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stearoyl desaturase

Lile Dong, Xu Han, Xufeng Tao, Lina Xu, Youwei Xu, Linlin Fang, Lianhong Yin, Yan Qi, Hua Li, Jinyong Peng
We previously reported the effects of the total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, there have been no papers reporting the role of R. laevigata TFs against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury. In this paper, liver injury in mice was induced by LPS, and R. Laevigata extract was intragastrically administered to the mice for 7 days. Biochemical parameters in serum and liver tissue were examined, and pathological changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Oil Red O staining...
June 8, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Linda Dunder, Margareta Halin Lejonklou, Lars Lind, Ulf Risérus, P Monica Lind
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor and also a suggested obesogen and metabolism-disrupting chemical. Accumulating data indicates that the fatty acid (FA) profile and their ratios in plasma and other metabolic tissues are associated with metabolic disorders. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) is a key regulator of lipid metabolism and its activity can be estimated by dividing the FA product by its precursor measured in blood or other tissues. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-dose developmental BPA exposure on tissue-specific FA composition including estimated SCD-1 activity, studied in 5- and 52-week (wk)-old Fischer 344 (F344) rat offspring...
June 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Meihua Lin, Duo Lv, Yunliang Zheng, Minglan Wu, Chang Xu, Qiao Zhang, Lihua Wu
Background: Cancer cells often have characteristic changes in metabolism. Besides Warburg effect, abnormal lipid metabolism is also considered as one of the most typical metabolic symbols of cancer. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of cell metabolic reprogramming may provide a potential avenue for cancer treatment. Materials and methods: In total, 41 pairs of matched samples of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues were collected...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Sarah E Winterton, Emanuela Capota, Xiaoyu Wang, Hong Chen, Prema L Mallipeddi, Noelle S Williams, Bruce A Posner, Deepak Nijhawan, Joseph M Ready
Stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids are required for membrane integrity and for cell proliferation. For these reasons, inhibitors of SCD represent potential treatments for cancer. However, systemically active SCD inhibitors result in skin toxicity, which presents an obstacle to their development. We recently described a series of oxalic acid diamides that are converted into active SCD inhibitors within a subset of cancers by CYP4F11-mediated metabolism...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sneha Sundaram, Petr Žáček, Michael R Bukowski, Aaron A Mehus, Lin Yan, Matthew J Picklo
Metabolic reprogramming of lipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Consumption of a high-fat obesogenic diet enhances spontaneous metastasis using a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) model. In order to gain further insights into the mechanisms by which dietary fats impact cancer progression, we conducted a lipidomic analysis of primary tumors originated from LLC from mice fed with a standard AIN93G diet or a soybean oil-based high-fat diet (HFD). Hierarchical clustering heatmap analysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids demonstrated an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-containing phospholipids and a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)-containing lipids in tumors from mice fed the HFD...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Cristiana Angelucci, Alessio D'Alessio, Fortunata Iacopino, Gabriella Proietti, Alba Di Leone, Riccardo Masetti, Gigliola Sica
The influence of cell membrane fluidity on cancer progression has been established in different solid tumors. We previously reported that "cancer-associated fibroblasts" (CAFs) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and increased cell membrane fluidity and migration in poorly (MCF-7) and highly invasive (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells. We also found that the membrane fluidity regulating enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) was upregulated in tumor cells co-cultured with CAFs and established its essential role for both intrinsic and CAF-driven tumor cell motility...
May 11, 2018: Oncotarget
Dan Peng, Bo Zhou, Yueqiao Jiang, XiaoFeng Tan, DeYi Yuan, Lin Zhang
Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. is an important woody oil tree and traditional herbal medicine in China. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) is a dehydrogenase enzyme that plays a key role in the transformation of saturated fatty acids into unsaturated fatty acids in oil; these fatty acids greatly influence the freezing tolerance of plants. However, it remains unclear whether freezing tolerance can be regulated by the expression level of SsSAD in S. sebiferum L. Our research indicated that SsSAD expression in S...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jun Inoue, Shingo Miyata, Makoto Shimizu, Ryuichiro Sato
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate a wide variety of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. In the present study, we identified that isoxanthohumol (IXN) suppressed SREBP activity. Low concentrations of IXN (10 and 30 μM) reduced the amount of mature forms of SREBPs, while high concentration of IXN (100 μM) reduced both precursor and mature forms of SREBPs in Huh-7 cells. The IXN-mediated decrease in the precursor forms of SREBPs in Huh-7 cells was completely abolished by culturing cells under sterol-supplemented conditions and was partly abolished by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, but not a lysosome inhibitor, NH4 Cl...
