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stearoyl desaturase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184028/long-term-administration-of-tacrolimus-and-everolimus-prevents-high-cholesterol-high-fructose-induced-steatosis-in-c57bl-6j-mice-by-inhibiting-de-novo-lipogenesis
#1
Sharma Love, Malik A Mudasir, Subhash C Bhardwaj, Gurdarshan Singh, Sheikh A Tasduq
AIM: To investigate the effects of tacrolimus (TC) and everolimus (EV) on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced by high fat, high cholesterol and fructose (fast food) diet in C57BL/6J mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n=8). 1) Standard Chow (SC); 2) Fast food (FF) diet; 3) FF + Tacrolimus (TC, 1mg/kg) and; 4) FF + Everolimus (EV, 1mg/kg) and treated for 16 weeks. Serum and tissue samples were analyzed for evidence of inflammation, fibrosis, lipogenesis, and apoptosis...
February 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167804/mir-29a-modulates-scd-expression-and-is-regulated-in-response-to-a-saturated-fatty-acids-diet-in-juvenile-gift-oreochromis-niloticus
#2
Jun Qiang, Yi Fan Tao, Jie He, Yi Lan Sun, Pao Xu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate target gene expression by binding to the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the target mRNA. MiRNAs regulate a large variety of genes, including those involved in liver biology and disease. Here, we report for the first time that miR-29a post-transcriptionally regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) by binding to its 3'UTR in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT), Oreochromis niloticus, as shown by a 3'UTR luciferase reporter assay. miR-29a antagomir treatment in vivo resulted in significant up-regulation of SCD expression...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163317/embelin-attenuates-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis-through-activating-canonical-wnt-signaling-and-inhibits-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#3
Y Gao, J Li, X Xu, S Wang, Y Yang, J Zhou, L Zhang, F Zheng, X Li, B Wang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that Embelin, a natural plant extract might have the potential to prevent body weight gain in rats. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. METHODS: Effects of Embelin on adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis were studied in murine ST2 stromal cells and C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells. The mechanisms through which Embelin regulates adipogenic differentiation and lipogenesis were explored. The in vivo anti-obesity effects of Embelin in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice and possible transcriptional impact were investigated...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146130/effects-of-natural-products-on-fructose-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#4
REVIEW
Qian Chen, Tingting Wang, Jian Li, Sijian Wang, Feng Qiu, Haiyang Yu, Yi Zhang, Tao Wang
As a sugar additive, fructose is widely used in processed foods and beverages. Excessive fructose consumption can cause hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. Recent research revealed that fructose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to several pathological processes, including: (1) augmenting lipogenesis; (2) leading to mitochondrial dysfunction; (3) stimulating the activation of inflammatory pathways; and (4) causing insulin resistance...
January 31, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145413/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-a-novel-target-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-for-reducing-breast-cancer-risk-in-obese-postmenopausal-women
#5
A Manni, J P Richie, S E Schetter, A Calcagnotto, N Trushin, C Aliaga, K El-Bayoumy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Conversion of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids by the enzyme stearoyl-Co-A-desaturase (SCD-1) is emerging as a major factor in promoting carcinogenesis including breast cancer. The aim of our study was to explore the regulation of SCD-1 by Raloxifene and omega-3 fatty acids in women at increased risk of breast cancer based on high breast density. SUBJECTS/METHODS: As a reflection of SCD-1 activity, we measured the ratios of palmitoleic acid (C16:1n7) to palmitic acid (C16:0) (SCD-16) and oleic acid (C18:1n9) to steric acid (C18:0) (SCD-18) in plasma samples of postmenopausal women enrolled in our clinical trial (NCT00723398) designed to test the effects of the antiestrogen, Raloxifene and/or the omega-3 preparation Lovaza, on breast density, a validated biomarker of breast cancer risk...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143772/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-promotes-liver-fibrosis-and-tumor-development-in-mice-via-wnt-signaling-and-stabilization-of-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-proteins-5-and-6
#6
Keane K Y Lai, Soo-Mi Kweon, Feng Chi, Edward Hwang, Yasuaki Kabe, Reiichi Higashiyama, Lan Qin, Rui Yan, Raymond P Wu, Naoaki Fujii, Samuel French, Jun Xu, Jian-Ying Wang, Ramanchadran Murali, Lopa Mishra, Ju-Seog Lee, James M Ntambi, Hidekazu Tsukamoto
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) synthesizes monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and has been associated with development of metabolic syndrome, tumorigenesis, and stem cell characteristics. We investigated whether and how SCD promotes liver fibrosis and tumor development in mice. METHODS: Rodent primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), mouse liver tumor-initiating stem cell-like cells (TICs), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines were exposed to Wnt signaling inhibitors and changes in gene expression patterns were analyzed...
