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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812747/identifying-the-charge-generation-dynamics-in-cs-based-triple-cation-mixed-perovskite-solar-cells
#1
Manuel Salado, Ramesh K Kokal, Laura Calio, Samrana Kazim, Melepurath Deepa, Shahzada Ahmad
Triple cation based perovskite solar cells offer enhanced moisture tolerance and stability compared to mixed perovskites. Slight substitution of methyl ammonium or formamidinium cation by cesium (Cs(+)), was also reported to eliminate halide segregation due to its smaller size. To elucidate the device kinetics and understand the role of the Cs, we undertook different modes of scanning probe microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments. Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the incorporation of the Cs cation increases the contact potential difference (CPD), this CPD further increases when Spiro-OMeTAD is used as a hole transport material...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811154/theoretical-study-on-electron-structure-and-charge-transport-properties-of-tetraazapentacene-derivatives
#2
Xiao-Dan Tang
By Means of Marcus electron transfer theory, the charge transport properties of tetraazapentacene (4N-PEN) derivatives were systematically explored. The reorganization energies were studied by both adiabatic potential-energy surfaces and normal mode analysis. The charge diffusion constants were evaluated from the random walk simulation. From the perspective of homology modeling, a selected 4N-PEN derivative without experimental crystal structure was built into three kinds of possible packing modes with reference to its relative analogues and then fully optimized...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810750/the-metal-insulator-transition-in-the-organic-conductor-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-bedt-ttf-2hg-scn-2cl
#3
Weiwu Li, Eva Rose, Minh Vu Tran, Ralph Hübner, Andrzej Łapiński, Roman Świetlik, Svetlana A Torunova, Elena I Zhilyaeva, Rimma N Lyubovskaya, Martin Dressel
We explore the nature of the metal-insulator transition in the two-dimensional organic compound β(″)-(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Cl by x-ray, electrical transport, ESR, Raman, and infrared investigations. Magnetic and vibrational spectroscopy concurrently reveal a gradual dimerization along the stacking direction (a-b), setting in already at the crossover temperature of 150 K from the metallic to the insulating state. A spin gap of Δσ=47 meV is extracted. From the activated resistivity behavior below T = 55 K, a charge gap of Δρ=60 meV is derived...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809754/associations-of-built-environment-and-children-s-physical-activity-a-narrative-review
#4
Houshmand E Masoumi
PROBLEM: Childhood obesity has been an epidemic particularly in high-income countries. There is a considerable volume of data and studies depicting the rising number of obese children and adolescents in different countries. As suggested by the literature, physical inactivity is one the main drivers of childhood obesity. This paper addresses the associations of the built environment with physical activity of children in order to find to theoretically facilitate intervention and prevention measures...
August 15, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809455/a-nanophotonic-structure-containing-living-photosynthetic-bacteria
#5
David Coles, Lucas C Flatten, Thomas Sydney, Emily Hounslow, Semion K Saikin, Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Vlatko Vedral, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang Tang, Robert A Taylor, Jason M Smith, David G Lidzey
Photosynthetic organisms rely on a series of self-assembled nanostructures with tuned electronic energy levels in order to transport energy from where it is collected by photon absorption, to reaction centers where the energy is used to drive chemical reactions. In the photosynthetic bacteria Chlorobaculum tepidum, a member of the green sulfur bacteria family, light is absorbed by large antenna complexes called chlorosomes to create an exciton. The exciton is transferred to a protein baseplate attached to the chlorosome, before migrating through the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex to the reaction center...
