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stearoyl desaturase

Malleswarapu Mahesh, Munugala Bharathi, Mooli Raja Gopal Reddy, Manchiryala Sravan Kumar, Uday Kumar Putcha, Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari, Shanmugam M Jeyakumar
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Tomasz Bednarski, Adam Olichwier, Agnieszka Opasinska, Aleksandra Pyrkowska, Ana-Maria Gan, James M Ntambi, Pawel Dobrzyn
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) has recently been shown to be a critical control point in the regulation of cardiac metabolism and function. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is an important regulator of myocardial fatty acid uptake and utilization. The present study used SCD1 and PPARα double knockout (SCD1(-/-)/PPARα(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that PPARα is involved in metabolic changes in the heart that are caused by SCD1 downregulation/inhibition. SCD1 deficiency decreased the intracellular content of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and ceramide in the heart of SCD1(-/-) and SCD1(-/-)/PPARα(-/-) mice...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hari Bhupathi Krishnan, Alaa Alaswad, Nathan Wayne Oehrle, Jason Gillman
Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is utilized by the plants for its growth and development. Fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in root nodule symbiosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase- isoform C (SACPD-C), a soybean enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid, which is expressed in developing seeds and in nitrogen fixing nodules...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Zhenle Yang, Hongying Ji, Dantong Liu
Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in tuber. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tuber revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber, (1) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through cytosolic glycolytic pathway, (2) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis, (3) expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition, (4) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER, (5) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of DAG pool in Kennedy pathway, (6) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yingjia Han, Gen Xu, Hewei Du, Jieyun Hu, Zhanji Liu, Hui Li, Jiansheng Li, Xiaohong Yang
We identified 11 SAD genes, and mined their natural variations associated with the conservation of stearic to oleic acid, especially ZmSAD1 supported by both the QTL and an expression QTL. Maize oil is generally regarded as a healthy vegetable oil owing to its low abundance of saturated fatty acids. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) is a key rate-limiting enzyme for the conservation of stearic (C18:0) to oleic (C18:1) acid. Here, 11 maize SAD genes were identified to have more divergent functions than Arabidopsis SAD genes...
October 7, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
W-G Li, Y-Y Zhang, D-D Wang
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) is the key limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, and plays a crucial role in the regulation of oleic acid. In this study, 165 ten-week-old Cherry Valley ducks were used to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5' regulatory region of the SCD1 gene, and their associations with duck serum biochemical levels and fatty acid composition. Two novel SNPs, g.936516 C > G and g.936551 T > C, were found by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing methods, exhibiting six genotypes (AA, BB, CC, AB, AC, and BC)...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Li Liu, Shang Wang, Ling Yao, Jin-Xiu Li, Peng Ma, Li-Rong Jiang, Da-Zhi Ke, Yong-Quan Pan, Jian-Wei Wang
Dietary fructose is considered a risk factor for metabolic disorders, such as fatty liver disease. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of fructose is not well characterized. We investigated the hepatic expression of key regulatory genes related to lipid metabolism following fructose feeding under well-defined conditions. Rats were fed standard chow supplemented with 10% w/v fructose solution for 5 weeks, and killed after chow-fasting and fructose withdrawal (fasting) or chow-fasting and continued fructose (fructose alone) for 14 h...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Farshid Parvini, M Dolores Sicardo, Mehdi Hosseini-Mazinani, Jose M Martinez-Rivas, M Luisa Hernandez
The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Christian von Loeffelholz, Stephanie Döcke, Johan F Lock, Steffi Lieske, Paul Horn, Jennifer Kriebel, Simone Wahl, Paula Singmann, Tonia de Las Heras Gala, Harald Grallert, Nathaniel Raschzok, Igor M Sauer, Regine Heller, Gerhard Jahreis, Ralf A Claus, Michael Bauer, Martin Stockmann, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Molecular adaptations in human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are incompletely understood. This study investigated main gene categories related to hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and lipid oxidation capacity. METHODS: Liver specimens of 48 subjects were histologically classified according to steatosis severity. In depth analyses were performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry...
September 30, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Kalathookunnel Antony Antu, Mariam Philip Riya, Anupama Nair, Arvind Mishra, Arvind K Srivastava, Kozhiparambil Gopalan Raghu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This plant has been utilized in Indian system of medicine for treatment of diabetes. This is clearly evident from the composition of Ayurvedic preparation for diabetes 'Nisakathakadi Kashayam' where this is one of the main ingredients of this preparation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aims in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the insulin sensitizing effects of Symplocos cochinchinensis ethanol extract (SCE) using a high fructose and saturated fat (HFS) fed insulin resistant rat model...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Manuel Adrian Troncoso-Ponce, Guillaume Barthole, Geoffrey Tremblais, Alexandra To, Martine Miquel, Loic Lepiniec, Sébastien Baud
In angiosperms, double fertilization of the embryo sac initiates the development of the embryo and the endosperm. In Arabidopsis thaliana, an exalbuminous species, the endosperm is reduced to one cell layer during seed maturation and reserves such as oil are massively deposited in the enlarging embryo. Here, we consider the strikingly different fatty acid (FA) compositions of the oils stored in the two zygotic tissues. Endosperm oil is enriched in ω-7 monounsaturated FAs, that represent more than 20 Mol% of total FAs, whereas these molecular species are ten-fold less abundant in the embryo...