January 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125662/serum-fatty-acids-desaturase-activities-and-abdominal-obesity-a-population-based-study-of-60-year-old-men-and-women
#7
Zayed D Alsharari, Ulf Risérus, Karin Leander, Per Sjögren, Axel C Carlsson, Max Vikström, Federica Laguzzi, Bruna Gigante, Tommy Cederholm, Ulf De Faire, Mai-Lis Hellénius, Matti Marklund
Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096141/the-role-of-the-novel-lipokine-palmitoleic-acid-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
María E Frigolet, Ruth Gutiérrez-Aguilar
The monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleate (palmitoleic acid) is one of the most abundant fatty acids in serum and tissues, particularly adipose tissue and liver. Its endogenous production by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gives rise to its cis isoform, cis-palmitoleate. Although trans-palmitoleate is also synthesized in humans, it is mainly found as an exogenous source in ruminant fat and dairy products. Recently, palmitoleate was considered to be a lipokine based on evidence demonstrating its release from adipose tissue and its metabolic effects on distant organs...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081360/pinus-densiflora-bark-extract-pinexol-decreased-adiposity-in-mice-by-down-regulation-of-hepatic-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-white-adipose-tissue
#9
Hyemyoung Ahn, Gwang-Woong Go
PineXol, extracted from Korean red pine bark, has beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti3 inflammatory, and anti-lipogenic activities in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PineXol supplementation could have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat) or HFD (60% kcal from fat). HFD-fed animals were also subjected to PineXol treatment at a dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (PX10 or PX50, respectively) body weight...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070532/evaluation-of-scd-and-fasn-gene-expression-in-baluchi-iran-black-and-arman-sheep
#10
Salmani Izadi Mohammad, Naserian Abbas Ali, Nasiri Mohammad Reza, Majidzadeh Heravi Reza, Valizadeh Reza
BACKGROUND: With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in the diet is important because they are associated with major diseases including cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase) (SCD) genes affect fatty acid composition (1). The expression of SCD and FASN genes is related to an increase in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products, which benefits human health...
October 2016: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012856/increased-fndc5-irisin-expression-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Melania Gaggini, Manuela Cabiati, Serena Del Turco, Teresa Navarra, Paolo De Simone, Franco Filipponi, Silvia Del Ry, Amalia Gastaldelli, Giuseppina Basta
The fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)/Irisin, a novel energy-regulating hormone, is associated with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It is produced in low amounts by normal hepatic tissue, while in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in which aberrant de novo lipogenesis (DNL) occurs, the hepatic expression of FNDC5/Irisin is still unknown. The gene expression of FNDC5/Irisin, associated to key regulators of DNL, inflammation and cancer progression was evaluated in liver tissue of 18 patients with HCC undergoing liver transplantation and of 18 deceased donors...
February 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012026/role-of-cyclooxygenase-mediated-metabolites-in-lipid-metabolism-and-expression-of-some-immune-related-genes-in-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-fed-arachidonic-acid
#12
Jing-Jing Tian, Cai-Xia Lei, Hong Ji, Ai Jin
Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid (ARA) to prostaglandins, and COX-mediated metabolites play important roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and immunity in mammals. However, such roles of COX in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, we designed three semi-purified diets, namely ARA-free (control), ARA, and ARA + acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; a COX inhibitor), and used them to feed grass carp (27.65 ± 3.05 g) for 8 weeks. The results showed that dietary ARA significantly increased the amount of ARA in the hepatopancreas, muscle, and kidney (P < 0...
