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stearoyl desaturase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454701/fatty-acid-elongase-5-elovl5-alters-the-synthesis-of-long-chain-unsaturated-fatty-acids-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#1
H B Shi, Y Du, C H Zhang, C Sun, Y L He, Y H Wu, J X Liu, J Luo, J J Loor
Increased production of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (LCUFA) can have a positive effect on the nutritional value of ruminant milk for human consumption. In nonruminant species, fatty acid elongase 5 (ELOVL5) is a key enzyme for endogenous synthesis of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. However, whether ELOVL5 protein plays a role (if any) in ruminant mammary tissue remains unclear. In the present study, we assessed the mRNA abundance of ELOVL5 at 3 stages of lactation in goat mammary tissue. Results revealed that ELOVL5 had the lowest expression at peak lactation compared with the nonlactating and late-lactating periods...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445137/metabolic-features-of-cancer-stem-cells-the-emerging-role-of-lipid-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Rita Mancini, Alessia Noto, Maria Elena Pisanu, Claudia De Vitis, Marcello Maugeri-Saccà, Gennaro Ciliberto
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are an uncommon subset of tumor cells capable of self-renewal, differentiating, and recreating the parental tumor when transplanted into the murine background. Over the past two decades, efforts toward understanding CSC biology culminated into identifying a set of signaling pathways sustaining "stemness". Nevertheless, while metabolic rewiring is nowadays considered a hallmark of cancer, no consensus has been reached on the metabolic features underlying the plastic nature of CSCs, which are capable of residing in a dormant state, and able to rapidly proliferate when the need to repopulate the tumor mass arises...
February 15, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431616/role-of-the-pregnane-x-receptor-in-binge-ethanol-induced-steatosis-and-hepatotoxicity
#3
Sora Choi, Afua A Gyamfi, Prince Neequaye, Samuel Addo, Frank J Gonzalez, Maxwell A Gyamfi
The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor that defends against toxic agents. We have shown that PXR promotes chronic ethanol (EtOH)-induced steatosis. Therefore, we examined the role of PXR in binge EtOH-induced hepatotoxicity. Male wild type (WT) and Pxr-null mice were orally administered three binge doses of EtOH (4.5 g/kg, every 12 hours) and euthanized four hours after the final dose. Pxr-null mice displayed higher basal mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (Srebp-1c) and its target stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) and the lipid peroxide detoxifying aldo-keto reductase 1b7 (Akr1b7) and higher protein levels of EtOH-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428005/effects-of-branched-chain-volatile-fatty-acids-on-lactation-performance-and-mrna-expression-of-genes-related-to-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-mammary-gland-of-dairy-cows
#4
Q Liu, C Wang, G Guo, W J Huo, S L Zhang, C X Pei, Y L Zhang, H Wang
Branched-chain volatile fatty acids (BCVFA) supplements could promote lactation performance and milk quality by improving ruminal fermentation and milk fatty acid synthesis. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of BCVFA supplementation on milk performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acid synthesis in mammary gland of dairy cows. A total of 36 multiparous Chinese Holstein cows averaging 606±4.7 kg of BW, 65±5.2 day in milk (DIM) with daily milk production of 30...
February 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416592/accelerated-bottom-up-drug-design-platform-enables-the-discovery-of-novel-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-inhibitors-for-cancer-therapy
#5
Christina A von Roemeling, Thomas R Caulfield, Laura Marlow, Ilah Bok, Jiang Wen, James L Miller, Robert Hughes, Lori Hazlehurst, Anthony B Pinkerton, Derek C Radisky, Han W Tun, Yon Son Betty Kim, Amy L Lane, John A Copland
Here we present an innovative computational-based drug discovery strategy, coupled with machine-based learning and functional assessment, for the rational design of novel small molecule inhibitors of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1). Our methods resulted in the discovery of several unique molecules, of which our lead compound SSI-4 demonstrates potent anti-tumor activity, with an excellent pharmacokinetic and toxicology profile. We improve upon key characteristics, including chemoinformatics and absorption/distribution/metabolism/excretion (ADME) toxicity, while driving the IC50 to 0...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409806/vitamin-a-deficiency-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-islet-cells-implications-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-mediated-oleic-acid-synthesis
#6
M Raja Gopal Reddy, S Mullapudi Venkata, U K Putcha, S M Jeyakumar
Previously, we reported that vitamin A deficiency resulted in the reduction of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels, which corroborated with attenuation of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. Here, we aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin A deficiency on SCD1, MUFA levels and their impact on pancreas' structure and functions. Male weanling Wistar rats fed one of the four diets, namely control (Con), vitamin A-deficient (VAD), highfructose (HFr) and vitamin A-deficient diet with highfructose (VADHFr) for 16 weeks period...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396722/increased-expression-of-the-gene-encoding-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-in-human-bladder-cancer
#7
M Presler, A Wojtczyk-Miaskowska, B Schlichtholz, A Kaluzny, M Matuszewski, A Mika, T Sledzinski, J Swierczynski
Bladder cancer is a common disease and a significant cause of death worldwide. There is thus great interest in identifying a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker, as well as gaining an understanding of the molecular basis of bladder cancer. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene (SCD1) is highly overexpressed in many human cancers. However, the expression of SCD1 has not yet been investigated in patients with bladder cancer. Here, we document that (a) the SCD1 is highly overexpressed in human bladder cancer; (b) high expression of SCD1 is more frequently observed in the late stage of disease and patients with lymph node metastasis; (c) bladder cancer patients with a higher SCD1 mRNA level have a poorer survival rate than those with normal SCD1 expression...
