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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786732/unusually-low-thermal-conductivity-of-atomically-thin-2d-tellurium
#1
Zhibin Gao, Fang Tao, Jie Ren
Tellurium is a high-performance thermoelectric material due to its superior electronic transport and low lattice thermal conductivity (κL). Here, we report the ultralow κL in the monolayer tellurium, i.e., tellurene, which has been successfully synthesized in recent experiments. We find that tellurene has a compellingly low room temperature κL of 2.16 and 4.08 W m-1 K-1 along the armchair and zigzag directions, respectively, which is lower than any reported values for other 2D materials. We attribute this unusually low κL to the soft acoustic modes, the extremely low-energy optical modes and the strong scattering among optical-acoustic phonons, which place tellurene as a potential novel thermoelectric material...
May 22, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786447/thickness-tunable-synthesis-of-ultrathin-type-ii-dirac-semimetal-ptte-2-single-crystals-and-their-thickness-dependent-electronic-properties
#2
Huifang Ma, Peng Chen, Bo Li, Jia Li, Ruoqi Ai, Zhengwei Zhang, Guangzhuang Sun, Kangkang Yao, Zhaoyang Lin, Bei Zhao, Ruixia Wu, Xuwan Tang, Xidong Duan, Xiangfeng Duan
The recent discovery of topological semimetals has stimulated extensive research interest due to their unique electronic properties and novel transport properties related to a chiral anomaly. However, the studies to date are largely limited to bulk crystals and exfoliated flakes. Here, we report the controllable synthesis of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) platinum telluride (PtTe2 ) nanosheets with tunable thickness and investigate the thickness-dependent electronic properties. We show that PtTe2 nanosheets can be readily grown, using a chemical vapor deposition approach, with a hexagonal or triangular geometry and a lateral dimension of up to 80 μm, and the thickness of the nanosheets can be systematically tailored from over 20 to 1...
May 22, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785956/using-alternatives-to-the-car-and-risk-of-all-cause-cardiovascular-and-cancer-mortality
#3
Jenna Panter, Oliver Mytton, Stephen Sharp, Søren Brage, Steven Cummins, Anthony A Laverty, Katrien Wijndaele, David Ogilvie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between using alternatives to the car which are more active for commuting and non-commuting purposes, and morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study using data from 3 58 799 participants, aged 37-73 years, from UK Biobank. Commute and non-commute travel were assessed at baseline in 2006-2010. We classified participants according to whether they relied exclusively on the car or used alternative modes of transport that were more active at least some of the time...
May 21, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783787/plasma-pharmacokinetic-determination-of-canagliflozin-and-its-metabolites-in-a-type-2-diabetic-rat-model-by-uplc-ms-ms
#4
Song-Tao Dong, Hui-Min Niu, Yin Wu, Jia-Lei Jiang, Ying Li, Kun-Yu Jiang, Xin Wang, Mao-Fan Zhang, Ming-Feng Han, Sheng-Nan Meng
Canagliflozin is a novel, orally selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a sensitive and efficient UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of canagliflozin and its metabolites in rat plasma was established and applied to pharmacokinetics in a type 2 diabetic rat model. We firstly investigated the pharmacokinetic changes of canagliflozin and its metabolites in type 2 diabetic rats in order to use canagliflozin more safely, reasonably and effectively...
May 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783173/development-and-validation-of-an-analytical-method-for-regorafenib-and-its-metabolites-in-mouse-plasma
#5
Qiang Fu, Mingqing Chen, Shuiying Hu, Craig A McElroy, Ron H Mathijssen, Alex Sparreboom, Sharyn D Baker
An analytical method was developed for measuring the effect of OATP1B2 deficiency on plasma levels of the kinase inhibitor regorafenib and its metabolites regorafenib-N-oxide, N-desmethyl-regorafenib-N-oxide, and regorafenib-N-β-glucuronide (RG) in mice. Compounds were separated by liquid chromatography and monitored by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode after positive electrospray ionization. All calibration curves were linear in the selected concentration range (R2  ≥ 0...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782042/effect-of-tongue-palate-contact-mode-on-food-transport-during-mastication
#6
Tomoko Iizumi, Mariko Yoshino, Hitoshi Kagaya, Kazuhiro Hori, Takahiro Ono
The physiological mechanisms underlying Stage II transport (STII), during which comminuted solid food is transported from the oral cavity into the meso-pharynx for aggregation into a pre-swallow bolus, have yet to be clarified. The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between tongue-palate contact during mastication and incidence of STII by synchronized analysis of tongue pressure production on a hard palate and video-endoscopic (VE) images during mastication. Tongue pressure at 5 measuring points with an ultra-thin sensor sheet attached to the hard palate and trans-nasal VE images while masticating corned beef was recorded for 12 healthy subjects...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781678/socio-demographic-determinants-of-body-mass-index-among-school-children-in-ebonyi-state-nigeria
#7
Henry A Akinsola, Chinwe Ezeruigbo, Kwabena A Kyei, Felix C Anyanwu, Robert Nemakhavhani
BACKGROUND: African specific studies on the factors associated with the growth pattern of children are needed to guide evidence and develop effective population-based interventions that can be tailored to the unique African context. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-economic correlates of body mass index (BMI) of primary and secondary school children in Ebonyi State, which is situated in south-eastern Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: This was a quantitative, cross-sectional study that utilised clustering and stratified sampling techniques to select 1000 learners from primary and secondary schools located in Abakaliki local government area...
