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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096141/the-role-of-the-novel-lipokine-palmitoleic-acid-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
María E Frigolet, Ruth Gutiérrez-Aguilar
The monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleate (palmitoleic acid) is one of the most abundant fatty acids in serum and tissues, particularly adipose tissue and liver. Its endogenous production by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gives rise to its cis isoform, cis-palmitoleate. Although trans-palmitoleate is also synthesized in humans, it is mainly found as an exogenous source in ruminant fat and dairy products. Recently, palmitoleate was considered to be a lipokine based on evidence demonstrating its release from adipose tissue and its metabolic effects on distant organs...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081360/pinus-densiflora-bark-extract-pinexol-decreased-adiposity-in-mice-by-down-regulation-of-hepatic-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-white-adipose-tissue
#2
Hyemyoung Ahn, Gwang-Woong Go
PineXol, extracted from Korean red pine bark, has beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti3 inflammatory, and anti-lipogenic activities in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PineXol supplementation could have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat) or HFD (60% kcal from fat). HFD-fed animals were also subjected to PineXol treatment at a dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (PX10 or PX50, respectively) body weight...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070532/evaluation-of-scd-and-fasn-gene-expression-in-baluchi-iran-black-and-arman-sheep
#3
Salmani Izadi Mohammad, Naserian Abbas Ali, Nasiri Mohammad Reza, Majidzadeh Heravi Reza, Valizadeh Reza
BACKGROUND: With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in the diet is important because they are associated with major diseases including cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase) (SCD) genes affect fatty acid composition (1). The expression of SCD and FASN genes is related to an increase in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products, which benefits human health...
October 2016: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012856/increased-fndc5-irisin-expression-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Melania Gaggini, Manuela Cabiati, Serena Del Turco, Teresa Navarra, Paolo De Simone, Franco Filipponi, Silvia Del Ry, Amalia Gastaldelli, Giuseppina Basta
The fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)/Irisin, a novel energy-regulating hormone, is associated with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It is produced in low amounts by normal hepatic tissue, while in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in which aberrant de novo lipogenesis (DNL) occurs, the hepatic expression of FNDC5/Irisin is still unknown. The gene expression of FNDC5/Irisin, associated to key regulators of DNL, inflammation and cancer progression was evaluated in liver tissue of 18 patients with HCC undergoing liver transplantation and of 18 deceased donors...
December 21, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012026/role-of-cyclooxygenase-mediated-metabolites-in-lipid-metabolism-and-expression-of-some-immune-related-genes-in-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-fed-arachidonic-acid
#5
Jing-Jing Tian, Cai-Xia Lei, Hong Ji, Ai Jin
Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid (ARA) to prostaglandins, and COX-mediated metabolites play important roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and immunity in mammals. However, such roles of COX in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, we designed three semi-purified diets, namely ARA-free (control), ARA, and ARA + acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; a COX inhibitor), and used them to feed grass carp (27.65 ± 3.05 g) for 8 weeks. The results showed that dietary ARA significantly increased the amount of ARA in the hepatopancreas, muscle, and kidney (P < 0...
