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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150447/the-prototypical-proton-coupled-oligopeptide-transporter-ydgr-from-escherichia-coli-facilitates-chloramphenicol-uptake-into-bacterial-cells
#1
Bala K Prabhala, Nanda G Aduri, Neha Sharma, Aqsa Shaheen, Arpan Sharma, Mazhar Iqbal, Paul R Hansen, Christoffer Brasen, Michael Gajhede, Moazur Rahman, Osman Mirza
Chloramphenicol (Cam) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to combat bacterial infections in humans and animals. Cam export from bacterial cells is one of the mechanisms by which pathogens resist Cam's antibacterial effects, and several different proteins are known to facilitate this process. However, to date no report exists on any specific transport protein that facilitates Cam uptake. The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter (POT) YdgR from Escherichia coli is a prototypical member of the POT family, functioning in proton-coupled uptake of di- and tripeptides...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148784/multistage-transformation-and-lattice-fluctuation-at-agcl-ag-interface
#2
Jingshan S Du, Jungwon Park, QHwan Kim, Wonho Jhe, Vinayak P Dravid, Deren Yang, David A Weitz
Solid-state transformation between different materials is often accompanied by mechanical expansion and compression due to their volume change and structural evolution at interfaces. However, these two types of dynamics are usually difficult to monitor in the same time. In this work, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to directly study the reduction transformation at the AgCl-Ag interface. Three stages of lattice fluctuations were identified and correlated to the structural evolution. During the steady state, a quasi-layered growth mode of Ag in both vertical and lateral directions were observed due to the confinement of AgCl lattices...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148062/flagellar-incorporation-of-proteins-follows-at-least-two-different-routes-in-trypanosomes
#3
Laetitia Vincensini, Thierry Blisnick, Eloïse Bertiaux, Sebastian Hutchinson, Christina Georgikou, Cher-Pheng Ooi, Philippe Bastin
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are sophisticated organelles composed of several hundreds of proteins that need to be incorporated at the right time and the right place during assembly. RESULTS: Two methods were used to investigate this process in the model protist Trypanosoma brucei: inducible expression of epitope-tagged labelled proteins and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of fluorescent fusion proteins. This revealed that skeletal components of the radial spokes (RSP3), the central pair (PF16) and the outer dynein arms (DNAI1) are incorporated at the distal end of the growing flagellum...
November 16, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147512/on-the-performance-of-a-photosystem-ii-reaction-centre-based-photocell
#4
Richard Stones, Hoda Hossein-Nejad, Rienk van Grondelle, Alexandra Olaya-Castro
The photosystem II reaction centre is the photosynthetic complex responsible for oxygen production on Earth. Its water splitting function is particularly favoured by the formation of a stable charge separated state via a pathway that starts at an accessory chlorophyll. Here we envision a photovoltaic device that places one of these complexes between electrodes and investigate how the mean current and its fluctuations depend on the microscopic interactions underlying charge separation in the pathway considered...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143530/modulation-of-spatio-temporal-particle-patterning-in-evaporating-droplets-applications-to-diagnostics-and-materials-science
#5
Rajarshi Guha, Farzad Mohajerani, Ahana Mukhopadhyay, Matthew Collins, Ayusman Sen, Darrell Velegol
Spatio-temporal particle patterning in evaporating droplets lacks a common design framework. Here, we demonstrate autonomous control of particle distribution in evaporating droplets through the imposition of a salt-induced self-generated electric field as a generalized patterning strategy. Through modeling, a new dimensionless number, termed "capillary-phoresis number" (CP), arises which determines the relative contributions of electrokinetic and convective transport to pattern formation, enabling one to accurately predict the mode of particle assembly by controlling the spontaneous electric field and surface potentials...
