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Muscle dysmorphia

Michelle Bubnis, Jason K Crandall, Mark Schafer, Frederick Grieve
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David Tod, Christian Edwards, Ieuan Cranswick
Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Hellen Clair Garcez Nabuco, Vanessa Behrends Rodrigues, Vânia Letícia Souza Fernandes, Fabrício César De Paula Ravagnani, Carlos Alexandre Fett, Mariano Martínez Espinosa, Christianne de Faria Coelho Ravagnani
BACKGROUND: Many factors can influence an athlete to consume dietary supplements, such as age, sex and sports, among others. Few studies regarding the prevalence and associated factors are available for athletes, especially in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the factors associated with the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 182 athletes of both sexes...
2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Deborah Mitchison, Jonathan Mond
Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males...
2015: Journal of Eating Disorders
Stuart B Murray, Scott Griffiths, Jonathan M Mond, Joseph Kean, Aaron J Blashill
OBJECTIVE: Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use has been robustly associated with negative body image, and eating- and muscularity-oriented psychopathology. However, with AAS being increasingly utilized for both appearance and athletic performance-related purposes, we investigated whether comorbid body image psychopathology varies as a function of motivation for usage. METHOD: Self-reported motivation for current and initial AAS use was recorded amongst 122 AAS using males, alongside measures of current disordered eating and muscle dysmorphia psychopathology...
August 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lachlan Mitchell, Stephen Cobley, Daniel Hackett, Janelle Gifford, Louise Capling, Stuart Murray, Helen O'Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Rachel Dryer, Melissa Farr, Izumi Hiramatsu, Stephanie Quinton
This study examined the mediating role of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism in the relationship between sociocultural influences (i.e., media, peer, and teasing) and symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) and eating disorders (ED). A nonclinical sample of males (N = 158, Mage = 26.94, SD = 5.50) completed measures of perfectionism, MD, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia. Susceptibility to appearance-based messages from the media, their peers, and family was also measured. Analyses confirmed the partial mediating role of self-oriented perfectionism only for drive for thinness...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Lachlan Mitchell, Stuart B Murray, Stephen Cobley, Daniel Hackett, Janelle Gifford, Louise Capling, Helen O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is associated with a self-perceived lack of size and muscularity, and is characterized by a preoccupation with and pursuit of a hyper-mesomorphic body. MD symptoms may hypothetically be more prevalent in bodybuilders (BBs) than in non-bodybuilder resistance trainers (NBBRTs). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare MD symptomatology in BBs versus NBBRTs and identify psychological and other characteristics associated with MD in these groups...
May 31, 2016: Sports Medicine
John D A Campagna, Barbara Bowsher
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and muscle dysmorphia (MD) in enlisted U.S. military personnel; and secondarily, to determine supplement use and relationship with BDD and MD. METHODS: A survey of advanced individual training of tri-service personnel at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, was performed combining the dysmorphia concern questionnaire, the MD symptom questionnaire, a supplement questionnaire, and demographic factors. RESULTS: Of the 1,320 service members approached, 1,150 (87...
May 2016: Military Medicine
Andrea Phillipou, David Castle
BACKGROUND: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a condition associated with a perceived defect or flaw in physical appearance and repetitive behaviours related to this perceived imperfection. BDD affects men and women approximately equally, although a variant called muscle dysmorphia occurs more frequently in males. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to provide general practitioners (GPs) with information related to the identification and management of individuals with BDD, especially males...
2015: Australian Family Physician
Andrea Phillipou, Douglas Blomeley, David J Castle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Celso Alves dos Santos Filho, Patrícia Passarelli Tirico, Sergio Carlos Stefano, Stephen W Touyz, Angélica Medeiros Claudino
OBJECTIVES: (1) To collect, analyze and synthetize the evidence on muscle dysmorphia diagnosis as defined by Pope et al. and (2) To discuss its appropriate nosology and inclusion as a specific category in psychiatric classificatory systems. METHOD: A systematic search in the MEDLINE, the PsycNET, the LILACS and SciELO databases and in the International Journal of Eating Disorders was conducted looking for articles published between January 1997 and October 2014 and in EMBASE database between January 1997 and August 2013...