August 15, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808258/hexahydroquinolines-are-antimalarial-candidates-with-potent-blood-stage-and-transmission-blocking-activity
#6
Manu Vanaerschot, Leonardo Lucantoni, Tao Li, Jill M Combrinck, Andrea Ruecker, T R Santha Kumar, Kelly Rubiano, Pedro E Ferreira, Giulia Siciliano, Sonia Gulati, Philipp P Henrich, Caroline L Ng, James M Murithi, Victoria C Corey, Sandra Duffy, Ori J Lieberman, M Isabel Veiga, Robert E Sinden, Pietro Alano, Michael J Delves, Kim Lee Sim, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Timothy J Egan, Stephen L Hoffman, Vicky M Avery, David A Fidock
Antimalarial compounds with dual therapeutic and transmission-blocking activity are desired as high-value partners for combination therapies. Here, we report the identification and characterization of hexahydroquinolines (HHQs) that show low nanomolar potency against both pathogenic and transmissible intra-erythrocytic forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This activity translates into potent transmission-blocking potential, as shown by in vitro male gamete formation assays and reduced oocyst infection and prevalence in Anopheles mosquitoes...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806692/microplastic-pollution-identified-in-deep-sea-water-and-ingested-by-benthic-invertebrates-in-the-rockall-trough-north-atlantic-ocean
#7
Winnie Courtene-Jones, Brian Quinn, Stefan F Gary, Andrew O M Mogg, Bhavani E Narayanaswamy
Microplastics are widespread in the natural environment and present numerous ecological threats. While the ultimate fate of marine microplastics are not well known, it is hypothesized that the deep sea is the final sink for this anthropogenic contaminant. This study provides a quantification and characterisation of microplastic pollution ingested by benthic macroinvertebrates with different feeding modes (Ophiomusium lymani, Hymenaster pellucidus and Colus jeffreysianus) and in adjacent deep water > 2200 m, in the Rockall Trough, Northeast Atlantic Ocean...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806279/ce-can-your-older-patients-drive-safely
#8
Loren Staplin, Kathy H Lococo, Tia Mastromatto, Kathy J Sifrit, Kathleen M Trazzera
A review of the functional impairments and situations that put older drivers at risk. ABSTRACT: In many areas of the world, driving is an essential part of life and for reasons of comfort, convenience, and security remains the primary mode of transportation among older adults. Both normal aging and diseases that are more prevalent in advanced age can substantially reduce older drivers' functional abilities, elevating their risk of involvement in motor vehicle accidents and serious injury or death...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804969/on-chip-andreev-devices-hard-superconducting-gap-and-quantum-transport-in-ballistic-nb-in0-75-ga0-25-as-quantum-well-nb-josephson-junctions
#9
Kaveh Delfanazari, Reuben K Puddy, Pengcheng Ma, Teng Yi, Moda Cao, Yilmaz Gul, Ian Farrer, David A Ritchie, Hannah J Joyce, Michael J Kelly, Charles G Smith
A superconducting hard gap in hybrid superconductor-semiconductor devices has been found to be necessary to access topological superconductivity that hosts Majorana modes (non-Abelian excitation). This requires the formation of homogeneous and barrier-free interfaces between the superconductor and semiconductor. Here, a new platform is reported for topological superconductivity based on hybrid Nb-In0.75 Ga0.25 As-quantum-well-Nb that results in hard superconducting gap detection in symmetric, planar, and ballistic Josephson junctions...
August 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801408/a-cross-sectional-study-of-travel-patterns-of-older-adults-in-the-usa-during-2015-implications-for-mobility-and-traffic-safety
#10
Sijun Shen, Wilson Koech, Jing Feng, Thomas M Rice, Motao Zhu
BACKGROUND: With an ever increasing population of older adults (65+ years) in the USA, a better understanding of this population's travel patterns is needed to improve travel mobility and transportation safety. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we described the travel patterns of older adults in the USA during 2015. METHODS: Travel patterns of older adults (65-74 and 75+ years) were compared with younger adults (25-64 years) by frequency and proportion of daily trips...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800966/reconstruction-of-a-metabolic-regulatory-network-in-escherichia-coli-for-purposeful-switching-from-cell-growth-mode-to-production-mode-in-direct-gaba-fermentation-from-glucose
#11
Yuki Soma, Yuri Fujiwara, Takuya Nakagawa, Keigo Tsuruno, Taizo Hanai
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a drug and functional food additive and is used as a monomer for producing the biodegradable plastic, polyamide 4. Recently, direct GABA fermentation from glucose has been developed as an alternative to glutamate-based whole cell bioconversion. Although total productivity in fermentation is determined by the specific productivity and cell amount responsible for GABA production, the optimal metabolic state for GABA production conflicts with that for bacterial cell growth. Herein, we demonstrated metabolic state switching from the cell growth mode based on the metabolic pathways of the wild type strain to a GABA production mode based on a synthetic metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli through rewriting of the metabolic regulatory network and pathway engineering...
August 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800508/a-suspending-droplet-mode-paper-based-microfluidic-platform-for-low-cost-rapid-and-convenient-detection-of-lead-ii-ions-in-liquid-solution
#12
Han Sun, Wanbo Li, Zhen-Zhen Dong, Chong Hu, Chung-Hang Leung, Dik-Lung Ma, Kangning Ren
A paper-based microfluidic device based on unconventional principle was developed and used to detect lead ions through a two-step process including heated incubation and subsequent mixing. The device was made by generating a superhydrophobic pattern, which defines channel and reservoir barriers, on a water-impermeable paper substrate, followed by loading and drying the reagents in the defined reservoirs. Different from the conventional paper-based devices that are made of water-permeable paper, the as-prepared device holds water drops in discrete reservoirs, and the water drops will not move unless the device is titled along the direction of the predefined channels...
August 1, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799051/measuring-the-internal-concentration-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-small-organisms-using-micro-quechers-coupled-to-lvi-gc-ms-ms
#13
Denise Kurth, Martin Krauss, Tobias Schulze, Werner Brack
There is an increasing demand for analytical tools to measure the internal concentrations of xenobiotic pollutants in small organisms. Such tools are required to determine exposure in ecotoxicological studies yet avoid sophisticated clean-up and enrichment techniques or large-scale experimental design. Thus, this paper presents a modified QuEChERS method coupled to gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for small volume organic samples. Ten zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to a 46-compound mixture at 10 ng/mL...