November 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140639/determining-the-effectiveness-of-mirrors-and-camera-systems-in-monitoring-the-rearward-visibility-of-self-propelled-agricultural-machinery
#6
Shawn G Ehlers, William E Field
This study concerned the ability of operators of tractors and other self-propelled agricultural machinery to visually recognize objects and/or hazards within close proximity to the rear of those machines and/or any implements in tow, especially when backing up. It was hypothesized that the data collected would identify the factors affecting rearward visibility and help determine the effectiveness of two backup-assisting devices (i.e., mirrors and camera systems) in enhancing the operator's ability to observe objects or hazards...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138418/spiral-modes-and-the-observation-of-quantized-conductance-in-the-surface-bands-of-bismuth-nanowires
#7
Tito E Huber, Scott Johnson, Leonid Konopko, Albina Nikolaeva, Anna Kobylianskaya, Michael J Graf
When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanical transport phenomena and high mobility can be observed. Few demonstrations of these behaviours in surface spin-orbit bands exist. Here, we report the observation of quantized conductance in the surface bands of 50-nm Bi nanowires. With increasing magnetic fields oriented along the wire axis, the wires exhibit a stepwise increase in conductance and oscillatory thermopower, possibly due to an increased number of high-mobility spiral surface modes based on spin-split bands...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137798/experimental-study-on-viscosity-reduction-for-residual-oil-by-ultrasonic
#8
Xintong Huang, Cuihong Zhou, Quanyu Suo, Lanting Zhang, Shihan Wang
Because of characteristics of large density, high viscosity and poor mobility, the processing and transportation of residual oil are difficult and challenging, viscosity reduction of residual oil is of great significance. In this paper, the effects of different placement forms of ultrasonic transducers on the sound pressure distribution of ultrasonic inside a cubic container have been simulated, the characteristics of oil bath heating and ultrasonic viscosity reduction were compared, viscosity reduction rule of residual oil was experimentally analyzed by utilizing Response Surface Method under conditions of changing ultrasonic exposure time, power and action mode, the mechanism of viscosity reduction was studied by applying Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the viscosity retentivity experiment was carried out at last...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132230/combination-therapy-for-obesity
#9
John Ph Wilding
Obesity is a chronic disease with serious consequences and although lifestyle modification is considered first line treatment, it is often ineffective, especially in the long term. Relatively few people with obesity will undergo the most effective currently available treatment of bariatric surgery. Pharmacotherapy can bridge the gap between lifestyle modification and surgery, but many monotherapies have only modest efficacy or require high doses with unacceptable side effects. As with many other areas of medicine, combination therapy is now becoming accepted as a way of optimising efficacy for weight management, whilst minimising adverse effects...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131632/spontaneous-microstructure-formation-at-water-paraffin-oil-interfaces
#10
Murielle Schmitt, Ritu Toor, Renaud Denoyel, Mickaël Antoni
An experimental investigation of spontaneous emulsification is proposed with water drops pendant in a paraffin oil (PO) solution loaded with a surfactant (SPAN80). Optical microscopy in transmission mode is employed for high spatial resolution image recording. The kinetics of spontaneous emulsification is studied. It is shown to generate a darkening of the drops due to interface modification with a characteristic time that depends upon the SPAN80 concentration. For low concentrations, spontaneous emulsification is slow and produces micrometer sized droplets while for large concentrations, it is fast and bush-like microstructures are observed...
November 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131531/modifying-expression-modes-of-human-neurotensin-receptor-type-1-alters-sensing-capabilities-for-agonists-in-yeast-signaling-biosensor
#11
Hiroki Hashi, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Jun Ishii, Akihiko Kondo
Neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is naturally activated by binding of a neurotensin peptide, leading to a variety of physiological effects. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a proven host organism for assaying the agonistic activation of human GPCRs. Previous studies showed that yeast cells can functionally express human NTSR1 receptor, permitting the detection of neurotensin-promoted signaling using a ZsGreen fluorescent reporter gene...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131229/phonon-coupling-and-transport-in-individual-polyethylene-chains-a-comparison-study-with-the-bulk-crystal
#12
Xinjiang Wang, Massoud Kaviany, Baoling Huang
Using the first-principles-based anharmonic lattice dynamics, we calculate the thermal conductivities (κ) of both bulk and single-chain polyethylene (PE) and characterize the mode-wise phonon transport and scattering channels. A significantly higher room-temperature axial thermal conductivity in single-chain PE (1400 W m(-1) K(-1)) is observed compared to bulk PE crystals (237 W m(-1) K(-1)). The reduction of scattering phase space caused by the diminished inter-chain van der Waals interactions explains the much larger κ in single-chain PE...
November 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125467/strain-induced-enhancement-of-thermoelectric-performance-of-tis2-monolayer-based-on-first-principles-phonon-and-electron-band-structures
#13
Guanpeng Li, Kailun Yao, G Y Gao
Using first-principle calculations combined with Boltzmann transport theory, we investigate the biaxial strain effect on the electronic and phonon thermal transport properties of 1T (CdI2-type) structural TiS2 monolayer, a recent experimental two-dimensional (2D) material. It is found that the electronic band structure can be effectively modulated and the band gap experiences the indirect-direct-indirect transition with increasing tensile strain. The band convergence induced by the tensile strain increases the Seebeck coefficient and the power factor, meanwhile the lattice thermal conductivity is decreased under the tensile strain due to the decreasing group velocity and the increasing scattering chances between the acoustic phonon modes and the optical phonon modes, which together greatly increase the thermoelectric performance...
