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multiple sclerosis epigenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750884/nutritional-intervention-as-an-essential-part-of-multiple-sclerosis-treatment
#1
A Penesová, Z Dean, B Kollár, A Havranová, R Imrich, M Vlček, Ž Rádiková
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In addition to the genetic, epigenetic and immunological components, various other factors e.g. unhealthy dietary habits play a role in the MS pathogenesis. Dietary intervention is a highly appealing approach, as it presents a simple and relatively low risk method to potentially improve outcomes in patients with brain disorders in order to achieve remission and improvement of clinical status, well-being and life expectancy of patients with MS...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687310/genotype-and-phenotype-in-multiple-sclerosis-potential-for-disease-course-prediction
#2
REVIEW
Vilija G Jokubaitis, Yuan Zhou, Helmut Butzkueven, Bruce V Taylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will examine the current evidence that genetic and/or epigenetic variation may influence the multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical course, phenotype, and measures of MS severity including disability progression and relapse rate. RECENT FINDINGS: There is little evidence that MS clinical phenotype is under significant genetic control. There is increasing evidence that there may be genetic determinants of the rate of disability progression...
April 24, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540737/g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr17-regulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-response-to-lysolecithin-induced-demyelination
#3
Changqing Lu, Lihua Dong, Hui Zhou, Qianmei Li, Guojiao Huang, Shu Jun Bai, Linchuan Liao
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system (CNS). A variety of brain disorders from "classical" demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, schizophrenia, depression, Down syndrome and autism, are shown myelination defects. Oligodendrocyte myelination is regulated by a complex interplay of intrinsic, epigenetic and extrinsic factors. Gpr17 (G protein-coupled receptor 17) is a G protein-coupled receptor, and has been identified to be a regulator for oligodendrocyte development...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515547/human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-their-putative-role-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-disorders-such-as-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Victoria Gröger, Holger Cynis
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants of retroviral germ line infections of human ancestors and make up ~8% of the human genome. Under physiological conditions, these elements are frequently inactive or non-functional due to deactivating mutations and epigenetic control. However, they can be reactivated under certain pathological conditions and produce viral transcripts and proteins. Several disorders, like multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are associated with increased HERV expression...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478287/altered-epigenetic-pathways-and-cell-cycle-dysregulation-in-healthy-appearing-skin-of-patients-with-koebnerized-squamous-cell-carcinomas-following-skin-surgery
#5
T Gambichler, I Rüddel, S Hessam, F G Bechara, E Stockfleth, L Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Koebnerized non-melanoma skin cancer following skin trauma represents a rare and obscure event. OBJECTIVES: To study molecular pathological parameters in koebnerized squamous cell carcinomas (K-SCCs) occurring after complete tumour removal. METHODS: We assessed two patients with multiple sclerosis who were on treatment with dimethylfumarate (DMF) preceded by long-term azathioprine therapy. Both patients rapidly developed several K-SCCs following histopathologically proven complete excision of cutaneous SCCs...
February 25, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312536/the-shared-and-specific-mechanism-of-four-autoimmune-diseases
#6
Meiwei Luan, Zhenwei Shang, Yanbo Teng, Xinren Chen, Mingming Zhang, Hongchao Lv, Ruijie Zhang
Interaction between genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may lead to autoimmune diseases. The features of these diseases show familial aggregation. The generality and specificity are keys to studying pathogenesis and etiology of them. This research integrated data of genetics and epigenetics, to find disease-related genes based on the levels of expression and regulation, and explored then to the shared and specific mechanism of them by analyzing shared and specific pathways of common four autoimmune diseases, including Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275836/a-cellular-and-molecular-view-of-t-helper-17-cell-plasticity-in-autoimmunity
#7
REVIEW
Ralph Stadhouders, Erik Lubberts, Rudi W Hendriks
Since the original identification of the T helper 17 (Th17) subset in 2005, it has become evident that these cells do not only contribute to host defence against pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi, but that they are also critically involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. In contrast to the classic Th1 and Th2 cells, which represent rather stably polarized subsets, Th17 cells display remarkable heterogeneity and plasticity. This has been attributed to the characteristics of the key transcription factor that guides Th17 differentiation, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (RORγ)...