December 23, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992582/dietary-macronutrient-composition-directs-chrebp-isoform-expression-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice
#13
Tara Jois, Victor Howard, Kristina Youngs, Michael A Cowley, Mark W Sleeman
Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a lipogenic transcription factor that is thought to be involved in the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Increased ChREBP expression in liver results in increased hepatic steatosis, and the isoform ChREBPβ in adipose tissue can predict insulin sensitivity in obese humans. As ChREBP is activated by glucose, it was postulated that the composition of diet would regulate ChREBP isoform expression in metabolically relevant tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983643/genetic-marker-discovery-in-complex-traits-a-field-example-on-fat-content-and-composition-in-pigs
#14
REVIEW
Ramona Natacha Pena, Roger Ros-Freixedes, Marc Tor, Joan Estany
Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker (PCK1 c...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939244/effect-of-dietary-n-3-fatty-acids-supplementation-on-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-atorvastatin-administered-shr-cg-lepr-cp-ndmcr-rats-a-metabolic-syndrome-model
#15
Abdullah Al Mamun, Michio Hashimoto, Masanori Katakura, Yoko Tanabe, Satoru Tsuchikura, Shahdat Hossain, Osamu Shido
The effects of cholesterol-lowering statins, which substantially benefit future cardiovascular events, on fatty acid metabolism have remained largely obscured. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin on fatty acid metabolism together with the effects of TAK-085 containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester on atorvastatin-induced n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid lowering in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats, as a metabolic syndrome model...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914036/prolactin-regulatory-element-binding-protein-is-involved-in-suppression-of-the-adiponectin-gene-in-vivo
#16
X Z Zhang, H Imachi, J Y Lyu, K Fukunaga, S Sato, T Ibata, T Kobayashi, T Yoshimoto, F Kikuchi, T Dong, K Murao
PURPOSE: Prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB), a member of the WD-repeat protein family, has been recognized as a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin promoter activity in the anterior pituitary of rats. PREB is expressed not only in the pituitary but also in various other tissues, including the adipose tissue. Previous studies have shown that PREB acts as a transcriptional regulator and suppresses the expression of the adiponectin gene in cultured 3T3L1 preadipocytes...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909554/high-maysin-corn-silk-extract-reduces-body-weight-and-fat-deposition-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-high-fat-diets
#17
Eun Young Lee, Sun Lim Kim, Hyeon Jung Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES: The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907035/exendin-4-inhibits-hepatic-lipogenesis-by-increasing-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#18
Mi Hae Seo, Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Eun-Jung Rhee, Se Eun Park, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Won-Young Lee
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the beneficial effect of exendin-4 on hepatic steatosis is mediated by β-catenin signaling. After the HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with PA for 24 hours, total triglycerides levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression levels of perilipin family members were upregulated in cells treated with 400 μM PA. For our in vitro model of hepatic steatosis, HepG2 cells were treated with 400 μM palmitic acid (PA) in the presence or absence of 100 nM exendin-4 for 24 hours...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903410/long-chain-n-3-pufa-supplied-by-the-usual-diet-decrease-plasma-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-index-in-non-hypertriglyceridemic-older-adults-at-high-vascular-risk
#19
Ana M Pérez-Heras, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Montserrat Cofán, Mercè Serra-Mir, Ana I Castellote, Carmen López-Sabater, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel-Ángel Martínez-González, Dolores Corella, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored. METHODS: We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893688/identification-of-genes-and-signaling-pathways-associated-with-diabetic-neuropathy-using-a-weighted-correlation-network-analysis-a-consort-study
#20
Ya Li, Weiguo Ma, Chuanqing Xie, Min Zhang, Xiaohong Yin, Fenfen Wang, Jie Xu, Bingyin Shi
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms behind diabetic neuropathy remains to be investigated. METHODS: This is a secondary study on microarray dataset (GSE24290) downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which included 18 nerve tissue samples of progressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≥500 fibers/mm) and 17 nerve tissue samples of nonprogressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≤100 fibers/mm)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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