September 28, 2016: Plant Cell
Shuyan Zhang, Masakazu Ito, Jeffrey M Skerker, Adam P Arkin, Christopher V Rao
Natural lipids can be used to make biodiesel and many other value-added compounds. In this work, we explored a number of different metabolic engineering strategies for increasing lipid production in the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides IFO0880. These included increasing the expression of enzymes involved in different aspects of lipid biosynthesis-malic enzyme (ME), pyruvate carboxylase (PYC1), glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-and deleting the gene PEX10, required for peroxisome biogenesis...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Wei Yang, Ran Dong, Li Liu, Zhubing Hu, Jing Li, Yong Wang, Xinhua Ding, Zhaohui Chu
BACKGROUND: Resistance and growth are opposing characteristics in plants. SA INSENSITIVITY OF npr1-5 (SSI2) encodes a stearoyl-ACP desaturase (S-ACP DES) that has previously been reported to simultaneously enhance resistance and repress growth. RESULTS: Here, we characterize ssi2-2, a novel mutant allele of SSI2 that has two amino acid substitutions. Compared with wild-type and two other mutants of SSI2, ssi2-2 showed intermediate phenotypes in growth size, punctate necrosis, resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000, salicylic acid (SA) content, pathogenesis-related (PR) gene levels and 18:1 content...
September 26, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giuseppina Costabile, Delia Luongo, Daniele Naviglio, Valentina Cicala, Chiara Piantadosi, Lidia Patti, Paola Cipriano, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela A Rivellese
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to investigate hepatic lipid metabolic processes possibly involved in the reduction of liver fat content (LF) observed in patients with type 2 diabetes after an isoenergetic diet enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). METHODS: This is an ancillary analysis of a published study. In a parallel-group design, 30 men and eight women, aged 35-70 years, with type 2 diabetes and whose blood glucose was controlled satisfactorily (HbA1c < 7...
September 20, 2016: Diabetologia
R Ariel Igal
The processes of cell proliferation, cell death and differentiation involve an intricate array of biochemical and morphological changes that require a finely tuned modulation of metabolic pathways, chiefly among them is fatty acid metabolism. The critical participation of stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the fatty acyl Δ9-desaturing enzyme that converts saturated fatty acids (SFA) into monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), in the mechanisms of replication and survival of mammalian cells, as well as their implication in the biological alterations of cancer have been actively investigated in recent years...
September 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sergio Rodriguez-Cuenca, Lauren Whyte, Rachel Hagen, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Maria Fuller
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a lipogenic enzyme important for the regulation of membrane lipid homeostasis; dysregulation likely contributes to obesity associated metabolic disturbances. SCD1 catalyses the Δ9 desaturation of 12-19 carbon saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids. To understand its influence in cellular lipid composition we investigated the effect of genetic ablation of SCD1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes on membrane microdomain lipid composition at the species-specific level. Using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 70 species of ceramide, mono-, di- and trihexosylceramide, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, phosphatidylinositol and cholesterol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which a 90% reduction in scd1 mRNA expression was achieved with siRNA...
2016: PloS One
Woongsic Jung, Eun Jae Kim, Se Jong Han, Han-Gu Choi, Sanghee Kim
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is a key regulator in fatty acid metabolism that catalyzes the desaturation of stearic acid to oleic acid and controls the intracellular levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). Two stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCD, Δ9 desaturases) genes were identified in an Antarctic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis, that was collected in a tidal pool near the King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica. Full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences of two T. kingsejongensis SCDs (TkSCDs) were obtained from next-generation sequencing and isolated by reverse transcription PCR...
September 14, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
Beng San Yeoh, Piu Saha, Vishal Singh, Xia Xiao, Yun Ying, Jairam K Vanamala, Mary J Kennett, Kevin J Harvatine, Bina Joe, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Stearoyl CoA Desaturase (SCD-1) is a lipogenic enzyme involved in the de novo biosynthesis of oleate (C18:1, n9), a major fatty acid in the phospholipids of lipid bilayers of cell membranes. Accordingly, Scd1KO mice display substantially reduced oleate in cell membranes. Altered SCD-1 level was observed during intestinal inflammation; however, its role in modulating inflammatory bowel disease remains elusive. Herein, we investigated the colitogenic capacity of Scd1KO effector T cells by employing the adoptive T-cell transfer colitis model...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Antje Schröder, Daniel B Abrar, Ulrike Hampel, Martin Schicht, Friedrich Paulsen, Fabian Garreis
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is considered the most common cause of dry eye disease (DED). Sex hormones seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of MGD although their involvement is not completely understood. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the effect of dihydrotestosteron (DHT) and estradiol (β-Est) on an immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC). Protein expression of sex hormone receptors in HMGEC was investigated by western blot. Ultrastructural morphology, Sudan III lipid staining, cell proliferation as well as vitality assays were performed...
October 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Gudrun Valgerdur Skuladottir, Emil Karl Nilsson, Jessica Mwinyi, Helgi Birgir Schiöth
BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation has been associated with obesity among adults, and accumulating data suggests that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) expression has a relevant impact on fatty acid (FA) composition of lipid pools and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of one-night total sleep deprivation (TSD) on DNA methylation in the 5'-prime region of SCD1, and whether detected changes in DNA methylation are associated with SCD activity indices (product to precursor FA ratios; 16:1n-7/16:0 and 18:1n-9/18:0) derived from serum phospholipids (PL)...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
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