February 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203226/innately-versatile-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-17-t-cells-in-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Pedro H Papotto, Annika Reinhardt, Immo Prinz, Bruno Silva-Santos
IL-17-producing γδ (γδ17) T cells form a versatile subset of cells that respond rapidly to innate stimuli and support the pro-inflammatory functions of different myeloid and lymphoid lineages, being particularly critical in the early stages of inflammatory and autoimmune responses. In mice, under homeostatic conditions, these innate-like lymphocytes are pre-programmed in the fetal thymus, through an intricate process involving both T cell receptor-dependent and -independent signals, which allows them to readily produce IL-17 upon stimulation...
February 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155234/survivin-and-autoimmunity-the-ins-and-outs
#9
REVIEW
Hamidreza Ebrahimiyan, Saeed Aslani, Nima Rezaei, Ahmadreza Jamshidi, Mahdi Mahmoudi
Autoimmunity is a status that immune mechanisms react against self-structure. The immune mechanisms, including cellular and molecular elements have been developed to immune body against foreign invades. Multiple factors such as genetic and epigenetic background, hormonal status, microbiome, and other factors can cause launching the autoreactive responses, in which the immune tolerance breaks and immune mechanisms are against self-antigens. Apoptosis is one of the important mechanisms in maintaining the tolerance and eliminating the autoreactive lymphocyte clones...
January 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109506/smoking-induces-dna-methylation-changes-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-exposure-response-relationship
#10
Francesco Marabita, Malin Almgren, Louise K Sjöholm, Lara Kular, Yun Liu, Tojo James, Nimrod B Kiss, Andrew P Feinberg, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum, Lars Alfredsson, Tomas J Ekström, Maja Jagodic
Cigarette smoking is an established environmental risk factor for Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease, although a mechanistic basis remains largely unknown. We aimed at investigating how smoking affects blood DNA methylation in MS patients, by assaying genome-wide DNA methylation and comparing smokers, former smokers and never smokers in two Swedish cohorts, differing for known MS risk factors. Smoking affects DNA methylation genome-wide significantly, an exposure-response relationship exists and the time since smoking cessation affects methylation levels...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100048/novel-candidate-genes-of-the-park7-interactome-as-mediators-of-apoptosis-and-acetylation-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-in-silico-analysis
#11
George D Vavougios, Sotirios G Zarogiannis, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis, Dimos Dimitrios Mitsikostas, Georgios Hadjigeorgiou
BACKGROUND: currently only 4 studies have explored the potential role of PARK7's dysregulation in MS pathophysiology Currently, no study has evaluated the potential role of the PARK7 interactome in MS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the differential expression of PARK7 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclears (PBMCs) donated from MS versus healthy patients using data mining techniques. METHODS: The PARK7 interactome data from the GDS3920 profile were scrutinized for differentially expressed genes (DEGs); Gene Enrichment Analysis (GEA) was used to detect significantly enriched biological functions...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068488/human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-the-aetiology-of-ms
#12
REVIEW
T Christensen
Several lines of investigation have provided strong indications for an association between the immune-mediated, neurologic disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). Whether the relationship is causal is yet to be established. Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic-in other species than the human. Several aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been documented, both for cells in the periphery and in the central nervous system...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063445/il-17-exerts-anti-apoptotic-effect-via-mir-155-5p-downregulation-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#13
Dominika Ksiazek-Winiarek, Piotr Szpakowski, Malgorzata Turniak, Janusz Szemraj, Andrzej Glabinski
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease, affecting mostly young adults and resulting in progressive disability. It is a multifactorial disorder, with important involvement of both cellular and epigenetic components. Among the epigenetic factors, microRNAs are currently intensively investigated in the context of multiple sclerosis. It has been shown that their biogenesis and function may be regulated by various cytokines. IL-17, a hallmark cytokine of Th17 cells, has been thought to function predominantly as a pro-inflammatory factor, leading to increased disease symptoms...
