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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433989/oral-contraceptives-after-bariatric-surgery
#1
Joël Schlatter
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery offers a highly effective mode of treatment for obese patients. Some procedures such as bypass cause an alteration in normal gastrointestinal tract with possible consequences for the uptake of orally administered drugs. METHODS: We assessed the literature to ascertain whether the use of oral drugs and especially oral contraceptives is effective and adequate after bariatric surgery. RESULTS: The bioavailability of drugs could be affected by the solubility and pH of the modified medium after bariatric surgery and by the loss of gastrointestinal transporters...
April 22, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433734/prospective-association-of-fetal-liver-blood-flow-at-30-weeks-gestation-with-newborn-adiposity
#2
Satoru Ikenoue, Feizal Waffarn, Masanao Ohashi, Kaeko Sumiyoshi, Chigusa Ikenoue, Claudia Buss, Daniel L Gillen, Hyagriv N Simhan, Sonja Entringer, Pathik D Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: The production of variation in adipose tissue accretion represents a key fetal adaptation to energy substrate availability during gestation. Because umbilical venous blood transports nutrient substrate from the maternal to the fetal compartment, and the fetal liver is the primary organ where nutrient inter-conversion occurs, it has been proposed that variations in the relative distribution of umbilical venous blood flow shunting either through ductus venosus or perfusing the fetal liver represents a mechanism underlying this adaptation...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433162/tocopheryl-acetate-release-from-microcapsules-of-waxy-maize-starch
#3
Naksit Panyoyai, Robert A Shanks, Stefan Kasapis
Diffusion coefficients are utilised to provide a realistic approach in the quantification of mass transport phenomena, which are important for the delivery of bioactivity from high-solid biopolymer systems. Following this mechanistic consideration, we employ spray drying to produce microcapsules of waxy maize starch that suspend homogeneously tocopheryl acetate. An array of physicochemical techniques including dynamic oscillation in-shear or compression mode, microDSC, WAXD, FTIR, scanning electron or optical microscopy, and UV-vis assays were utilised to relate structural properties of the macromolecular network to diffusivity of the bioactive compound...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432302/a-bacterial-abc-transporter-enables-import-of-mammalian-host-glycosaminoglycans
#4
Sayoko Oiki, Bunzo Mikami, Yukie Maruyama, Kousaku Murata, Wataru Hashimoto
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin, constitute mammalian extracellular matrices. The uronate and amino sugar residues in hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate are linked by 1,3-glycoside bond, while heparin contains 1,4-glycoside bond. Some bacteria target GAGs as means of establishing colonization and/or infection, and bacterial degradation mechanisms of GAGs have been well characterized. However, little is known about the bacterial import of GAGs. Here, we show a GAG import system, comprised of a solute-binding protein (Smon0123)-dependent ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, in the pathogenic Streptobacillus moniliformis...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432142/structural-similarities-between-neuregulin-1-3-isoforms-determine-their-subcellular-distribution-and-signaling-mode-in-central-neurons
#5
Detlef Vullhorst, Tanveer Ahmad, Irina Karavanova, Carolyn Keating, Andres Buonanno
The Neuregulin (NRG) family of ErbB ligands is comprised of numerous variants originating from the use of different genes, alternative promoters and splice variants. NRGs have generally been thought to be transported to axons and presynaptic terminals where they signal via ErbB3/4 receptors in paracrine or juxtacrine mode. However, we recently demonstrated that unprocessed pro-NRG2 accumulates on cell bodies and proximal dendrites, and that NMDAR activity is required for shedding of its ectodomain by metalloproteinases...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431486/evaluating-the-operational-risks-of-biomedical-waste-using-failure-mode-and-effects-analysis
#6
Ying-Chu Chen, Pei-Yi Tsai
The potential problems and risks of biomedical waste generation have become increasingly apparent in recent years. This study applied a failure mode and effects analysis to evaluate the operational problems and risks of biomedical waste. The microbiological contamination of biomedical waste seldom receives the attention of researchers. In this study, the biomedical waste lifecycle was divided into seven processes: Production, classification, packaging, sterilisation, weighing, storage, and transportation. Twenty main failure modes were identified in these phases and risks were assessed based on their risk priority numbers...
April 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431476/a-consensus-statement-for-the-clinical-use-of-the-renal-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
A Avogaro, A Giaccari, P Fioretto, S Genovese, F Purrello, F Giorgino, S Del Prato
The present review developed a clinical consensus based on a Delphi method on Dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of the renal sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2-I) in the treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Areas covered: Panel members, using a 5-point scale, were asked to rate 9 statements on pharmakodinamic, mode of action on glycaemic and extra-glycaemic effects, and safety of dapaglifozin, Members also aimed to identify the patient most susceptible to the treatment with dapagliflozin ...