May 26, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Fei Wang, George L Tipoe, Changqing Yang, Amin A Nanji, Xiangfeng Hao, Kwok-Fai So, Jia Xiao
SCOPE: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is a water fraction of wolfberry, which has been demonstrated to possess hepatoprotective effect in several liver disease models. However, the anti-ALD (alcoholic liver disease) mechanism of LBP has not been investigated thoroughly. We sought to investigate the effect in both male and female mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chronic ethanol-fed ALD in vivo model was established to study the effect of LBP in both male and female mice...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
David Gamarra, Noelia Aldai, Aisaku Arakawa, Luis Javier R Barron, Andrés López-Oceja, Marian M de Pancorbo, Masaaki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: The fatty acid (FA) composition of adipose tissue influences the nutritional quality of meat products. The unsaturation level of FAs is determined by fatty acid desaturases such as stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCDs), which are under control of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). Differences in SCD genotype may thus confer variations in lipid metabolism and FA content among cattle breeds. This study investigated correlations between FA composition and lipogenic gene expression levels in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of beef cattle breeds of different gender from the Basque region of northern Spain...
May 23, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Farah Hanan Abu Hanifiah, Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah, Ashida Othman, Noor Azmi Shaharuddin, Halimi Mohd Saud, Hasnul Abdul Hakim Hasnulhadi, Umaiyal Munusamy
TAAAAT and a novel motif, GCTTCA found in the oil palm stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD1) promoter are involved in regulating mesocarp-specific expression. Two key fatty acid biosynthetic genes, stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD1), and acyl-carrier protein (ACP3) in Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) showed high level of expression during the period of oil synthesis in the mesocarp [12-19 weeks after anthesis (w.a.a.)] and kernel (12-15 w.a.a.). Both genes are expressed in spear leaves at much lower levels and the expression increased by 1...
May 22, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Zhong-Peng Guo, Julien Robin, Sophie Duquesne, Michael Joseph O'Donohue, Alain Marty, Florence Bordes
Background: Both industrial biotechnology and the use of cellulosic biomass as feedstock for the manufacture of various commercial goods are prominent features of the bioeconomy. In previous work, with the aim of developing a consolidated bioprocess for cellulose bioconversion, we conferred cellulolytic activity of Yarrowia lipolytica , one of the most widely studied "nonconventional" oleaginous yeast species. However, further engineering this strain often leads to the loss of previously introduced heterologous genes due to the presence of multiple LoxP sites when using Cre -recombinase to remove previously employed selection markers...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Etienne Audet-Walsh, Mathieu Vernier, Tracey Yee, Chloe E Laflamme, Susan Li, Yonghong Chen, Vincent Giguere
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is an important feature of prostate cancer (PCa), including altered lipid metabolism. Recently, it was observed that the nuclear fraction of mTOR is essential for the androgen-mediated metabolic reprogramming of PCa cells. Herein, it is demonstrated that the androgen receptor (AR) and mTOR bind to regulatory regions of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) to control its expression, while dual activation of these signaling pathways also promotes SREBF1 cleavage and its translocation to the nucleus...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Misato Nakano, Yutaka Suzuki, Satoshi Haga, Eri Yamauchi, Dahye Kim, Koki Nishihara, K Nakajima, Takafumi Gotoh, Seungju Park, Myunggi Baik, Kazuo Katoh, Sanggun Roh
Acute physiological adaptation of lipid metabolism during the postpartum transition period of cows facilitates peripheral metabolic regulation. Hepatokines, which are hormones secreted from hepatocytes, are presumed to play a critical role in systemic metabolic regulation. Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) has been identified as a novel hepatokine associated with circulating triglyceride concentrations in mice and humans. However, regulation of ANGPTL8 and its physiological effects are still unknown in cattle...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Fan Yang, Yanyan Dai, Cuiting Min, Xiaonan Li
