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carotid intimal medial thickening

Nicola Ferri, Silvia Marchianò, Gianpaolo Tibolla, Roberta Baetta, Ashish Dhyani, Massimiliano Ruscica, Patrizia Uboldi, Alberico L Catapano, Alberto Corsini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) induces degradation of the low-density lipoprotein-receptor (LDLR). Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in human atherosclerotic plaques and cultured SMCs express PCSK9. The present study aimed at defining the role of PCSK9 on vascular response to injury. METHODS: Carotid neointimal lesions were induced by positioning a non-occlusive collar in PCSK9 knock-out (PCSK9(-/-)) and wild type littermate (PCSK9(+/+)) mice...
October 2016: Atherosclerosis
Anup J Devasia, Binu Joy, Subhash D Tarey
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to analyse if there is a correlation between carotid intima medial thickening (CIMT) and Hcy in stroke patients. METHODOLOGY: We studied 100 consecutive cases of acute anterior circulation strokes at St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, India. Fasting serum samples for homocysteine were sent within 24 hours of admission and all patients underwent a carotid Doppler scan and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) was estimated on both sides...
January 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Antoine Millon, Monica Sigovan, Loic Boussel, Jean-Louis Mathevet, Vanessa Louzier, Christian Paquet, Alain Geloen, Nicolas Provost, Zouher Majd, David Patsouris, Andre Serusclat, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic plaque development in the arterial wall is the result of complex interaction between the wall's endothelial layer and blood hemodynamics. However, the interaction between hemodynamic parameters and inflammation in plaque evolution is not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between wall shear stress (WSS) and vessel wall inflammation during atherosclerotic plaque development in a minipig model of carotid stenosis...
2015: PloS One
Daisuke Arai, Akira Ishii, Hideo Chihara, Hiroyuki Ikeda, Susumu Miyamoto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the recently marketed stent retriever thrombectomy devices have demonstrated a high recanalization rate and favorable clinical outcomes, there is a concern about the risks of intimal injuries when pulling out the stent in the unfolded position. In this study, the Solitaire Flow Restoration System and the Trevo retriever were used in a histopathological comparison of vascular injuries caused by stent retriever thrombectomy devices. METHODS: Rabbit carotid arteries were used in the experiments with stent retriever thrombectomy devices...
October 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Longsheng Dai, Mingxin Gao, Chengxiong Gu, Fan Zhang, Yang Yu
OBJECTIVES: Effective therapies to prevent vein graft failure after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are still lacking. α-Cyanoacrylate (α-CA, 99% n-octyl-α-cyanoacrylate + n-butyl-α-cyanoacrylate) has been increasingly used as a tissue sealant for wound closure because of its bacteriostatic, biodegradable and haemostatic properties. As a strong tissue adhesive, α-CA might prevent an arterial circulation-induced mechanical stretch on vein graft to attenuate intimal hyperplasia...
February 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
A G Panayiotou, P Kouis, M Griffin, A N Nicolaides
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between commonly used insulin resistance (IR) indices and the presence and extent of carotid and femoral atherosclerosis in a general population setting. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 762 volunteers from the ongoing epidemiological Cyprus Study (46.6% male; mean age=60.5±10.2). 1) Carotid intima-media thickness (IMTcc), 2) carotid and femoral atherosclerotic plaque presence, 3) total plaque area in the carotid/femoral bifurcations (sum of the largest plaques in each carotid/femoral bifurcation-SPAcar/fem), and 4) total plaque area in both carotid and femoral bifurcations (sum of the areas of the largest plaques present in each of the four bifurcations-SPA) were measured using ultrasound at baseline...
October 2015: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
Yukako Yoshikane, Mitsuhisa Koga, Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida, Tamaki Cho, Yumi Yamamoto, Toshimichi Yoshida, Junichi Hashimoto, Shinichi Hirose, Koichi Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology in children, and can cause the life-threatening complication of coronary artery aneurysm. Although a novel treatment strategy for patients with KD-caused vascular lesions is eagerly awaited, their molecular pathogenesis remains largely unknown. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a signaling molecule known to have roles in inflammation and tissue remodeling. The aim of this study was to elucidate significant involvement of JNK in the development of vascular lesions in a mouse model of KD...
