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3D graphics

Thomas Waltemate, Dominik Gall, Daniel Roth, Mario Botsch, Marc Erich Latoschik
This article reports the impact of the degree of personalization and individualization of users' avatars as well as the impact of the degree of immersion on typical psychophysical factors in embodied Virtual Environments. We investigated if and how virtual body ownership (including agency), presence, and emotional response are influenced depending on the specific look of users' avatars, which varied between (1) a generic hand-modeled version, (2) a generic scanned version, and (3) an individualized scanned version...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
James L Kingsley, Jeffrey P Bibeau, S Iman Mousavi, Cem Unsal, Zhilu Chen, Xinming Huang, Luis Vidali, Erkan Tüzel
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is an important tool used by cell biologists to study the diffusion and binding kinetics of vesicles, proteins, and other molecules in the cytoplasm, nucleus, or cell membrane. Although many FRAP models have been developed over the past decades, the influence of the complex boundaries of 3D cellular geometries on the recovery curves, in conjunction with regions of interest and optical effects (imaging, photobleaching, photoswitching, and scanning), has not been well studied...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Chengpeng Chen, Alexandra D Townsend, Elizabeth A Hayter, Hannah M Birk, Scott A Sell, R Scott Martin
We present an insert-based approach to fabricate scalable and multiplexable microfluidic devices for 3D cell culture and integration with downstream detection modules. Laser-cut inserts with a layer of electrospun fibers are used as a scaffold for 3D cell culture, with the inserts being easily assembled in a 3D-printed fluidic device for flow-based studies. With this approach, the number and types of cells (on the inserts) in one fluidic device can be customized. Moreover, after an investigation (i.e., stimulation) under flowing conditions, the cell-laden inserts can be removed easily for subsequent studies including imaging and cell lysis...
March 14, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Simon Drouin, D Louis Collins
Direct volume rendering has become an essential tool to explore and analyse 3D medical images. Despite several advances in the field, it remains a challenge to produce an image that highlights the anatomy of interest, avoids occlusion of important structures, provides an intuitive perception of shape and depth while retaining sufficient contextual information. Although the computer graphics community has proposed several solutions to address specific visualization problems, the medical imaging community still lacks a general volume rendering implementation that can address a wide variety of visualization use cases while avoiding complexity...
2018: PloS One
Lixia Ni, Zhenxing Li, Haifeng Li, Xu Liu
This paper proposes a 360-deg large-scale multiprojection light-field 3D display system, which can reconstruct the light field of models in real space. The reconstructed contents can be observed by multiple viewers from different angles and positions simultaneously. In this system, 360 projectors project images onto a cylindrical light-field diffusion screen whose height is 1.8 m and diameter is 3 m. When moving around the system, viewers can see 3D scenes with smooth-motion parallax, and the frame rate can reach 30 fps and above...
March 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Tiago Simões, Daniel Lopes, Sérgio Dias, Francisco Fernandes, João Pereira, Joaquim Jorge, Chandrajit Bajaj, Abel Gomes
Detecting and analyzing protein cavities provides significant information about active sites for biological processes (e.g., protein-protein or protein-ligand binding) in molecular graphics and modeling. Using the three-dimensional structure of a given protein (i.e., atom types and their locations in 3D) as retrieved from a PDB (Protein Data Bank) file, it is now computationally viable to determine a description of these cavities. Such cavities correspond to pockets, clefts, invaginations, voids, tunnels, channels, and grooves on the surface of a given protein...
December 2017: Computer Graphics Forum: Journal of the European Association for Computer Graphics
Timothy Grant, Alexis Rohou, Nikolaus Grigorieff
We have developed new open-source software called cis TEM (computational imaging system for transmission electron microscopy) for the processing of data for high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy and single-particle averaging. cis TEM features a graphical user interface that is used to submit jobs, monitor their progress, and display results. It implements a full processing pipeline including movie processing, image defocus determination, automatic particle picking, 2D classification, ab-initio 3D map generation from random parameters, 3D classification, and high-resolution refinement and reconstruction...
March 7, 2018: ELife
László Andrássy, Izabella Gomez, Ágnes Horváth, Katalin Gulyás, Zsófia Pethö, Balázs Juhász, Harjit Pal Bhattoa, Zoltan Szekanecz
Bone may be similar to geological formulations in many ways. Therefore, it may be logical to apply laser-based geological techniques in bone research. The mineral and element oxide composition of bioapatite can be estimated by mathematical models. Laser-induced plasma spectrometry (LIPS) has long been used in geology. This method may provide a possibility to determine the composition and concentration of element oxides forming the inorganic part of bones. In this study, we wished to standardize the LIPS technique and use mathematical calculations and models in order to determine CaO distribution and bone homogeneity using bovine shin bone samples...
