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stearoyl desaturase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914036/prolactin-regulatory-element-binding-protein-is-involved-in-suppression-of-the-adiponectin-gene-in-vivo
#1
X Z Zhang, H Imachi, J Y Lyu, K Fukunaga, S Sato, T Ibata, T Kobayashi, T Yoshimoto, F Kikuchi, T Dong, K Murao
PURPOSE: Prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB), a member of the WD-repeat protein family, has been recognized as a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin promoter activity in the anterior pituitary of rats. PREB is expressed not only in the pituitary but also in various other tissues, including the adipose tissue. Previous studies have shown that PREB acts as a transcriptional regulator and suppresses the expression of the adiponectin gene in cultured 3T3L1 preadipocytes...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909554/high-maysin-corn-silk-extract-reduces-body-weight-and-fat-deposition-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-high-fat-diets
#2
Eun Young Lee, Sun Lim Kim, Hyeon Jung Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES: The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907035/exendin-4-inhibits-hepatic-lipogenesis-by-increasing-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#3
Mi Hae Seo, Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Eun-Jung Rhee, Se Eun Park, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Won-Young Lee
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the beneficial effect of exendin-4 on hepatic steatosis is mediated by β-catenin signaling. After the HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with PA for 24 hours, total triglycerides levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression levels of perilipin family members were upregulated in cells treated with 400 μM PA. For our in vitro model of hepatic steatosis, HepG2 cells were treated with 400 μM palmitic acid (PA) in the presence or absence of 100 nM exendin-4 for 24 hours...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903410/long-chain-n-3-pufa-supplied-by-the-usual-diet-decrease-plasma-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-index-in-non-hypertriglyceridemic-older-adults-at-high-vascular-risk
#4
Ana M Pérez-Heras, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Montserrat Cofán, Mercè Serra-Mir, Ana I Castellote, Carmen López-Sabater, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel-Ángel Martínez-González, Dolores Corella, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored. METHODS: We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893688/identification-of-genes-and-signaling-pathways-associated-with-diabetic-neuropathy-using-a-weighted-correlation-network-analysis-a-consort-study
#5
Ya Li, Weiguo Ma, Chuanqing Xie, Min Zhang, Xiaohong Yin, Fenfen Wang, Jie Xu, Bingyin Shi
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms behind diabetic neuropathy remains to be investigated. METHODS: This is a secondary study on microarray dataset (GSE24290) downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which included 18 nerve tissue samples of progressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≥500 fibers/mm) and 17 nerve tissue samples of nonprogressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≤100 fibers/mm)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881438/ole1-fatty-acid-desaturase-is-required-for-atg9-delivery-and-isolation-membrane-expansion-during-autophagy-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Yuta Ogasawara, Shintaro Kira, Yukio Mukai, Takeshi Noda, Akitsugu Yamamoto
Macroautophagy, a major degradation pathway of cytoplasmic components, is carried out through formation of a double-membrane structure, the autophagosome. Although the involvement of specific lipid species in the formation process remains largely obscure, we recently showed that mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) generated by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) are required for autophagosome formation in mammalian cells. To obtain further insight into the role of MUFA in autophagy, in this study we analyzed the autophagic phenotypes of the yeast mutant of OLE1, an orthologue of SCD1...
November 23, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866151/genotyping-by-sequencing-based-investigation-of-the-genetic-architecture-responsible-for-a-7-fold-increase-in-soybean-seed-stearic-acid
#7
Crystal B Heim, Jason D Gillman
Soybean oil is highly unsaturated but oxidatively unstable, rendering it non-ideal for food applications. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation, which produces trans fats as an unavoidable consequence. Dietary intake of trans fats and most saturated fats are conclusively linked to negative impacts on cholesterol levels and cardiovascular health. Two major soybean oil breeding targets are : 1) to reduce or eliminate the need for chemical hydrogenation, and 2) to replace the functional properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil...
