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stearoyl desaturase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203476/ucp1-deficiency-increases-adipose-tissue-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis-and-trafficking-to-the-liver
#1
Laura M Bond, James M Ntambi
Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) facilitates thermogenesis in brown and beige adipocytes and can promote energy expenditure by decreasing mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Defects in UCP1 and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis subject animals to chronic cold stress and elicit compensatory responses to generate heat. How UCP1 regulates white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid biology and tissue crosstalk is not completely understood. Here, we probe the effect of UCP1 deficiency on fatty acid metabolism in inguinal and epididymal WAT and investigate how these metabolic perturbations influence hepatic lipid homeostasis...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181403/gosb-inhibits-triacylglycerol-synthesis-and-promotes-cell-survival-in-mouse-mammary-epithelial-cells
#2
Gaoxiao Xu, Saixing Duan, Jianye Hou, Zhongxin Wei, Guangwei Zhao
It has been demonstrated that the activator protein related transcription factor Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma B (GosB) is involved in preadipocyte differentiation and triacylglycerol synthesis. However, the role of GosB in regulating the synthesis of milk fatty acid in mouse mammary glands remains unclear. This research uncovered potentially new roles of GosB in suppressing milk fatty acid synthesis. Results revealed that GosB had the highest expression in lung tissue and showed a higher expression level during nonlactation than during lactation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173222/maternal-conjugated-linoleic-acid-modulates-tag-metabolism-in-adult-rat-offspring
#3
Jimena Lavandera, Carolina D Gerstner, Juliana Saín, Ana C Fariña, Marcela A González, Claudio A Bernal
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) might regulate the lipid depots in liver and adipose tissue. As there is an association between maternal nutrition, fat depots and risk of offspring chronic disease, the aim was to investigate the effect of maternal CLA consumption on TAG regulation and some inflammatory parameters in adult male rat offspring receiving or not receiving CLA. Female Wistar rats were fed control (C) or CLA-supplemented (1 %, w/w) diets during 4 weeks before and throughout pregnancy and lactation...
November 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165897/lithospermum-erythrorhizon-root-and-its-naphthoquinones-repress-srebp1c-and-activate-pgc1%C3%AE-through-ampk%C3%AE
#4
Rodney A Velliquette, Arun Rajgopal, John Rebhun, Kelly Glynn
OBJECTIVE: To examine specific molecular mechanisms involved in modulating hepatic lipogenesis and mitochondria biogenesis signals by Lithospermum erythrorhizon (gromwell) root extract. METHODS: Stable cell lines with luciferase reporter constructs were generated to examine sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 (PGC1) α promoter activity and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) α response element activity...
November 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159325/role-of-aramchol-in-steatohepatitis-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#5
Marta Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta Varela-Rey, David Fernández-Ramos, Ibon Martínez-Arranz, Teresa C Delgado, Jorge Simon, Virginia Gutiérrez-de Juan, Laura delaCruz-Villar, Mikel Azkargorta, José L Lavin, Rebeca Mayo, Sebastiaan M Van Liempd, Igor Aurrekoetxea, Xabier Buqué, Donatella Delle Cave, Arantza Peña, Juan Rodríguez-Cuesta, Ana M Aransay, Felix Elortza, Juan M Falcón-Pérez, Patricia Aspichueta, Liat Hayardeny, Mazen Noureddin, Arun J Sanyal, Cristina Alonso, Juan Anguita, María Luz Martínez-Chantar, Shelly C Lu, José M Mato
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the advanced form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which sets the stage for further liver damage. The mechanism for the progression of NASH involves multiple parallel hits including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and others. Manipulation of any of these pathways may be an approach to prevent NASH development and progression. Aramchol (arachidyl-amido cholanoic acid) is presently in a phase IIb NASH study. The aim of this study was to investigate Aramchol's mechanism of action and its effect on fibrosis using the methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet model of NASH...
November 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156529/alpinetin-improved-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-through-improving-oxidative-stress-inflammatory-response-and-lipid-metabolism
#6
Yong Zhou, Yin-Lu Ding, Jian-Liang Zhang, Peng Zhang, Jin-Qing Wang, Zhao-Hua Li
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious medical problem and an increasing threat to public health. It is characterized by the abnormal fat accumulation in liver without excessive alcohol intake. The concurrent NAFLD might up-regulate the risk of chronic kidney disease as well as the mortality rate. Though various drugs have been investigated to attenuate NAFLD, further study is still necessary to find new therapeutic strategy and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. In the present study, NAFLD animal models were induced by feeding with high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154485/epistatic-effects-between-pairs-of-the-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-1a-growth-hormone-growth-hormone-receptor-non-smc-condensin-i-complex-subunit-g-and-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-genes-on-carcass-price-related-and-fatty-acid-composition-traits-in-japanese
#7
Masanori Komatsu, Kagetomo Nishino, Yuki Fujimori, Yasutoshi Haga, Nagako Iwama, Aisaku Arakawa, Yoshito Aihara, Hisato Takeda, Hideaki Takahashi
Growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), are known to play important roles in growth and lipid metabolisms. Single and epistatic effects of the five genes on carcass, price-related and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in a commercial Japanese Black cattle population of Ibaraki Prefecture. A total of 650 steers and 116 heifers for carcass and price-related traits, and 158 steers for FA composition traits were used in this study...