Background: Postnatal overfeeding activates tissue glucocorticoid (GC) activity by up-regulating 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) and increasing sensitivity to high-fat (HF) diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of postnatal overfeeding on GC regulation and lipogenesis in the liver and to observe the impact of GC on hepatocyte lipid metabolism. Methods: In vivo , Male Sprague-Dawley rat pup litters were adjusted to litter sizes of three (small litter, SL) or ten (normal litter, NL) on postnatal day 3 and then given standard chow from postnatal week 3 (W3) to W13...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Bao-Long Wang, Chang-Wen Zhang, Liang Wang, Kun-Long Tang, Naoki Tanaka, Frank J Gonzalez, Yong Xu, Zhong-Ze Fang
1. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF MS)-based lipidomics was employ to elucidate new mechanism of alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in mice. 2. Multiple lipid components significantly increased in ANIT-induced intrahepatic cholestasis, including PC 16:0, 20:4, PC 16:0, 22:6, PC 16:0, 18:2, LPC 18:2, PC 18:2, LPC 18:1, PC 18:1, 14:0, SM 18:1, 16:0, oleoylcarnitine, and palmitoylcarnitine...
May 8, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
I G Pranger, D H van Raalte, M Brands, M H A Muskiet, I P Kema, M J Serlie, M Diamant, S J L Bakker, F A J Muskiet
Glucocorticoid treatment decreases liver insulin sensitivity and may modify fatty acid metabolism. We investigated the influence of oral prednisolone on indices for de novo lipogenesis (DNLi), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCDi) and Δ6-desaturase (D6Di) activity in healthy males. In addition, we explored whether the changes may be associated with prednisolone-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Thirty-two healthy young males (mean ± SD age 22 ± 3 years, BMI 22.4 ± 1...
May 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Alireza Mardomi, Mohammad Nouri, Laya Farzadi, Nosratollah Zarghami, Amir Mehdizadeh, Mehdi Yousefi, Dariush Shanebandi, Maghsod Shaaker, Masoud Darabi
Obtaining a better outcome in assisted reproductive technology remains to be attained. In the case of in vitro fertilization (IVF), oocyte maturity is paramount for achieving a successful pregnancy. Maternal serum supplementation of in vitro maturation (IVM) medium can increase the rate of oocyte IVM. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of whole and charcoal-stripped serum supplementation on IVM and the activity index of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) in cumulus cells enclosing the oocyte as a molecular indicator of oocyte quality...
April 27, 2018: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Ji-Hye Lee, Younghoon Go, Bonggi Lee, Youn-Hwan Hwang, Kwang Il Park, Won-Kyung Cho, Jin Yeul Ma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (G. sinensis) has been used in Oriental medicine for tumor, thrombosis, inflammation-related disease, and obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: The pharmacological inhibitory effects of fruits of G. sinensis (GFE) on hyperlipidemia have been reported, but its inhibitory effects on adipogenesis and underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Herein we evaluated the anti-adipogenic effects of GFE and described the underlying mechanisms...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yuji Iwata, Tsukasa Iida, Toshihiro Matsunami, Yu Yamada, Kei-Ichiro Mishiba, Takumi Ogawa, Tetsuya Kurata, Nozomu Koizumi
The unfolded protein response (UPR) occurs when protein folding and maturation are disturbed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During the UPR, a number of genes including those encoding ER-resident molecular chaperones are induced. In Arabidopsis, BiP3 has been used as a UPR marker gene whose expression is strongly induced in response to ER stress. In this study, we mutagenized Arabidopsis plants expressing β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under the control of BiP3 promoter and isolated a mutant that exhibits strong GUS activity without treatment with ER stress inducers...
June 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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