March 7, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781281/comparison-of-phonon-damping-behavior-in-quantum-dots-capped-with-organic-and-inorganic-ligands
#8
Kyle J Schnitzenbaumer, Gordana Dukovic
Surface ligand modification of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals has been widely used as a means of controlling photoexcited state generation, relaxation, and coupling to the environment. While progress has been made in understanding how surface ligand modification affects the behavior of excitonic states, less is known about the influence of surface ligand modification on phonon behavior, which impacts relaxation dynamics and transport phenomena. In this work we compare the dynamics of optical and acoustic phonons in CdTe quantum dots (QDs), CdTe/CdSe core/shell QDs capped with octadecylphosphonic acid ligands, and CdTe QDs capped with Se2- to ascertain how ligand exchange from native aliphatic ligands to single-atom Se2- ligands affects phonon behavior...
May 21, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780538/competition-between-li-and-na-in-sodium-transporters-and-receptors-which-na-binding-sites-are-therapeutic-li-targets
#9
Todor Dudev, Karine Mazmanian, Carmay Lim
Sodium (Na+ ) acts as an indispensable allosteric regulator of the activities of biologically important neurotransmitter transporters and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which comprise well-known drug targets for psychiatric disorders and addictive behavior. How selective these allosteric Na+ -binding sites are for the cognate cation over abiogenic Li+ , a first-line drug to treat bipolar disorder, is unclear. Here, we reveal how properties of the host protein and its binding cavity affect the outcome of the competition between Li+ and Na+ for allosteric binding sites in sodium transporters and receptors...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777430/the-artificial-humic-substance-hs1500-does-not-inhibit-photosynthesis-of-the-green-alga-desmodesmus-armatus-in-vivo-but-interacts-with-the-photosynthetic-apparatus-of-isolated-spinach-thylakoids-in-vitro
#10
Matthias Gilbert, Hanno Bährs, Christian E W Steinberg, Christian Wilhelm
Humic substances (HSs) can influence the growth and composition of freshwater phytoplankton assemblage. Since HSs contain many phenolic and quinonic moieties and cause growth reductions in eco-physiological field experiments, HSs are considered photosystem II herbicides. To test this specific mode of action in vivo and in vitro, respectively, we used intact cells of the green alga Desmodesmus armatus, as well as thylakoids isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as a model system for the green algal chloroplast...
May 18, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776143/transition-from-normal-to-ballistic-diffusion-in-a-one-dimensional-impact-system
#11
André L P Livorati, Tiago Kroetz, Carl P Dettmann, Iberê L Caldas, Edson D Leonel
We characterize a transition from normal to ballistic diffusion in a bouncing ball dynamics. The system is composed of a particle, or an ensemble of noninteracting particles, experiencing elastic collisions with a heavy and periodically moving wall under the influence of a constant gravitational field. The dynamics lead to a mixed phase space where chaotic orbits have a free path to move along the velocity axis, presenting a normal diffusion behavior. Depending on the control parameter, one can observe the presence of featured resonances, known as accelerator modes, that lead to a ballistic growth of velocity...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775933/observing-hno-3-release-dependent-upon-metal-complexes-in-malonic-acid-nitrate-droplets
#12
Xu Shao, Feng-Min Wu, Hui Yang, Shu-Feng Pang, Yun-Hong Zhang
Although the dicarboxylic acid has been reported to react with nitrate for aged internally mixed aerosols in atmosphere, the quantitative nitrate depletion dependent upon composition in particles is still not well constrained. The chemical composition evolutions for malonic acid/sodium nitrate (MA/SN), malonic acid/magnesium nitrate (MA/MN) and malonic acid/calcium nitrate (MA/CN) particles with the organic to inorganic molar ratio (OIR) of 1:1 are investigated by vacuum Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
May 9, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775797/functional-screening-of-selective-mitochondrial-inhibitors-of-plasmodium
#13
Maria G Gomez-Lorenzo, Ane Rodríguez-Alejandre, Sonia Moliner-Cubel, María Martínez-Hoyos, Noemí Bahamontes-Rosa, Rubén Gonzalez Del Rio, Carolina Ródenas, Jesús de la Fuente, Jose Luis Lavandera, Jose F García-Bustos, Alfonso Mendoza-Losana
Phenotypic screening has produced most of the new chemical entities currently in clinical development for malaria, plus many lead compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages. However, lack of knowledge about the mode of action of these compounds delays and may even hamper their future development. Identifying the mode of action of the inhibitors greatly helps to prioritise compounds for further development as novel antimalarials. Here we describe a whole-cell method to detect inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, using oxygen consumption as high throughput readout in 384-well plate format...