November 18, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865506/synthesis-of-the-suspected-trans-11-cis-13-conjugated-linoleic-acid-isomer-in-ruminant-mammary-tissue-by-fads3-catalyzed-%C3%AE-13-desaturation-of-vaccenic-acid
#8
Cyrielle Garcia, Cécile Duby, Daniel Catheline, Pablo G Toral, Laurence Bernard, Philippe Legrand, Vincent Rioux
The octadecadienoic conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer with trans-11 and cis-13 double bonds (trans-11,cis-13 CLA) has been described in ruminant milk. For now, this specific CLA is suspected to derive exclusively from ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary α-linolenic acid. However, in rodents, the fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3) gene was recently shown to code for an enzyme able to catalyze the unexpected Δ13-desaturation of vaccenic acid, producing a Δ11,13-CLA with all the structural characteristics of the trans-11,cis-13 isomer, although no commercial standard exists for complete conclusive identification...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861513/high-expression-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Jianfeng Wang, Yunze Xu, Liangsong Zhu, Yun Zou, Wen Kong, Baijun Dong, Jiwei Huang, Yonghui Chen, Wei Xue, Yiran Huang, Jin Zhang
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids, have been gradually recognized as a potential therapeutic target for various malignancies, particularly in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the prognostic value of SCD1 in ccRCC is still unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of SCD1 expression in patients with ccRCC. SCD1 expression in tumor tissues obtained from 359 patients who underwent nephrectomy for ccRCC are retrospectively assessed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855314/alterations-of-gene-expression-indicating-effects-on-estrogen-signaling-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-seabream-hepatocytes-exposed-to-extracts-of-seawater-sampled-from-a-coastal-area-of-the-central-adriatic-sea-italy
#10
Paolo Cocci, Martina Capriotti, Gilberto Mosconi, Alessandra Campanelli, Emanuela Frapiccini, Mauro Marini, Giovanni Caprioli, Gianni Sagratini, Graziano Aretusi, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
Recent evidences suggest that the toxicological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) involve multiple nuclear receptor-mediated pathways, including estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling systems. Thus, our objective in this study was to detect the summated endocrine effects of EDCs with metabolic activity in coastal waters of the central Adriatic Sea by means of a toxicogenomic approach using seabream hepatocytes. Gene expression patterns were also correlated with seawater levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
November 2, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846372/loss-of-ulk1-increases-rps6kb1-ncor1-repression-of-nr1h-lxr-mediated-scd1-transcription-and-augments-lipotoxicity-in-hepatic-cells
#11
Rohit Anthony Sinha, Brijesh K Singh, Jin Zhou, Sherwin Xie, Benjamin L Farah, Ronny Lesmana, Kenji Ohba, Madhulika Tripathi, Sujoy Ghosh, Anthony N Hollenberg, Paul M Yen
Lipotoxicity caused by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) induces tissue damage and inflammation in metabolic disorders. SCD1 (stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1) converts SFAs to mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) that are incorporated into triglycerides and stored in lipid droplets. SCD1 thus helps protect hepatocytes from lipotoxicity and its reduced expression is associated with increased lipotoxic injury in cultured hepatic cells and mouse models. To further understand the role of SCD1 in lipotoxicity, we examined the regulation of Scd1 in hepatic cells treated with palmitate, and found that NR1H/LXR (nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H) ligand, GW3965, induced Scd1 expression and lipid droplet formation to improve cell survival...
November 15, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834856/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-protects-cells-against-lipotoxicity-mediated-apoptosis-in-proximal-tubular-cells
#12
Tamaki Iwai, Shinji Kume, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Shogo Kuwagata, Hisazumi Araki, Naoko Takeda, Takeshi Sugaya, Takashi Uzu, Hiroshi Maegawa, Shin-Ichi Araki
Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), whose expression level significantly decreased in the kidneys of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-diabetic mice...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810341/diosgenin-ameliorates-gestational-diabetes-through-inhibition-of-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1
#13
Shaofang Hua, Yueqin Li, Lijun Su, Xiajun Liu
Gestational diabetes (GD) is a pathological condition, affecting 2-5% of pregnant women. Diosgenin (DSG) possesses a variety of biological activities. The present study was designed to examine the effect of DSG on GD and to investigate the possible mechanism in C57BL/KsJ-Lep(db/+) (db/+) mice. We found that DSG could remarkably ameliorated GD in pregnant db/+ mice, as reflected by the improvement of glucose and insulin intolerance, and the decrease of fasting blood glucose and insulin level and the increase of hepatic glycogen content...
October 31, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801862/liver-fatty-acid-composition-and-inflammation-in-mice-fed-with-high-carbohydrate-diet-or-high-fat-diet
#14
Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi, Marina Masetto Antunes, Silvana Martins Caparroz-Assef, Fabiana Carbonera, Laureane Nunes Masi, Rui Curi, Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer, Roberto Barbosa Bazotte
Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA) composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets), and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), ∆-6 desaturase (D6D), elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated...
