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of SDA on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells...
September 25, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914467/cloning-expression-pattern-analysis-and-subcellular-localization-of-capra-hircus-scd1-gene-with-production-of-transgenic-mice
#8
Qisheng Zuo, Kai Jin, Jiuzhou Song, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
This study aimed to clone the Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) gene derived from Xuhuai goat (Capra hircus), and analyze the sub-cellular localization in cells and tissues. The cDNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). pEGFP-SCD1 vector was constructed to detect sub-cellular localization and tissue distribution. pEGFP-SCD1 was transfected into NIH-3T3 cells using polyethylene imine (PEI) and observed under fluorescence inversion microscope system 48 h after transfection. The expression level of SCD1 was detected by RT-PCR...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901521/adiponectin-receptor-agonist-adiporon-suppresses-adipogenesis-in-c3h10t1-2-cells-through-the-adenosine-monophosphate%C3%A2-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway
#9
Shu-Juan Wang, Wen-Yi Lu, Kai-Yan Liu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AdipoRon, an adiponectin receptor agonist, on adipogenesis in C3H10T1/2 cells and to explore the underlying mechanisms. C3H10T1/2 cells were treated with increasing doses of AdipoRon for 8 days, and Oil Red O staining was used to assess lipid accumulation. The protein and mRNA expression levels of adipogenic transcription factors and adipocyte‑specific genes were examined by western blotting and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895586/maresin-1-mitigates-liver-steatosis-in-ob-ob-and-diet-induced-obese-mice
#10
L M Laiglesia, S Lorente-Cebrián, L Martínez-Fernández, N Sáinz, P L Prieto-Hontoria, M A Burrell, C M Rodríguez-Ortigosa, J A Martínez, M J Moreno-Aliaga
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of Maresin 1 (MaR1) in obesity-related liver steatosis and the mechanisms involved. METHODS: MaR1 effects on fatty liver disease were tested in ob/ob (2-10 μg/kg i.p., 20 days) and in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice (2 μg/kg, i.p., or 50 μg/kg, oral gavage for 10 days), as well as in cultured hepatocytes. RESULTS: In ob/ob mice, MaR1 reduced liver triglycerides (TG) content, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 protein expression, while increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation and LC3II protein expression, in parallel with a drop in p62 levels...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894292/partitioning-of-adipose-lipid-metabolism-by-altered-expression-and-function-of-ppar-isoforms-after-bariatric-surgery
#11
C Jahansouz, H Xu, A V Hertzel, S Kizy, K A Steen, R Foncea, F J Serrot, N Kvalheim, G Luthra, K Ewing, D B Leslie, S Ikramuddin, D A Bernlohr
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for reducing adiposity and eliminating type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism(s) responsible have remained elusive. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) encompass a family of nuclear hormone receptors that upon activation exert control of lipid metabolism, glucose regulation and inflammation. Their role in adipose tissue following bariatric surgery remains undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and serum were obtained and evaluated from time of surgery and on postoperative day 7 in patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n=13) or matched caloric restriction (n=14), as well as patients undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n=33)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894242/complementary-acsl-isoforms-contribute-to-a-non-warburg-advantageous-energetic-status-characterizing-invasive-colon-cancer-cells
#12
Ruth Sánchez-Martínez, Silvia Cruz-Gil, María Soledad García-Álvarez, Guillermo Reglero, Ana Ramírez de Molina
Metabolic reprogramming is one of cancer hallmarks. Here, we focus on functional differences and individual contribution of acyl coA synthetases (ACSL) isoforms to the previously described ACSL/stearoyl-CoA desaturase (ACSL1/ACSL4/SCD) metabolic network causing invasion and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). ACSL4 fuels proliferation and migration accompanied by a more glycolytic phenotype. Conversely, ACSL1 stimulates invasion displaying a lower basal respiratory rate. Acylcarnitines elevation, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) lower levels, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) upregulation characterize the individual overexpression of ACSL1, ACSL4 and SCD, respectively...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881768/downregulated-long-noncoding-rna-aldbgalg0000005049-induces-inflammation-in-chicken-muscle-suffered-from-selenium-deficiency-by-regulating-stearoyl-coa-desaturase
#13
Ruifeng Fan, Changyu Cao, Xia Zhao, Qunxiang Shi, Jinxin Zhao, Shiwen Xu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in proliferation and differentiation of muscles. However, the study on the roles of lncRNAs in Selenium (Se) deficiency induced muscle injury is still unclear. In this study, deep sequencing was performed to profile lncRNAs and mRNAs of the muscles from the Se deficiency (-Se group) and control (C group) chickens. The results revealed that 38 lncRNAs (23 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated) and 687 mRNAs (285 up-regulated and 402 down-regulated) were significantly dysregulated expressed, and the significantly dysregulated pathway including Phagosome, Cardiac muscle contraction, and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) in -Se group...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870006/down-regulation-of-hepatic-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-adipocytes-by-pinus-densiflora-bark-extract
#14
Hyemyoung Ahn, Jeongho Jeong, Knowledge Mudhibadi Moyo, Yungsun Ryu, Bokkee Min, Seong Ho Yun, Hwa Yeon Kim, Wooki Kim, Gwang Woong Go
Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) bark extract, PineXol (PX), was investigated on its potential anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation effects in vitro. It was hypothesized that PX treatment (25-150 µg/mL) would reduce the lipid synthesis in HepG2 hepatocytes as well as lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hepatocytes' intracellular triglycerides and cholesterol were decreased in the PX 150 µg/mL treatment group compared to the control (p<0.05). Consequently, de novo lipogenic proteins; acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, elongase of very long chain fatty acids 6, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, were significantly decreased in hepatocytes by PX 150 µg/mL treatment compared to the control (p<0...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867301/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-as-a-nexus-of-metabolic-and-hepatic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Varman T Samuel, Gerald I Shulman
NAFLD is closely linked with hepatic insulin resistance. Accumulation of hepatic diacylglycerol activates PKC-ε, impairing insulin receptor activation and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis. Peripheral insulin resistance indirectly influences hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by increasing flux of substrates that promote lipogenesis (glucose and fatty acids) and gluconeogenesis (glycerol and fatty acid-derived acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator of pyruvate carboxylase). Weight loss with diet or bariatric surgery effectively treats NAFLD, but drugs specifically approved for NAFLD are not available...