November 20, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122042/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-fails-to-overcome-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-cla-inhibition-of-milk-fat-in-dairy-sheep
#8
E C Sandri, M Camêra, E M Sandri, K J Harvatine, D E De Oliveira
The trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes milk fat depression by downregulating expression of genes and transcription factors involved in lipogenesis and it has been proposed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) can be inhibited by trans-10, cis-12 CLA. The PPARγ is a nuclear receptor activated by natural or synthetic ligands and promotes expression of lipogenic genes and its effect on mammary lipogenesis and the interaction with trans-10, cis-12 CLA in lactating ewes was evaluated using thiazolidinedione (TZD), a chemical PPARγ agonist...
November 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121115/the-response-of-gene-expression-associated-with-lipid-metabolism-fat-deposition-and-fatty-acid-profile-in-the-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-of-gannan-yaks-to-different-energy-levels-of-diets
#9
Chao Yang, Jianbin Liu, Xiaoyun Wu, Pengjia Bao, Ruijun Long, Xian Guo, Xuezhi Ding, Ping Yan
The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.3 ± 3.14 kg were analyzed for intramuscular adipose deposition and fatty acid composition. The animals were divided into three groups and fed low-energy (LE: 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117333/oleic-acid-stimulation-of-motility-of-human-extravillous-trophoblast-cells-is-mediated-by-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-activity
#10
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
STUDY QUESTION: Do fatty acids regulate development and motility of human extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oleic acid is a promising lipid molecule that has beneficial effects on motility and development of human EVTs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fatty acid uptake into trophoblast cells is important for maintaining cellular events during pregnancy, but the molecular mechanisms of action of various fatty acids, including trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, in EVT cell lines are not clear...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089222/insights-into-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-regulation-of-systemic-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Ahmed M ALJohani, Deeba N Syed, James M Ntambi
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a central regulator of fuel metabolism and may represent a therapeutic target to control obesity and the progression of related metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and hepatic steatosis. SCD1 catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), mainly oleate and palmitoleate, which are important in controlling weight gain in response to feeding high carbohydrate diets. In this review, we evaluate the role of SCD1 isoform in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in metabolic tissues...
October 28, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082420/substrate-specificity-and-membrane-topologies-of-the-iron-containing-%C3%AF-3-and-%C3%AF-6-desaturases-from-mortierella-alpina
#12
Mingxuan Wang, Haiqin Chen, Aisikaer Ailati, Wei Chen, Floyd H Chilton, W Todd Lowther, Yong Q Chen
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential lipids for cell function, normal growth, and development, serving as key structural components of biological membranes and modulating critical signal transduction events. Omega-3 (n-3) long chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to protect against inflammatory diseases and enhance brain development and function. This had led to a marked increase in demand for fish and fish oils in human diets, supplements, and aquaculture and created a need for new, sustainable n-3 LC-PUFA sources...
October 30, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080057/sex-differences-in-blood-hdl-c-the-total-cholesterol-hdl-c-ratio-and-palmitoleic-acid-are-not-associated-with-variants-in-common-candidate-genes
#13
Shannon L Klingel, Kaitlin Roke, Bertha Hidalgo, Stella Aslibekyan, Robert J Straka, Ping An, Michael A Province, Paul N Hopkins, Donna K Arnett, Jose M Ordovas, Chao-Qiang Lai, David M Mutch
Blood lipids are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Moreover, circulating lipid and fatty acid levels vary between men and women, and evidence demonstrates these traits may be influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Sex-genotype interactions related to blood lipids and fatty acids have been poorly investigated and may help elucidate sex differences in CVD risk. The goal of this study was to investigate if the influence of SNPs previously associated with blood lipids and fatty acids varies in a sex-specific manner...