October 29, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796643/identification-of-candidate-genes-from-the-sad-gene-family-in-cotton-for-determination-of-cottonseed-oil-composition
#15
Xiaoguang Shang, Chaoze Cheng, Jian Ding, Wangzhen Guo
Cotton is an economically important crop grown for natural fiber and seed oil production. Cottonseed oil ranks third after soybean oil and colza oil in terms of edible oilseed tonnage worldwide. The fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil determines its industrial application and nutritional values. However, little progress has been made in understanding cottonseed oil biogenesis. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), the only known enzyme to convert saturated fatty acids into unsaturated fatty acids in plants, plays key roles in determining the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794582/plasma-phosphatidylcholines-fatty-acids-in-men-with-squamous-cell-esophageal-cancer-chemoradiotherapy-improves-abnormal-profile
#16
Milada Zemanova, Marek Vecka, Luboš Petruželka, Barbora Staňková, Aleš Žák, Miroslav Zeman
BACKGROUND Abnormal metabolism of fatty acids (FA) is considered to play a role in human cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC). Nevertheless, there have been only a few studies dealing with the influence of the chemotherapy or radiotherapy on the plasma FA profiles. In this work we compared FA in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) of the patients with squamous EC and healthy subjects and investigated changes in the FA spectrum during neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-two men with squamous EC were compared with age-matched healthy controls...
October 30, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788147/exploring-the-lean-phenotype-of-glutathione-depleted-mice-thiol-amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-profiles
#17
Amany K Elshorbagy, Fredrik Jernerén, Cheryl L Scudamore, Fiona McMurray, Heather Cater, Tertius Hough, Roger Cox, Helga Refsum
BACKGROUND: Although reduced glutathione (rGSH) is decreased in obese mice and humans, block of GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) results in a lean, insulin-sensitive phenotype. Data is lacking about the effect of BSO on GSH precursors, cysteine and glutamate. Plasma total cysteine (tCys) is positively associated with stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) activity and adiposity in humans and animal models. OBJECTIVE: To explore the phenotype, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in BSO-treated mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784428/-effect-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-2%C3%AE-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-pathway-on-biological-behaviors-of-hepatoma-cells-induced-by-hypoxia
#18
X Q Yu, C Cai, X Du, W Shen
Objective: To investigate whether hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) affects the biological behaviors of hepatoma cells through regulating stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in a hypoxic environment. Methods: HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells were exposed to 1% O2 to establish the hypoxic models. After hepatoma cells were stimulated by hypoxia for 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of HIF-2α and SCD1 over time. HIF-2α interfering plasmids and SCD1 inhibitor CAY10566 were used to divide the cells into blank group (nomoxia), hypoxic group (1% O2 for 12 h), hypoxic negative control group (negative HIF-2α plasmid+1% O2 for 12 h), hypoxic interference group (HIF-2α interfering plasmid+1% O2 for 12 h), hypoxic CAY group (CAY10566 10 μmol+1% O2 for 12 h), and hypoxic interference+CAY group (HIF-2α interfering plasmid+CAY10566 10 μmol+1% O2 for 12 h)...
July 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770858/mechanism-and-aquaculture-application-of-teleost-enzymes-adapted-at-low-temperature
#19
C-L Wu, B-Y Li, J-L Wu, C-F Hui
Environment temperature highly influences the physiological condition of poikilothermic teleost. There are different physiological and biochemical responses between fish in different habitats. In order to take profit of fish adapted to different temperatures, some important enzymes have been isolated, assayed, and analyzed. Enzyme expression patterns and properties were evaluated in lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase studies. In this chapter, we try to identify the mechanisms of enzyme activity at low temperature by comparing different studies on enzyme kinetics and regulation...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768909/high-fructose-corn-syrup-55-consumption-alters-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-and-promotes-triglyceride-accumulation
#20
Kaitlin Mock, Sundus Lateef, Vagner A Benedito, Janet C Tou
High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been suggested to be more lipogenic than sucrose, which increases the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia. The study objectives were to determine the effects of drinking different sugar-sweetened solutions on hepatic gene expression in relation to liver fatty acid composition and risk of NAFLD. Female rats were randomly assigned (n=7 rats/group) to drink water or water sweetened with 13% (w/v) HFCS-55, sucrose or fructose for 8 weeks. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest (P=...
January 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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