February 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381485/ire1%C3%AE-rnase-dependent-lipid-homeostasis-promotes-survival-in-myc-transformed-cancers
#8
Hong Xie, Chih-Hang Anthony Tang, Jun H Song, Anthony Mancuso, Juan R Del Valle, Jin Cao, Yan Xiang, Chi V Dang, Roy Lan, Danielle J Sanchez, Brian Keith, Chih-Chi Andrew Hu, M Celeste Simon
Myc activation is a primary oncogenic event in many human cancers; however, these transcription factors are difficult to inhibit pharmacologically, suggesting that Myc-dependent downstream effectors may be more tractable therapeutic targets. Here we show that Myc overexpression induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and engages the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway through multiple molecular mechanisms in a variety of c-Myc- and N-Myc-dependent cancers. In particular, Myc-overexpressing cells require IRE1α-XBP1 signaling for sustained growth and survival in vitro and in vivo, dependent on elevated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase 1 (SCD1) activity...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380937/sulforaphane-regulates-abnormal-lipid-metabolism-via-both-ers-dependent-xbp1-acc-scd1-and-ers-independent-srebp-fas-pathways
#9
Sicong Tian, Baolong Li, Peng Lei, Xiuli Yang, Xiaohong Zhang, Yongping Bao, Yujuan Shan
SCOPE: To investigate the effect of sulforaphane (SFN) on the abnormal lipid metabolism and underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Models with abnormal lipid metabolism were established both in rats and human hepatocytes. Hepatic steatosis was detected by H&E and oil red O staining. The structure of endoplasmic reticulum was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The expressions of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and lipogenic enzymes were determined by real-time PCR and western blot analysis...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378439/steroid-depleted-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-serum-promotes-in-vitro-oocyte-maturation-and-embryo-development
#10
Elham Eyvaznejad, Mohammad Nouri, Aliyeh Ghasemzadeh, Amir Mehdizadeh, Vahideh Shahnazi, Samira Asghari, Alireza Mardomi, Masoud Darabi
In vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes obtained from patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered as a novel strategy in order to reduce clinical side effects and cost of in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PCOS whole and steroid-depleted serums on in vitro oocyte maturation indices. Patients with PCOS were selected according to the Rotterdam criteria. Cumulus-oocyte complexes and blood serums were collected and pooled. Cumulus cells and immature oocytes were treated with 10% whole or steroid-depleted serums...
January 29, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371918/long-term-administration-of-tacrolimus-and-everolimus-prevents-high-cholesterol-high-fructose-induced-steatosis-in-c57bl-6j-mice-by-inhibiting-de-novo-lipogenesis
#11
Sharma Love, Malik A Mudasir, Subhash C Bhardwaj, Gurdarshan Singh, Sheikh A Tasduq
Aim: To investigate the effects of tacrolimus (TC) and everolimus (EV) on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced by high fat, high cholesterol and fructose (fast food) diet in C57BL/6J mice. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n=8). 1) Standard Chow (SC); 2) Fast food (FF) diet; 3) FF + Tacrolimus (TC, 1mg/kg) and; 4) FF + Everolimus (EV, 1mg/kg) and treated for 16 weeks. Serum and tissue samples were analyzed for evidence of inflammation, fibrosis, lipogenesis, and apoptosis...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351064/molecular-target-analysis-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-genes-of-protozoan-parasites
#12
He Lu, Xin Qin, Jing Zhang, Shuang Zhang, Yu Zhu, Wei Hua Wu
Protozoan parasites can synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids. They possess stearoyl-CoA desaturase to convert stearate into oleate and linoleate. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase are the key enzymes required for the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. It seems attractive to evaluate the possibility of using unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathways as drug targets. In this study, the authors investigate codon usage bias, base composition variations and protein sequence in ten available complete stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene sequences from Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum etc...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326439/lung-fibroblasts-promote-metastatic-colonization-through-upregulation-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-in-tumor-cells
#13
Guanghua Liu, Shi Feng, Lin Jia, Chunying Wang, Yan Fu, Yongzhang Luo
As a rate-limiting step in metastasis, metastatic colonization requires survival signals from supportive stroma. However, the mechanisms driving this process are incompletely understood. Here, we showed that the proliferation of B16F10 cells was promoted when cocultured with lung fibroblasts. Meanwhile, co-injection of B16F10 tumor cells with mouse lung fibroblasts significantly increased lung metastasis. Based on GEO database, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) as a novel factor promoting metastatic colonization...