December 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074607/targeting-the-metabolic-axis-acsl-scd-in-colorectal-cancer-progression-by-therapeutic-mirnas-mir-19b-1-role
#14
Silvia Cruz-Gil, Ruth Sanchez-Martinez, Marta Gomez de Cedron, Roberto Martin-Hernandez, Teodoro Vargas, Susana Molina, Jesus Herranz, Alberto Davalos, Guillermo Reglero, Ana Ramirez de Molina
Abnormal acyl-CoA synthetase/ stearoyl-CoA desaturase (ACSL/SCD) lipid network fuels colon cancer progression endowing cells with invasive and migratory properties. Therapies against this metabolic network may be useful to improve clinical outcomes. Since miRNAs (miRNAs/miR) are important epigenetic regulators, we investigated novel miRNAs targeting this pro-tumorigenic axis; and hence to be used both as therapeutic or prognostic miRNAs. Thirty-one putative common miRNAs were predicted to target simultaneously the three enzymes comprising ACSL/SCD network...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074588/glp-1-elicits-an-intrinsic-gut-liver-metabolic-signal-to-ameliorate-diet-induced-vldl-overproduction-and-insulin-resistance
#15
Rituraj Khound, Jennifer Taher, Chris Baker, Khosrow Adeli, Qiaozhu Su
OBJECTIVE: Perturbations in hepatic lipid and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and hepatic insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to delineate the mechanism of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in preventing obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. APPROACH AND RESULTS: By subjecting the complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomized mice to various nutritional conditions and investigating hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathway, we found that complete disruption of subdiaphragmatic vagal signaling resulted in a significant decrease of circulating VLDL-triglyceride compared with the mice obtained sham procedure...
October 26, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043214/vitamin-a-improves-hyperglycemia-and-glucose-intolerance-through-regulation-of-intracellular-signaling-pathways-and-glycogen-synthesis-in-wnin-gr-ob-obese-rat-model
#16
Shanmugam M Jeyakumar, Alex Sheril, Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari
Vitamin A and its metabolites modulate insulin resistance and regulate stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), which are also known to affect insulin resistance. Here, we tested, whether vitamin A-mediated changes in insulin resistance markers are associated with SCD1 regulation or not. For this purpose, 30-week old male lean and glucose-intolerant obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain were given either a stock or vitamin A-enriched diet, i.e. 2.6 mg or 129 mg vitamin A/kg diet, for 14 weeks. Compared to the stock diet, vitamin A-enriched diet feeding improved hyperglycemia and glucose-clearance rate in obese rats and no such changes were seen in lean rats receiving identical diets...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037332/dihydrosterculic-acid-from-cottonseed-oil-suppresses-desaturase-activity-and-improves-liver-metabolomic-profiles-of-high-fat-fed-mice
#17
Chad M Paton, Roger A Vaughan, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Fariba Assadi-Porter, Michael K Dowd
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diets are thought to provide beneficial effects toward metabolic health in part through their bioactive properties. We hypothesized that increasing PUFA intake in mice would increase peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARδ) expression and activity, and we sought to examine the effect of different PUFA-enriched oils on muscle PPARδ expression. One of the oils we tested was cottonseed oil (CSO) which is primarily linoleic acid (53%) and palmitic acid (24%)...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982014/the-role-of-suppression-of-hepatic-scd1-expression-in-the-metabolic-effects-of-dietary-methionine-restriction
#18
Laura A Forney, Kirsten P Stone, Desiree Wanders, James M Ntambi, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) produces concurrent increases in energy intake and expenditure, but the proportionately larger increase in energy expenditure (EE) effectively limits weight gain and adipose tissue accretion over time. Increased hepatic FGF21 is essential to MR-dependent increases in EE, but it is unknown whether the downregulation of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) by MR could also be a contributing factor. Global deletion of SCD1 mimics cold exposure in mice housed at 23°C by compromising the insular properties of the skin...
October 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980402/is-palmitoleic-acid-a-plausible-non-pharmacological-strategy-to-prevent-or-control-chronic-metabolic-and-inflammatory-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Camila O Souza, Gretchen K Vannice, José C Rosa Neto, Philip C Calder
Although dietary fatty acids can modulate metabolic and immune responses, the effects of palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) remain unclear. Since this monounsaturated fatty acid was described as a lipokine, studies with cell culture and rodent models have suggested it enhances whole body insulin sensitivity, stimulates insulin secretion by β-cells, increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation, improves the blood lipid profile, and alters macrophage differentiation. However, human studies report elevated blood levels of palmitoleic acid in people with obesity and metabolic syndrome...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972163/an-n-terminal-di-proline-motif-is-essential-for-fatty-acid-dependent-degradation-of-%C3%AE-9-desaturase-in-drosophila
#20
Akira Murakami, Kohjiro Nagao, Naoto Juni, Yuji Hara, Masato Umeda
Δ9-fatty acid desaturase introduces a double bond at the Δ9 position of the acyl moiety of acyl-CoA and regulates the cellular levels of unsaturated fatty acids. However, it is unclear how Δ9-desaturase expression is regulated in response to changes in the levels of fatty acid desaturation. In this study, we found that the degradation of DESAT1, the sole Δ9-desaturase in Drosophila cell line S2, was significantly enhanced when the amounts of unsaturated acyl chains of membrane phospholipids were increased by supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acids...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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