August 29, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867186/dietary-%C3%AE-conglycinin-prevents-acute-ethanol-induced-fatty-liver-in-mice
#16
Reina Ikaga, Dongyang Li, Tomomi Yamazaki
Alcoholic fatty liver is the earliest stage of alcohol-induced liver disease leading to liver cirrhosis. β-Conglycinin, one of the soy proteins, is known to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Therefore, we examined whether β-conglycinin feeding has an effect on the prevention of acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with 20 energy% β-conglycinin or casein for 4 weeks prior to ethanol administration and were then given ethanol or glucose, as a control, by gavage...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866102/liver-steatosis-in-hypothalamic-obese-rats-improves-after-duodeno-jejunal-bypass-by-reduction-in-de-novo-lipogenesis-pathway
#17
Gabriela Moreira Soares, Kathia Regina Cantelli, Sandra Lucinei Balbo, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Ana Claudia Paiva Alegre-Maller, Helena Cristina Barbosa-Sampaio, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Allan Cezar Faria Araújo, Maria Lúcia Bonfleur
AIMS: Hypothalamic obesity is a severe condition without any effective therapy. Bariatric operations appear as an alternative treatment, but the effects of this procedure are controversial. We, herein, investigated the effects of duodeno-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery upon the lipid profile and expression of genes and proteins, involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, in hypothalamic obese (HyO) rats. METHODS: During the first 5days of life, male newborn Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate [4g/kg body weight, HyO group] or saline (control, CTL group)...
November 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855145/age-dependent-changes-in-nervonic-acid-containing-sphingolipids-in-mouse-hippocampus
#18
Valentina Vozella, Abdul Basit, Alessandra Misto, Daniele Piomelli
Sphingolipids have been implicated in age-related neurodegeneration. Previous studies have reported elevated ceramide levels in the brain of old rodents, but a systematic investigation of the impact of age on brain sphingolipid metabolism is still lacking. Here we quantified 17 key sphingolipid species in the hippocampus of young (3months), middle-aged (12months) and old (21months) male and female mice. Lipids were extracted and quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; transcription of enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis was evaluated by qPCR...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851735/oleate-increases-srebp-1-signaling-activity-in-scd1-deficient-hepatocytes
#19
Mohamed A Lounis, Karl-F Bergeron, Maggie S Burhans, James M Ntambi, Catherine Mounier
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is a key player in lipid metabolism. SCD1 catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). MUFA are then incorporated into triacylglycerols and phospholipids. Previous studies have shown that Scd1 deficiency in mice induces metabolic changes in the liver characterized by a decrease in de novo lipogenesis and an increase in β-oxidation. Interestingly, Scd1 deficient mice show a decrease in the expression and maturation of the principal lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803985/mir-199a-3p-affects-adipocytes-differentiation-and-fatty-acid-composition-through-targeting-scd
#20
Zhendong Tan, Jingjing Du, Linyuan Shen, Chendong Liu, Jideng Ma, Lin Bai, Yanzhi Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Mingzhou Li, Xuewei Li, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
Body fat mass is closely associated to diseases related to obesity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) are important regulatory molecules that function as post-transcriptional gene regulators of adipocyte development. In the current study, we revealed that reduced expression of miR-199a-3p in adipose tissue resulting from high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. Overexpression of miR-199a-3p promoted adipocyte proliferation by regulating the expression of regulating factors of the cell cycle. Furthermore, miR-199a-3p blunted lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
October 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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