November 10, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124104/built-environment-and-active-commuting-rural-urban-differences-in-the-u-s
#14
Jessie X Fan, Ming Wen, Neng Wan
The purpose of this research was to investigate rural-urban differences in participation rates in three modes of active commuting (AC) and their built environmental correlates. The 2010 Census supplemented with other datasets were used to analyze AC rates in percent of workers age 16+ walking, biking, or taking public transportation to work in 70,172 Census tracts, including 12,844 rural and 57,328 urban. Random-intercept factional logit regressions were used to account for zero-inflated data and for clustering of tracts within counties...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121854/monitoring-interactions-inside-cells-by-advanced-spectroscopies-overview-of-copper-transporters-and-cisplatin
#15
Alessia Lasorsa, Giovanni Natile, Antonio Rosato, Francesco Tadini-Buoninsegni, Fabio Arnesano
BACKGROUND: Resistance, either at the onset of the treatment or developed after an initial positive response, is a major limitation of antitumor therapy. In the case of platinum-based drugs, copper transporters have been found to interfere with drug trafficking by facilitating the import or favoring the platinum export and inactivation. METHODS: The use of powerful spectroscopic, spectrometric and computational methods have allowed a deep structural insight into the mode of interaction of platinum drugs with the metal-binding domains of the transporter proteins...
November 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121096/personal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution-while-commuting-an-examination-of-six-transport-modes-on-an-urban-arterial-roadway
#16
Robert A Chaney, Chantel D Sloan, Victoria C Cooper, Daniel R Robinson, Nathan R Hendrickson, Tyler A McCord, James D Johnston
Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters' daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train) simultaneously on a single 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120369/begomoviral-movement-protein-effects-in-human-and-plant-cells-towards-new-potential-interaction-partners
#17
Susanna Krapp, Christian Schuy, Eva Greiner, Irina Stephan, Barbara Alberter, Christina Funk, Manfred Marschall, Christina Wege, Susanne M Bailer, Tatjana Kleinow, Björn Krenz
Geminiviral single-stranded circular DNA genomes replicate in nuclei so that the progeny DNA has to cross both the nuclear envelope and the plasmodesmata for systemic spread within plant tissues. For intra- and intercellular transport, two proteins are required: a nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) and a movement protein (MP). New characteristics of ectopically produced Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) MP (MP(AbMV)), either authentically expressed or fused to a yellow fluorescent protein or epitope tags, respectively, were determined by localization studies in mammalian cell lines in comparison to plant cells...
November 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119545/mechanisms-of-nuclear-pore-complex-assembly-two-different-ways-of-building-one-molecular-machine
#18
REVIEW
Shotaro Otsuka, Jan Ellenberg
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates all macromolecular transport across the nuclear envelope. In higher eukaryotes that have an open mitosis, NPCs assemble at two points in the cell-cycle: during nuclear assembly in late mitosis and during nuclear growth in interphase. How the NPC, the largest non-polymeric protein complex in eukaryotic cells, self-assembles inside cells remained unclear. Recent studies have started to uncover the assembly process, and evidence has been accumulating that postmitotic and interphase NPC assembly use fundamentally different mechanisms; the duration, structural intermediates, and regulation by molecular players are different and different types of membrane deformation are involved...
November 8, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114672/the-critical-role-of-dimer-formation-in-monosaccharides-binding-to-human-serum-albumin
#19
Prapasiri Pongprayoon, Toshifumi Mori
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant transport protein found in human blood. HSA is known to bind a wide range of drugs and monosaccharides, but where and how these molecules bind are largely unknown. Recently, a crystal structure of glycated HSA has been reported, and interestingly, in that structure two glucose molecules have been located in pyranose (GLC) and open chain (GLO) forms bound in the same binding pocket (Sudlow site I). Molecular simulations also proposed two binding modes of GLC and GLO (binding two ligands either in a distant location or in close contact)...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114403/transcriptomic-analysis-of-aerobic-respiratory-and-anaerobic-photosynthetic-states-in-rhodobacter-capsulatus-and-their-modulation-by-global-redox-regulators-rega-fnrl-and-crtj
#20
Joseph E Kumka, Heidi Schindel, Mingxu Fang, Sebastien Zappa, Carl E Bauer
Anoxygenicphotosynthetic prokaryotes have simplified photosystems that represent ancient lineages that predate the more complex oxygen evolving photosystems present in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. These organisms thrive under illuminated anaerobic photosynthetic conditions, but also have the ability to grow under dark aerobic respiratory conditions. This study provides a detailed snapshot of transcription ground states of both dark aerobic and anaerobic photosynthetic growth modes in the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobactercapsulatus...
September 2017: Microbial Genomics
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