January 2015: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Zhi-Wei Zhao, Dietmar-Karl Abendroth, Zheng-Chun Zhou, Yong-Zhi Liu, Fa-Ming Pan, Jian-Jun Ge
OBJECTIVE: To investigated whether CBS3830, a highly selectively inhibitor of p38MAPK, could ameliorate inflammation and intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts (AVGs). METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a reversed right jugular vein to common carotid artery interposition graft and were randomly treatment with vehicle (control) or single-dose (3 mg/kg, preoperative) or double-dose (3 mg/kg, preoperative and 4 d postoperative) CBS3830. Twenty rats underwent sham operation...
December 2014: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Hussain Fatakdawala, Leigh G Griffiths, Sterling Humphrey, Laura Marcu
Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of structure and composition are important in monitoring development of engineered vascular tissue both in vitro and in vivo. Destructive techniques are an obstacle for performing time-lapse analyses from a single sample or animal. This study demonstrates the ability of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and ultrasound backscatter microscopy (UBM), as nondestructive and synergistic techniques, for compositional and morphological analyses of tissue grafts, respectively...
August 2014: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Arvind Vijayasarathi, Stanley J Goldberg
Background. Our goal was to compare the carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) of untreated pediatric patients with metabolic syndrome (MS), heterozygous familial hyperlipidemia (heFH), and MS+heFH against one another and against a control group consisting of healthy, normal body habitus children. Methods. Our population consisted of untreated pediatric patients (ages 5-20 yrs) who had CIMT measured in a standardized manner. Results. Our population included 57 with MS, 23 with heFH, and 10 with MS+heFH. The control group consisted of 84 children of the same age range...
2014: Journal of Lipids
Julius Ogeng'o, Kevin Ongeti, Moses Obimbo, Beda Olabu, Philip Mwachaka
Introduction. Histologic changes which occur in the tunica adventitia during initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerosis are seldom reported. This study aimed at describing the features of atherosclerosis in the tunica adventitia of two of the commonly afflicted arteries, namely, left anterior descending coronary and common carotid in black Kenyans. Materials and Methods. Specimens from 108 individuals [76 males and 32 females, mean age 34.6] were processed for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick sections were stained with Mason's trichrome and Haematoxylin/Eosin and examined with a light microscope...
2014: Anatomy Research International
Joong-Seok Kim, Yoon-Sang Oh, Kwang-Soo Lee, In-Uk Song, In-Seok Park, Dong-Won Yang, Ja-Seong Koo, David S Goldstein
Cognitive dysfunction constitutes a major non-motor manifestation of Parkinson disease (PD), but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Neurocirculatory abnormalities such as supine hypertension (SH) and orthostatic hypotension (OH), white matter hyperintensities upon magnetic resonance imaging, and dementia are inter-related in PD, even in patients with early, levodopa-untreated disease. These abnormalities might in turn be associated with carotid atherosclerosis which, by a variety of interacting means could contribute to repeated episodes of cerebral hypo- and hyper-perfusion...
October 2014: Journal of Neural Transmission
Matteo Coen, Giovanna Marchetti, Patricia M Palagi, Carlotta Zerbinati, Giuseppe Guastella, Teresa Gagliano, Francesco Bernardi, Francesco Mascoli, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat
Several observations suggest the expansion of a distinct medial smooth muscle cell (SMC) subset in atherosclerosis and restenosis. We characterized the phenotypic features of SMC subsets in cultures derived from human carotid endarterectomy specimens. Specimens comprised an undiseased portion (thin intimal thickening with the underlying media) and a diseased portion (atherosclerotic plaque with the underlying media). From plaque tissues of the diseased portion, only macrophage-derived foam cells were retrieved...