January 12, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319436/plasma-fatty-acids-as-markers-for-desaturase-and-elongase-activities-in-spinal-cord-injured-males
#14
Lynnette M Jones, Michael Legge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of surrogate plasma fatty acid analysis to provide further insights into the underlying adiposity and the development of metabolic syndrome in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Case-control, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Community-based individuals with spinal cord injury and healthy controls. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty men with SCI age, height and weight matched with 20 able-bodied controls...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301285/seed-transcriptomics-analysis-in-camellia-oleifera-uncovers-genes-associated-with-oil-content-and-fatty-acid-composition
#15
Ping Lin, Kailiang Wang, Changfu Zhou, Yunhai Xie, Xiaohua Yao, Hengfu Yin
Camellia oleifera is a major tree species for producing edible oil. Its seed oil is well known for the high level of oleic acids; however, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism of lipid biosynthesis in C. oleifera. Here, we measured the oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions at four developmental stages and investigated the global gene expression profiles through transcriptomics sequencing. We identified differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) among the developmental stages and found that the distribution of numbers of DEGs was associated with the accumulation pattern of seed oil...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290651/mir-192-5p-regulates-lipid-synthesis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-scd-1
#16
Xiao-Lin Liu, Hai-Xia Cao, Bao-Can Wang, Feng-Zhi Xin, Rui-Nan Zhang, Da Zhou, Rui-Xu Yang, Ze-Hua Zhao, Qin Pan, Jian-Gao Fan
AIM: To evaluate the levels of miR-192-5p in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) models and demonstrate the role of miR-192-5p in lipid accumulation. METHODS: Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, which were given a standard diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and an HFD with injection of liraglutide. At the end of 16 weeks, hepatic miR-192-5p and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) levels were measured. MiR-192-5p mimic and inhibitor and SCD-1 siRNA were transfected into Huh7 cells exposed to palmitic acid (PA)...
December 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274956/epigenetic-mechanisms-contribute-to-decrease-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-expression-in-the-liver-of-dairy-cows-after-prolonged-feeding-of-high-concentrate-diet
#17
T L Xu, H M Seyfert, X Z Shen
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) of dairy cattle is a widely occurring but not very overt metabolic disorder thought to impair milk composition. The enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is rate-limiting for the formation of Δ-9 unsaturated fatty acids and thus crucially involved in controlling lipid metabolism in the liver. It is known that SCD1 expression is downregulated during SARA, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. To study these mechanisms, we enrolled 12 healthy multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows into a diet-induced SARA experiment...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274292/butyrate-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-interact-in-alterations-of-specific-lipid-classes-in-differentiating-colon-cancer-cells
#18
Zuzana Tylichová, Josef Slavík, Miroslav Ciganek, Petra Ovesná, Pavel Krčmář, Nicol Straková, Miroslav Machala, Alois Kozubík, Jiřina Hofmanová, Jan Vondráček
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and sodium butyrate (NaBt) exhibit a number of interactive effects on colon cancer cell growth, differentiation or apoptosis; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these interactions and their impact on cellular lipidome are still not fully clear. Here, we show that both dietary agents together induce dynamic alterations of lipid metabolism, specific cellular lipid classes and fatty acid composition. In HT-29 cell line, a model of differentiating colon carcinoma cells, NaBt supported incorporation of free DHA into non-polar lipids and their accumulation in cytoplasmic lipid droplets...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242171/down-regulation-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-increases-susceptibility-to-palmitic-acid-induced-lipotoxicity-in-human-trophoblast-cells
#19
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
In early pregnancy, adequate dietary factors are important for the growth of human trophoblast cells, followed by placental development. Although stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is expected to relieve palmitic acid (PA)-induced lipotoxicity by regulating diacylglycerol and ceramide, its function is unclear in human trophoblast cells. The aim was to investigate inhibitory effects of SCD1 activity on PA-induced trophoblast cell death. PA induces cell death and inhibits the invasion of human trophoblast cells (HTR8/SVneo)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241575/dietary-supplementation-with-myo-inositol-reduces-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-and-expression-of-both-fructolytic-and-lipogenic-genes-in-rats-fed-a-high-fructose-diet
#20
Masaya Shimada, Masato Hibino, Anna Takeshita
Excessive fructose ingestion drastically enhances hepatic lipid accumulation. The most prominent form of inositol-myo-inositol (MI)-remarkably reduces high sucrose-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. Because MI is a major and strong lipotrope, we hypothesized in this study that MI improves fatty liver more induced by excessive ingestion of fructose than sucrose. Rats were fed a high-glucose diet (HGD), a high-fructose diet (HFD), or an HFD supplemented with 0.2% MI for 12 days. Hepatic levels of TG and mRNAs for fructolysis (ketohexokinase and aldolase B), lipogenesis (pyruvate kinase, liver, and RBC; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha; fatty acid synthase; and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1), and a key transcription factor for lipogenesis-carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein-were significantly increased in the HFD group compared with the HGD group, and the increase was markedly decreased by MI supplementation...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
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