December 23, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992582/dietary-macronutrient-composition-directs-chrebp-isoform-expression-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice
#6
Tara Jois, Victor Howard, Kristina Youngs, Michael A Cowley, Mark W Sleeman
Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a lipogenic transcription factor that is thought to be involved in the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Increased ChREBP expression in liver results in increased hepatic steatosis, and the isoform ChREBPβ in adipose tissue can predict insulin sensitivity in obese humans. As ChREBP is activated by glucose, it was postulated that the composition of diet would regulate ChREBP isoform expression in metabolically relevant tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983643/genetic-marker-discovery-in-complex-traits-a-field-example-on-fat-content-and-composition-in-pigs
#7
REVIEW
Ramona Natacha Pena, Roger Ros-Freixedes, Marc Tor, Joan Estany
Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker (PCK1 c...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939244/effect-of-dietary-n-3-fatty-acids-supplementation-on-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-atorvastatin-administered-shr-cg-lepr-cp-ndmcr-rats-a-metabolic-syndrome-model
#8
Abdullah Al Mamun, Michio Hashimoto, Masanori Katakura, Yoko Tanabe, Satoru Tsuchikura, Shahdat Hossain, Osamu Shido
The effects of cholesterol-lowering statins, which substantially benefit future cardiovascular events, on fatty acid metabolism have remained largely obscured. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin on fatty acid metabolism together with the effects of TAK-085 containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester on atorvastatin-induced n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid lowering in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats, as a metabolic syndrome model...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914036/prolactin-regulatory-element-binding-protein-is-involved-in-suppression-of-the-adiponectin-gene-in-vivo
#9
X Z Zhang, H Imachi, J Y Lyu, K Fukunaga, S Sato, T Ibata, T Kobayashi, T Yoshimoto, F Kikuchi, T Dong, K Murao
PURPOSE: Prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB), a member of the WD-repeat protein family, has been recognized as a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin promoter activity in the anterior pituitary of rats. PREB is expressed not only in the pituitary but also in various other tissues, including the adipose tissue. Previous studies have shown that PREB acts as a transcriptional regulator and suppresses the expression of the adiponectin gene in cultured 3T3L1 preadipocytes...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909554/high-maysin-corn-silk-extract-reduces-body-weight-and-fat-deposition-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-high-fat-diets
#10
Eun Young Lee, Sun Lim Kim, Hyeon Jung Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES: The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907035/exendin-4-inhibits-hepatic-lipogenesis-by-increasing-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#11
Mi Hae Seo, Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Eun-Jung Rhee, Se Eun Park, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Won-Young Lee
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the beneficial effect of exendin-4 on hepatic steatosis is mediated by β-catenin signaling. After the HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with PA for 24 hours, total triglycerides levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression levels of perilipin family members were upregulated in cells treated with 400 μM PA. For our in vitro model of hepatic steatosis, HepG2 cells were treated with 400 μM palmitic acid (PA) in the presence or absence of 100 nM exendin-4 for 24 hours...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903410/long-chain-n-3-pufa-supplied-by-the-usual-diet-decrease-plasma-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-index-in-non-hypertriglyceridemic-older-adults-at-high-vascular-risk
#12
Ana M Pérez-Heras, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Montserrat Cofán, Mercè Serra-Mir, Ana I Castellote, Carmen López-Sabater, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel-Ángel Martínez-González, Dolores Corella, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored. METHODS: We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893688/identification-of-genes-and-signaling-pathways-associated-with-diabetic-neuropathy-using-a-weighted-correlation-network-analysis-a-consort-study
#13
Ya Li, Weiguo Ma, Chuanqing Xie, Min Zhang, Xiaohong Yin, Fenfen Wang, Jie Xu, Bingyin Shi
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms behind diabetic neuropathy remains to be investigated. METHODS: This is a secondary study on microarray dataset (GSE24290) downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which included 18 nerve tissue samples of progressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≥500 fibers/mm) and 17 nerve tissue samples of nonprogressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≤100 fibers/mm)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881438/ole1-fatty-acid-desaturase-is-required-for-atg9-delivery-and-isolation-membrane-expansion-during-autophagy-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Yuta Ogasawara, Shintaro Kira, Yukio Mukai, Takeshi Noda, Akitsugu Yamamoto
Macroautophagy, a major degradation pathway of cytoplasmic components, is carried out through formation of a double-membrane structure, the autophagosome. Although the involvement of specific lipid species in the formation process remains largely obscure, we recently showed that mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) generated by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) are required for autophagosome formation in mammalian cells. To obtain further insight into the role of MUFA in autophagy, in this study we analyzed the autophagic phenotypes of the yeast mutant of OLE1, an orthologue of SCD1...
January 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866151/genotyping-by-sequencing-based-investigation-of-the-genetic-architecture-responsible-for-a-%C3%A2-sevenfold-increase-in-soybean-seed-stearic-acid
#15
Crystal B Heim, Jason D Gillman
Soybean oil is highly unsaturated but oxidatively unstable, rendering it nonideal for food applications. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation, which produces trans fats as an unavoidable consequence. Dietary intake of trans fats and most saturated fats are conclusively linked to negative impacts on cholesterol levels and cardiovascular health. Two major soybean oil breeding targets are: (1) to reduce or eliminate the need for chemical hydrogenation, and (2) to replace the functional properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil...