December 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030863/hotair-but-not-anril-long-non-coding-rna-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Majid Pahlevan Kakhki, Abbas Nikravesh, Zeinab Shirvani Farsani, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Mehrdad Behmanesh
Studies have revealed that dysregulation in gene expression is one of the main aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Although the molecular pathways underlying the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D (VD) in MS is not completely elucidated, VD has more recently become a topic of interest in immune regulation and is widely administered to patients with MS as an immunomodulatory supplement. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to play important roles in regulation of gene expression via different mechanisms...
April 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979796/the-genetics-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-latin-america
#15
REVIEW
Verónica Rivas Alonso, José de Jesús Flores Rivera, Yamel Rito García, Teresa Corona
BACKGROUND: In today's globalised world, the heterogeneity of diseases such as multiple sclerosis has been studied since it has been suggested that ethnic differences, in conjunction with geographical and environmental factors, influence its incidence and prevalence. AIM: Based on this, an attempt has been made to identify the genetic factors that may confer risk or protection, not only for developing multiple sclerosis but also for determining the course of its evolution...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949008/vitamin-d-deficiency-accelerates-ageing-and-age-related-diseases-a-novel-hypothesis
#16
Michael J Berridge
Ageing can occur at different rates, but what controls this variable rate is unknown. Here I have developed a hypothesis that vitamin D may act to control the rate of ageing. The basis of this hypothesis emerged from studyng the various cellular processes that control ageing. These processes such as autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, epigenetic changes, DNA disorders and alterations in Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling are all known to be regulated by vitamin D...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915632/decitabine-inhibits-t-cell-proliferation-via-a-novel-tet2-dependent-mechanism-and-exerts-potent-protective-effect-in-mouse-auto-and-allo-immunity-models
#17
Xue Wang, Jun Wang, Yong Yu, Tonghui Ma, Ping Chen, Bing Zhou, Ran Tao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the dysregulated immune response including innate and adaptive immune responses. Increasing evidence has proven the importance of epigenetic modification in the progression of MS. Recent studies revealed that low-dose decitabine (Dec, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine), which incorporates into replicating DNA and inhibits DNA methylation, could prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) development by increasing the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843454/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-genes-environment-and-a-comprehensive-therapeutic-approach
#18
REVIEW
Ryan Cappa, Liana Theroux, J Nicholas Brenton
BACKGROUND: Pediatric multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized and studied disorder that accounts for 3% to 10% of all patients with multiple sclerosis. The risk for pediatric multiple sclerosis is thought to reflect a complex interplay between environmental and genetic risk factors. MAIN FINDINGS: Environmental exposures, including sunlight (ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D levels), infections (Epstein-Barr virus), passive smoking, and obesity, have been identified as potential risk factors in youth...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829212/targeting-methionine-cycle-as-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-for-immune-disorders
#19
Heng Li, Huimin Lu, Wei Tang, Jianping Zuo
Methionine cycle plays an essential role in regulating many cellular events, especially transmethylation reactions, incorporating the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). The transmethylations and substances involved in the cycle have shown complicated effects and mechanisms on immunocytes developments and activations, and exert crucial impacts on the pathological processes in immune disorders. Areas covered: Methionine cycle has been considered as an effective means of drug developments. This review discussed the role of methionine cycle in immune responses and summarized the potential therapeutic strategies based on the cycle, including SAM analogs, methyltransferase inhibitors, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) inhibitors, adenosine receptors specific agonists or antagonists and homocysteine (Hcy)-lowering reagents, in treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and other immune disorders...
August 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821749/dna-methylation-in-demyelinated-multiple-sclerosis-hippocampus
#20
Anthony M Chomyk, Christina Volsko, Ajai Tripathi, Sadie A Deckard, Bruce D Trapp, Robert J Fox, Ranjan Dutta
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system (CNS). Memory impairments and hippocampal demyelination are common features in MS patients. Our previous data have shown that demyelination alters neuronal gene expression in the hippocampus. DNA methylation is a common epigenetic modifier of gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether DNA methylation is altered in MS hippocampus following demyelination. Our results show that mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferase were increased in demyelinated MS hippocampus, while de-methylation enzymes were decreased...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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