September 2013: American Journal of Pathology
Amy L Doneen, Bradley F Bale
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Although current therapies can reduce the risk for CVD, they are only given to patients who are considered to be at risk, and are therefore only beneficial if a patient's risk is accurately predicted before he or she sustains a cardiovascular (CV) event. Unfortunately, even relatively accurate risk factor analyses, such as the Reynolds Risk Score algorithm, fail to identify some patients who will sustain a CV event within 10 years...
March 2013: Postgraduate Medicine
R Dhananjayan, T Malati, G Brindha, Vijay Kumar Kutala
Studies indicate that risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) or cardiovascular disease is detectable in childhood, though these disorders may not emerge until adulthood. This study was aimed to assess the markers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with the family history of T2D from South Indian population. A total of 450 subjects were included in the study comprising Group I (n = 200) of T2D, Group II (n = 200) of age- and sex-matched healthy controls, Group III (n = 25) of children of T2D patients and Group IV (n = 25) of children of healthy controls...
April 2013: Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics
Fumie Kureha, Seimi Satomi-Kobayashi, Yoshiki Kubo, Mitsuo Kinugasa, Tatsuro Ishida, Yoshimi Takai, Ken-ichi Hirata, Yoshiyuki Rikitake
OBJECTIVE: Intimal thickening is considered to result from the dedifferentiation of medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype, and their subsequent migration and proliferation. It is unknown whether nectin-like molecule (Necl)-5, which is overexpressed in cancer cells, is involved in intimal thickening. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Necl-5 was upregulated in mouse carotid artery after ligation. Compared with wild-type mice, intimal thickening after carotid artery ligation was milder in Necl-5 knockout mice...
June 2013: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Jian-Jun Ge, Zhi-Wei Zhao, Zheng-Chun Zhou, Song Wu, Rui Zhang, Fa-ming Pan, Dietmar-Karl Abendroth
OBJECTIVE: Following bypass surgery vein grafts undergo a remodelling process that can lead to restenosis and ultimately vein graft failure. Signalling through mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is a key mechanism involved in vein graft failure. Here, we investigated whether CBS3830 (c-a-i-r biosciences GmbH, Tübingen, Germany), a new highly selectively inhibitor of p38 MAPK, has a significant effect on inhibiting intimal, medial and adventitial hyperplasia. METHODS: Sixty specific pathogen free Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups...
September 2013: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Fernando de la Cuesta, Irene Zubiri, Aroa S Maroto, Maria Posada, Luis R Padial, Fernando Vivanco, Gloria Alvarez-Llamas, Maria G Barderas
UNLABELLED: Fatal events derived from coronary atherosclerosis are the major cause of mortality in the developed countries. Proteomic analysis of the atherosclerotic coronary artery has been mainly carried out with whole tissue extracts, making it difficult to distinguish the alterations present in every region of the plaque. For this reason, we have recently described proteins altered in the human coronary intima layer as a consequence of the atherosclerotic disease. In order to complement this work, we aimed here to analyze proteomic alterations occurring within the human coronary media layer...
April 26, 2013: Journal of Proteomics
Li Zang, Ping Fu, Fang Liu, Min Wu, You-Qun Huang, Ling Li, Jing Zang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serum cystatin C (Cys C) concentration correlates with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: This study enrolled 633 type 2 DM patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. All the patients were subjected to the measurement of serum Cys C, concentration, complete blood count, and blood biochemical test. The severity of CAS was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound to define intimal medial thickness (IMT) of carotid artery, the location and size of atherosclerotic plaque...
November 2012: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Rajendra Karki, Oak-Min Ho, Dong-Wook Kim
BACKGROUND: Endovascular injury induces switching of contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to synthetic phenotype, thereby causing proliferation of VSMCs leading to intimal thickening. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of magnolol on the proliferation of VSMCs in vitro and neointima formation in vivo, as well as the related cell signaling mechanisms. METHODS: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induced proliferation ofVSMCs was assessed using colorimetric assay...
March 2013: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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