January 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865506/synthesis-of-the-suspected-trans-11-cis-13-conjugated-linoleic-acid-isomer-in-ruminant-mammary-tissue-by-fads3-catalyzed-%C3%AE-13-desaturation-of-vaccenic-acid
#16
Cyrielle Garcia, Cécile Duby, Daniel Catheline, Pablo G Toral, Laurence Bernard, Philippe Legrand, Vincent Rioux
The octadecadienoic conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer with trans-11 and cis-13 double bonds (trans-11,cis-13 CLA) has been described in ruminant milk. For now, this specific CLA is suspected to derive exclusively from ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary α-linolenic acid. However, in rodents, the fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3) gene was recently shown to code for an enzyme able to catalyze the unexpected Δ13-desaturation of vaccenic acid, producing a Δ11,13-CLA with all the structural characteristics of the trans-11,cis-13 isomer, although no commercial standard exists for complete conclusive identification...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861513/high-expression-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#17
Jianfeng Wang, Yunze Xu, Liangsong Zhu, Yun Zou, Wen Kong, Baijun Dong, Jiwei Huang, Yonghui Chen, Wei Xue, Yiran Huang, Jin Zhang
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids, have been gradually recognized as a potential therapeutic target for various malignancies, particularly in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the prognostic value of SCD1 in ccRCC is still unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of SCD1 expression in patients with ccRCC. SCD1 expression in tumor tissues obtained from 359 patients who underwent nephrectomy for ccRCC are retrospectively assessed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855314/alterations-of-gene-expression-indicating-effects-on-estrogen-signaling-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-seabream-hepatocytes-exposed-to-extracts-of-seawater-sampled-from-a-coastal-area-of-the-central-adriatic-sea-italy
#18
Paolo Cocci, Martina Capriotti, Gilberto Mosconi, Alessandra Campanelli, Emanuela Frapiccini, Mauro Marini, Giovanni Caprioli, Gianni Sagratini, Graziano Aretusi, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
Recent evidences suggest that the toxicological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) involve multiple nuclear receptor-mediated pathways, including estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling systems. Thus, our objective in this study was to detect the summated endocrine effects of EDCs with metabolic activity in coastal waters of the central Adriatic Sea by means of a toxicogenomic approach using seabream hepatocytes. Gene expression patterns were also correlated with seawater levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
February 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846372/loss-of-ulk1-increases-rps6kb1-ncor1-repression-of-nr1h-lxr-mediated-scd1-transcription-and-augments-lipotoxicity-in-hepatic-cells
#19
Rohit Anthony Sinha, Brijesh K Singh, Jin Zhou, Sherwin Xie, Benjamin L Farah, Ronny Lesmana, Kenji Ohba, Madhulika Tripathi, Sujoy Ghosh, Anthony N Hollenberg, Paul M Yen
Lipotoxicity caused by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) induces tissue damage and inflammation in metabolic disorders. SCD1 (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1) converts SFAs to mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) that are incorporated into triglycerides and stored in lipid droplets. SCD1 thus helps protect hepatocytes from lipotoxicity and its reduced expression is associated with increased lipotoxic injury in cultured hepatic cells and mouse models. To further understand the role of SCD1 in lipotoxicity, we examined the regulation of Scd1 in hepatic cells treated with palmitate, and found that NR1H/LXR (nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H) ligand, GW3965, induced Scd1 expression and lipid droplet formation to improve cell survival...
January 2, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834856/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-protects-cells-against-lipotoxicity-mediated-apoptosis-in-proximal-tubular-cells
#20
Tamaki Iwai, Shinji Kume, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Shogo Kuwagata, Hisazumi Araki, Naoko Takeda, Takeshi Sugaya, Takashi Uzu, Hiroshi Maegawa, Shin-Ichi Araki
Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), whose expression level significantly decreased in the kidneys of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-diabetic mice...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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