April 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427367/determinants-of-delayed-care-seeking-for-tb-suggestive-symptoms-in-seru-district-oromiya-region-ethiopia-a-community-based-unmatched-case-control-study
#8
Robel Yirgu, Firaol Lemessa, Selamawit Hirpa, Abraham Alemayehu, Eveline Klinkenberg
BACKGROUND: Early tuberculosis (TB) case finding and adequate chemotherapy are essential for interrupting disease transmission and preventing complications due to delayed care seeking. This study was undertaken in order to provide insights into the magnitude and determinants of patient delay. METHODS: The study was conducted in rural Seru district, employing a population based unmatched case-control study design. The WHO standardized TB screening tool was used to identify presumptive TB cases among the district population ages > 15 years...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425899/associations-between-the-local-food-environment-and-the-severity-of-food-insecurity-among-new-families-using-community-food-security-interventions-in-montreal
#9
Elsury Pérez, Federico Roncarolo, Louise Potvin
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed baseline data from 785 adults aged 18-65 years enrolled in the evaluation of the effects of organizations delivering community food security interventions in Montreal. The dependent variable was household food insecurity, while the independent variable was the local food environment, assessed through: location of the most frequently used grocery store, distance between the participant's residence and the community organization used, mode of transportation, walking time to the most frequently used grocery store, satisfaction with the acceptability and affordability of food available at the most frequently used grocery store, and self-reported difficulties in accessing food...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425481/differences-in-salicylic-acid-glucose-conjugations-by-ugt74f1-and-ugt74f2-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Alayna M George Thompson, Cristina V Iancu, Kenneth E Neet, John V Dean, Jun-Yong Choe
Salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule utilized by plants in response to various stresses. Through conjugation with small organic molecules such as glucose, an inactive form of SA is generated which can be transported into and stored in plant vacuoles. In the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, SA glucose conjugates are formed by two homologous enzymes (UGT74F1 and UGT74F2) that transfer glucose from UDP-glucose to SA. Despite being 77% identical and with conserved active site residues, these enzymes catalyze the formation of different products: UGT74F1 forms salicylic acid glucoside (SAG), while UGT74F2 forms primarily salicylic acid glucose ester (SGE)...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424154/association-between-active-commuting-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-cancer-and-mortality-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Carlos A Celis-Morales, Donald M Lyall, Paul Welsh, Jana Anderson, Lewis Steell, Yibing Guo, Reno Maldonado, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell, Naveed Sattar, Jason M R Gill
Objective To investigate the association between active commuting and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all cause mortality.Design Prospective population based study. Setting UK Biobank.Participants 263 450 participants (106 674 (52%) women; mean age 52.6), recruited from 22 sites across the UK. The exposure variable was the mode of transport used (walking, cycling, mixed mode v non-active (car or public transport)) to commute to and from work on a typical day.Main outcome measures Incident (fatal and non-fatal) CVD and cancer, and deaths from CVD, cancer, or any causes...
April 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422165/structural-basis-of-inhibition-of-lipid-linked-oligosaccharide-flippase-pglk-by-a-conformational-nanobody
#12
Camilo Perez, Martin Köhler, Daniel Janser, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, Renato Zenobi, Kaspar P Locher
PglK is an ABC transporter that flips a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) that serves as a donor in protein N-glycosylation. Previous structures revealed two inward-facing conformations, both with very large separations of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), and a closed, ADP-bound state that featured an occluded cavity. To investigate additional states, we developed conformation-sensitive, single-domain camelid nanobodies (Nb) and studied their effect on PglK activity. Biochemical, structural, and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that one inhibitory Nb binds as a single copy to homodimeric PglK...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421744/a-mini-hip-hop-assay-uncovers-a-central-role-for-copper-and-zinc-in-the-antifungal-mode-of-action-of-allicin
#13
Thomas A K Prescott, Barry Panaretou
Garlic contains the organosulfur compound allicin which exhibits potent antifungal activity. Here we demonstrate the use of a highly simplified yeast chemical genetic screen to characterize its mode of action. By screening 24 validated yeast gene deletion "signature" strains for which hypersensitivity is characteristic for common antifungal modes of action, yeast lacking the high affinity Cu2+ transporter Ctr1 was found to be hypersensitive to allicin. Focusing on transition metal related genes identified two more hypersensitive strains lacking the Cu2+ and Zn2+ transcription factors Mac1 and Zap1...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420672/3d-motion-of-vesicles-along-microtubules-helps-them-to-circumvent-obstacles-in-cells
#14
Ione Verdeny-Vilanova, Fabian Wehnekamp, Nitin Mohan, Ángel Sandoval Álvarez, Joseph Steven Borbely, Jason John Otterstrom, Don C Lamb, Melike Lakadamyali
Vesicle transport is regulated at multiple levels including regulation by scaffolding proteins and the cytoskeleton. This tight regulation is essential since slowing or stoppage of transport can cause accumulation of obstacles and has been linked to diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which transport is regulated as well as how motor proteins overcome obstacles can give important clues as to how these mechanisms break down in disease states. Here, we describe that the cytoskeleton architecture impacts transport in a vesicle-size dependent manner, leading to pausing of vesicles larger than the separation of the microtubules...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419310/calmodulin-as-a-ca2-sensing-subunit-of-arabidopsis-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channel-complexes
#15
Cornelia Fischer, Thomas A DeFalco, Purva Karia, Wayne A Snedden, Wolfgang Moeder, Keiko Yoshioka, Petra Dietrich
Ca2+ serves as a universal second messenger in eukaryotic signaling pathways, and the spatial and temporal patterns of Ca2+ concentration changes are determined by feedback and feed-forward regulation of the involved transport proteins. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are Ca2+-permeable channels that interact with the ubiquitous Ca2+ sensor calmodulin (CaM). CNGCs interact with CaMs via diverse CaM-binding sites, including an IQ-motif, which has been identified in the C-termini of CNGC20 and CNGC12...
