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sneak bite

Monique Lafon
Rabies virus (RABV) is a strictly neurotropic virus that slowly propagates in the nervous system (NS) of the infected host from the site of entry (usually due to a bite) up to the site of exit (salivary glands). Successful achievement of the virus cycle relies on the preservation of the neuronal network. Once RABV has entered the NS, its progression is not interrupted either by destruction of the infected neurons or by the immune response, which are major host mechanisms for combating viral infection. RABV has developed two main mechanisms to escape the host defenses: (1) its ability to kill protective migrating T cells and (2) its ability to sneak into the NS without triggering apoptosis of the infected neurons and preserving the integrity of neurites...
2011: Advances in Virus Research
Seiji Matsumoto, Tomohiro Takeyama, Nobuhiro Ohnishi, Masanori Kohda
In fish with paternal care, protogynous sex change (female to male) is rare and has only been reported from species with haremic polygyny. The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous fish with paternal care, but little is known about its mating system. To understand protogyny in this species, we examined the mating system and male size advantage in mating in M. albus under semi-natural condition. Females swam over wide ranges and visited multiple male nests. Males defended a narrow territory around nests against other males that approached nests; at these nests, males courted and accepted visiting females...
May 2011: Zoological Science
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