May 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774333/optical-tweezing-using-tunable-optical-lattices-along-a-few-mode-silicon-waveguide
#14
C Pin, J-B Jager, M Tardif, E Picard, E Hadji, F de Fornel, B Cluzel
Fourteen years ago, optical lattices and holographic tweezers were considered as a revolution, allowing for trapping and manipulating multiple particles at the same time using laser light. Since then, near-field optical forces have aroused tremendous interest as they enable efficient trapping of a wide range of objects, from living cells to atoms, in integrated devices. Yet, handling at will multiple objects using a guided light beam remains a challenging task for current on-chip optical trapping techniques...
May 18, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770864/agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-of-yeast-and-fungi
#15
Paul J J Hooykaas, G Paul H van Heusden, Xiaolei Niu, M Reza Roushan, Jalal Soltani, Xiaorong Zhang, Bert J van der Zaal
Two decades ago, it was discovered that the well-known plant vector Agrobacterium tumefaciens can also transform yeasts and fungi when these microorganisms are co-cultivated on a solid substrate in the presence of a phenolic inducer such as acetosyringone. It is important that the medium has a low pH (5-6) and that the temperature is kept at room temperature (20-25 °C) during co-cultivation. Nowadays, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) is the method of choice for the transformation of many fungal species; as the method is simple, the transformation efficiencies are much higher than with other methods, and AMT leads to single-copy integration much more frequently than do other methods...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768707/albumin-apheresis-for-artificial-liver-support-in-vitro-testing-of-a-novel-filter
#16
Tomasz Piatek, Joanna Giebultowicz, Marieke Rüth, Horst-Dieter Lemke, Florian Bonn, Piotr Wroczynski, Piotr Malkowski, Jacek Rozga
Currently there is no direct therapy for liver failure. We have previously described selective plasma exchange therapy using a hemofilter permeable to substances that have a molecular mass of up to 100 kDa. The proof-of-concept studies and a Phase I study in patients with decompensated cirrhosis demonstrated that hemofiltration using an albumin-leaking membrane is safe and effective in removing target molecules, alleviating severe encephalopathy and improving blood chemistry. In this study a novel large-pore filter for similar clinical application is described...
May 16, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766168/inelastic-neutron-scattering-study-of-the-lattice-dynamics-of-the-homologous-compounds-pbse-5-bi-2-se-3-3m-m-1-2-and-3
#17
Selma Sassi, Christophe Candolfi, Anne Dauscher, Bertrand Lenoir, Michael Marek Koza
We report on the inelastic response of the homologous compounds (PbSe)5(Bi2Se3)3m for m = 1, 2 and 3 followed in a broad temperature range (50-500 K) using high-resolution powder inelastic neutron scattering experiments. These results are complemented by low-temperature measurements of the specific heat (2-300 K). The evolution of the anisotropic crystal structure of these compounds with varying m, built from alternate Pb-Se and mBi-Se layers, only weakly influences the generalized phonon density of states...
May 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763962/car-travel-related-thrombosis-fact-or-fiction
#18
Giuseppe Lippi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
The condition sometimes referred to as "economy class syndrome," and also known as "traveler's thrombosis," is a distinctive pathological condition characterized by occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a patient who has recently experienced a long journey (i.e., ≥ 4 h). Typically, the identified travel is by airplane, but travel with other vehicles, such as trains, trucks, buses, or cars, could potentially qualify as contributing to VTE events. Although the enhanced risk of VTE after long haul flights is now widely acknowledged, albeit potentially overhyped, the risk of venous thrombosis after prolonged travel by other modes of transport, in particular, by cars, is less well appreciated...
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762553/a-collection-of-public-transport-network-data-sets-for-25-cities
#19
Rainer Kujala, Christoffer Weckström, Richard K Darst, Miloš N Mladenović, Jari Saramäki
Various public transport (PT) agencies publish their route and timetable information with the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) as the standard open format. Timetable data are commonly used for PT passenger routing. They can also be used for studying the structure and organization of PT networks, as well as the accessibility and the level of service these networks provide. However, using raw GTFS data is challenging as researchers need to understand the details of the GTFS data format, make sure that the data contain all relevant modes of public transport, and have no errors...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761100/moving-the-cellular-peptidome-by-transporters
#20
REVIEW
Rupert Abele, Robert Tampé
Living matter is defined by metastability, implying a tightly balanced synthesis and turnover of cellular components. The first step of eukaryotic protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) leads to peptides, which are subsequently degraded to single amino acids by an armada of proteases. A small fraction of peptides, however, escapes further cytosolic destruction and is transported by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lysosomes. The ER-resident heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a crucial component in adaptive immunity for the transport and loading of peptides onto major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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