April 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419017/the-evaluation-of-trauma-care-the-comparison-of-2-high-level-pediatric-emergency-departments-in-the-united-states-and-turkey
#16
Alkan Bal, Michael Cooper, Amanda Lee, Murat Anil, Halim Hennes
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to compare the outcomes of pediatric trauma patients with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and motor vehicle versus pedestrian crashes (MPCs) at a level 1 pediatric trauma center in the United States and a pediatric trauma center in Turkey. METHODS: The medical records of all pediatric MVC and MPC subjects presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) of a level 3 hospital in Turkey (Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital [ITTRH]) and a level 1 pediatric trauma center in the United States (Children's Medical Center Dallas [CMCD]) over a 1-year period were reviewed...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417122/frequency-control-of-protein-translocation-across-an-oscillating-nanopore
#17
Fabio Cecconi, Muhammad Adnan Shahzad, Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi, Angelo Vulpiani
The translocation of a lipid binding protein (LBP) is studied using a phenomenological coarse-grained computational model that simplifies both chain and pore geometry. We investigated via molecular dynamics the interplay between transport and unfolding in the presence of a nanopore whose section oscillates periodically in time with a frequency ω, a motion often referred to as the radial breathing mode (RBM). We found that the LPB when mechanically pulled into the vibrating nanopore exhibits a translocation dynamics that in some frequency range is accelerated and shows a frequency locking to the pore dynamics...
April 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415375/nonlinear-monte-carlo-model-of-superdiffusive-shock-acceleration-with-magnetic-field-amplification
#18
Andrei M Bykov, Donald C Ellison, Sergei M Osipov
Fast collisionless shocks in cosmic plasmas convert their kinetic energy flow into the hot downstream thermal plasma with a substantial fraction of energy going into a broad spectrum of superthermal charged particles and magnetic fluctuations. The superthermal particles can penetrate into the shock upstream region producing an extended shock precursor. The cold upstream plasma flow is decelerated by the force provided by the superthermal particle pressure gradient. In high Mach number collisionless shocks, efficient particle acceleration is likely coupled with turbulent magnetic field amplification (MFA) generated by the anisotropic distribution of accelerated particles...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412622/population-production-pollution-nexus-based-air-pollution-management-model-for-alleviating-the-atmospheric-crisis-in-beijing-china
#19
X T Zeng, Y F Tong, L Cui, X M Kong, Y N Sheng, L Chen, Y P Li
In recent years, increscent emissions in the city of Beijing due to expanded population, accelerated industrialization and inter-regional pollutant transportation have led to hazardous atmospheric pollution issues. Although a number of anthropogenic control measures have been put into use, frequent/severe haze events have still challenged regional governments. In this study, a hybrid population-production-pollution nexus model (PPP) is proposed for air pollution management and air quality planning (AMP) with the aim to coordinate human activities and environmental protection...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411750/safety-of-air-travel-in-the-immediate-postoperative-period-after-anatomic-pulmonary-resection
#20
Stephen D Cassivi, Karlyn E Pierson, Bettie J Lechtenberg, Francis C Nichols, K Robert Shen, Mark S Allen, Dennis A Wigle
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine whether air travel in the immediate postoperative period after anatomic pulmonary resection is associated with increased morbidity or mortality. METHODS: All patients undergoing anatomic pulmonary resection at the Mayo Clinic (2005-2012) were identified and sent surveys querying their mode of transportation home after hospital dismissal and any complications encountered during or shortly after this travel. This included pneumonia, hospital readmission, deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, and specific pleural complications (pneumothorax, empyema, or chest tube placement)...
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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