August 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797691/antidepressant-like-activity-of-venlafaxine-and-clonidine-in-mice-exposed-to-single-prolonged-stress-a-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-pharmacodynamic-and-molecular-docking-studies
#14
Natalia Malikowska, Łukasz Fijałkowski, Alicja Nowaczyk, Piotr Popik, Kinga Sałat
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a growing issue worldwide characterized by stress and anxiety in response to re-experiencing traumatic events which strongly impair patient's quality of life and social functions. Available antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs are not efficacious in the majority of treated individuals. This necessitates a significant medical demand to develop novel therapeutic strategies for PTSD. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Animal model of PTSD was induced using a mouse single prolonged stress protocol (mSPS)...
August 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794401/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-root-cells-and-interdental-cells-in-the-rat-inner-ear-by-serial-section-scanning-electron-microscopy
#15
Ryusuke Shodo, Manabu Hayatsu, Daisuke Koga, Arata Horii, Tatsuo Ushiki
In the cochlea, a high K(+) environment in the endolymph is essential for the maintenance of normal hearing function, and the transport of K(+) ions through gap junctions of the cochlear epithelium is thought to play an important role in endolymphatic homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure of spiral ligament root cells and interdental cells, which are located at both ends of the gap junction system of the cochlea epithelium. Serial semi-thin sections of plastic-embedded rat cochlea were mounted on glass slides, stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the backscattered electron (BSE) mode...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793901/mobility-assessment-of-a-rural-population-in-the-netherlands-using-gps-measurements
#16
Gijs Klous, Lidwien A M Smit, Floor Borlée, Roel A Coutinho, Mirjam E E Kretzschmar, Dick J J Heederik, Anke Huss
BACKGROUND: The home address is a common spatial proxy for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies but mobility may introduce exposure misclassification. Mobility can be assessed using self-reports or objectively measured using GPS logging but self-reports may not assess the same information as measured mobility. We aimed to assess mobility patterns of a rural population in the Netherlands using GPS measurements and self-reports and to compare GPS measured to self-reported data, and to evaluate correlates of differences in mobility patterns...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793216/smit1-modifies-kcnq-channel-function-and-pharmacology-by-physical-interaction-with-the-pore
#17
Rían W Manville, Daniel L Neverisky, Geoffrey W Abbott
Voltage-gated potassium channels of the KCNQ (Kv7) subfamily are essential for control of cellular excitability and repolarization in a wide range of cell types. Recently, we and others found that some KCNQ channels functionally and physically interact with sodium-dependent solute transporters, including myo-inositol transporters SMIT1 and SMIT2, potentially facilitating various modes of channel-transporter signal integration. In contrast to indirect effects such as channel regulation by SMIT-transported, myo-inositol-derived phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), the mechanisms and functional consequences of the physical interaction of channels with transporters have been little studied...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791516/nlscore-a-novel-quantitative-algorithm-based-on-3-dimensional-structural-determinants-to-predict-the-probability-of-nuclear-localization-in-proteins-containing-classical-nuclear-localization-signals
#18
P S Hari, T S Sridhar, R Pravin Kumar
The presence of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in proteins can be inferred by the presence of a stretch of basic amino acids (KRKK). These NLSs are termed classical NLS (cNLS). However, only a fraction of proteins containing the cNLS pattern are transported into the nucleus by binding to importin α. Hence, there must exist, additional structural determinants that guide the appropriate interaction between putative NLSs containing cargo and importin α. Using 52 protein structures containing cNLS obtained from RCSB PDB, we assembled a training set and a validation set such that both sets were comprised of a combination of proteins with proven nuclear localization and ones that were non-nuclear...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782554/endocytosis-in-primary-mesenchyme-cells-during-sea-urchin-larval-skeletogenesis
#19
Christopher E Killian, Fred H Wilt
The sea urchin larval embryo elaborates two calcitic endoskeletal elements called spicules. Spicules are synthesized by the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and begin to form at early gastrula stage. It is known that the calcium comprising the spicules comes from the seawater and we wish to further consider the mode of calcium transport from the extracellular seawater to the PMCs and then onto the forming spicules. We used PMC in vitro cultures, calcein, fluorescently labeled dextran, and fluorescently labeled Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) to track calcium transport from the seawater into PMCs and spicules and to determine how molecules from the surface of PMCs interact with the incoming calcium...
August 3, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774282/interaction-between-nfatc2-and-the-transcription-factor-sp1-in-pancreatic-carcinoma-cells-patu-8988t
#20
Manuela Malsy, Bernhard Graf, Katrin Almstedt
BACKGROUND: Nuclear factors of activated T-cells (NFATs) have been mainly characterized in the context of immune response regulation because, as transcription factors, they have the ability to induce gene transcription. NFAT proteins are found in several types of tumors, for instance, pancreatic carcinoma. The role of NFATs in carcinogenesis is regulating central genes in cell differentiation and cell growth. NFAT proteins are primarily located in cytoplasm and only transported to the cell nucleus after activation...
August 3, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
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