April 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Emilio J Compte, Ana R Sepulveda, Fernando Torrente
OBJECTIVE: Studies using traditional screening instruments tend to report a lower prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) in men than is observed in women. It is therefore unclear whether such instruments are valid for the assessment of ED in males. Lack of a formal diagnostic definition of muscle dysmorphia syndrome (MD) makes it difficult to identify men at risk. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of ED and MD in male university students of Buenos Aires. METHOD: A cross-sectional, two-stage, representative survey was of 472 male students from six different schools in Buenos Aires, mostly aged between 18 and 28 years...
December 2015: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Asier Martínez Segura, Ernesto Cortés Castell, María Mercedes Rizo Baeza, Vicente F Gil Guillén
OBJECTIVE: it is an innovative study where has been analyzed the diet among gym users with Muscle Dysmorphia (MD) of gyms in the province of Alicante. METHODOLOGY: it have been analyzed 141 male gymnasts of several gyms of Alicante (urban area of southeastern Spanish) aged between 18-45 years old, who purpose increasing their muscle mass. Were considered BMI (kg/m2) and 24 hour diet. And it has been determined whether or not suffer MD trough Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale...
July 1, 2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Linda Lin, Frank DeCusati
Research suggests that peer muscularity norms preferences are related to men's body image, but little information is known about how perceptions of specific peer group norms preferences are related to men's body image disturbances and specific health behaviors. This study investigated how men perceived the muscularity preferences of male, female, close, and distant peers and whether the perceptions of specific peer preferences were related to muscle dysmorphia and steroid use. Data on muscle dysmorphia and the perceptions of peer muscularity norms were collected from 117 male college students...
July 31, 2015: American Journal of Men's Health
Daria Piacentino, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Antonio Del Casale, Maria Rosaria Aromatario, Cristoforo Pomara, Paolo Girardi, Gabriele Sani
The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) by professional and recreational athletes is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly performance enhancement and body image improvement. AAS abuse and dependence, which are specifically classified and coded by the DSM-5, are not uncommon. AAS-using athletes are frequently present with psychiatric symptoms and disorders, mainly somatoform and eating, but also mood, and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some psychiatric disorders are typical of athletes, like muscle dysmorphia...
January 2015: Current Neuropharmacology
Xinhong Jin, Yahong Jin, Shi Zhou, Xinhao Li, Shun-Nan Yang, Donglin Yang, Johanna E Nieuwoudt, Jiaxin Yao
Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is the distorted perception of men's own muscle appearance. The increasing popularity of weightlifting in Chinese men suggests the presence of MD. The study assessed the validity and reliability of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS) for its use on adult Chinese males. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of responses from 225 and 592 participants confirmed the same five factors for the 17-item Chinese version as the original MASS (CFI=.931, RMSEA=.052). The internal consistency for all factors were acceptable (Cronbach's α=...
June 2015: Body Image
Johanna E Nieuwoudt, Shi Zhou, Rosanne A Coutts, Ray Booker
The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26...
May 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Asier Martínez-Segura, Ernesto Cortés Castell, Natalia Martínez-Amorós, María Mercedes Rizo-Baeza
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence and diet supplements used among gym users with muscle dysmorphia (MD) in the province of Alicante. METHODOLOGY: Several gymnasts weights-lift rooms of the urban area of Alicante were analyzed, collecting measurements of 141 (18-45 years of age) males that pursue an increase in their muscle mass. BMI (kg/m2), type and consume of diet supplements have been checked; and has been determined whether or not the presence of DM through the muscle scale satisfaction...
2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mark D Griffiths, Andrew C Foster, Gillian W Shorter
BACKGROUND: Following the publication of our paper ‘Muscle Dysmorphia: Could it be classified as an addiction to body image?’ in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions, two commentaries by Jon Grant and Johanna Nieuwoudt were published in response to our paper. METHOD: Using the ‘addiction components model’, our main contention is that muscle dysmorphia (MD) actually comprises a number of different actions and behaviors and that the actual addictive activity is the maintaining of body image via a number of different activities such as bodybuilding, exercise, eating certain foods, taking specific drugs (e...
March 2015: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
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