February 17, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Burak Yilmaz, Faris A Alshahrani, Ediz Kale, William M Johnston
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Veneering with porcelain may adversely affect the marginal fit of long-span computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) implant-supported fixed prostheses. Moreover, data regarding the precision of fit of CAD-CAM-fabricated implant-supported complete zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) before and after porcelain layering are limited. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of porcelain layering on the marginal fit of CAD-CAM-fabricated complete-arch implant-supported, screw-retained FDPs with presintered zirconia frameworks compared with titanium...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Faical Alaoui Abdalaoui Slimani, M'hamed Bentourkia
There are several computer programs or combination of programs for radiation tracking and other information in tissues by using Monte Carlo simulation [1]. Among these are GEANT4 [2] programs provided as classes that can be incorporated in C++ codes to achieve different tasks in radiation interactions with matter. GEANT4 made the physics easier but requires often a long learning-curve that implies a good knowledge of C++ and the Geant4 architecture. GAMOS [3], the Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations, facilitates the use of Geant4 by providing a script language that covers almost all the needs of a radiotherapy simulation but it is obviously out of reach of biological researchers...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Florence H Sheehan, R Eugene Zierler
Healthcare providers who use peripheral vascular and cardiac ultrasound require specialized training to develop the technical and interpretive skills necessary to perform accurate diagnostic tests. Assessment of competence is a critical component of training that documents a learner's progress and is a requirement for competency-based medical education (CBME) as well as specialty certification or credentialing. The use of simulation for CBME in diagnostic ultrasound is particularly appealing since it incorporates both the psychomotor and cognitive domains while eliminating dependency on the availability of live patients with a range of pathology...
February 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Shiyue Wang, Xiaohua Zhang, Junlin Huang, Jinhua Chen
In this work, high-performance non-enzymatic catalysts based on 3D hierarchical hollow porous Co3O4 nanododecahedras in situ decorated on carbon nanotubes (3D Co3O4-HPND/CNTs) were successfully prepared via direct carbonizing metal-organic framework-67 in situ grown on carbon nanotubes. The morphology, microstructure, and composite of 3D Co3O4-HPND/CNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micropore and chemisorption analyzer, and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical characterizations indicated that 3D Co3O4-HPND/CNTs present considerably catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation and could be promising for constructing high-performance electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensors and glucose/O2 biofuel cell...
February 1, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Marcin Koba, Jolanta Stasiak, Tomasz Baczek
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: In this study, chemometric methods as correlation analysis, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA) have been used to reduce the number of chromatographic parameters (logk/logkw) and various (e.g., 0D, 1D, 2D, 3D) structural descriptors for three different groups of drugs, such as 12 analgesic drugs, 11 cardiovascular drugs and 36 "other" compounds and especially to choose the most important data of them. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All chemometric analyses have been carried out, graphically presented and also discussed for each group of drugs...
January 28, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Bohdan Schneider, Paulína Boǽíková, Iva Nečasová, Petr Čech, Daniel Svozil, Jiří Černý
DNA is a structurally plastic molecule, and its biological function is enabled by adaptation to its binding partners. To identify the DNA structural polymorphisms that are possible in such adaptations, the dinucleotide structures of 60 000 DNA steps from sequentially nonredundant crystal structures were classified and an automated protocol assigning 44 distinct structural (conformational) classes called NtC (for Nucleotide Conformers) was developed. To further facilitate understanding of the DNA structure, the NtC were assembled into the DNA structural alphabet CANA (Conformational Alphabet of Nucleic Acids) and the projection of CANA onto the graphical representation of the molecular structure was proposed...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Hirochika Sato, Takashi Kakue, Yasuyuki Ichihashi, Yutaka Endo, Koki Wakunami, Ryutaro Oi, Kenji Yamamoto, Hirotaka Nakayama, Tomoyoshi Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi Ito
Although electro-holography can reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) motion pictures, its computational cost is too heavy to allow for real-time reconstruction of 3D motion pictures. This study explores accelerating colour hologram generation using light-ray information on a ray-sampling (RS) plane with a graphics processing unit (GPU) to realise a real-time holographic display system. We refer to an image corresponding to light-ray information as an RS image. Colour holograms were generated from three RS images with resolutions of 2,048 × 2,048; 3,072 × 3,072 and 4,096 × 4,096 pixels...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana Teresa Gabriel, Cláudia Quaresma, Mário Forjaz Secca, Pedro Vieira
The biomechanical changes in the spinal column are considered to be the main responsible for rachialgia. Although radiological techniques use ionizing radiation, they are the most applied tools to assess the biomechanics of the spine. To face this problem, non-invasive techniques must be developed. Vertebral Metrics is an ionizing radiation-free instrument designed to detect the 3D position of each vertebrae in a standing position. Using a stereo vision system combined with low intensity UV light, recognition is achieved with software capable of distinguishing fluorescent marks...
January 20, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
J R C C C Correia, C J A P Martins
Topological defects unavoidably form at symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. To probe the parameter space of theoretical models and set tighter experimental constraints (exploiting the recent advances in astrophysical observations), one requires more and more demanding simulations, and therefore more hardware resources and computation time. Improving the speed and efficiency of existing codes is essential. Here we present a general purpose graphics-processing-unit implementation of the canonical Press-Ryden-Spergel algorithm for the evolution of cosmological domain wall networks...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Po-Chang Su, Ju Shen, Wanxin Xu, Sen-Ching S Cheung, Ying Luo
From object tracking to 3D reconstruction, RGB-Depth (RGB-D) camera networks play an increasingly important role in many vision and graphics applications. Practical applications often use sparsely-placed cameras to maximize visibility, while using as few cameras as possible to minimize cost. In general, it is challenging to calibrate sparse camera networks due to the lack of shared scene features across different camera views. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that can accurately and rapidly calibrate the geometric relationships across an arbitrary number of RGB-D cameras on a network...
January 15, 2018: Sensors
L Asensio Romero, M Asensio Gómez, A Prats-Galino, J A Juanes Méndez
We present a computer program designed to visualize and interact with three-dimensional models of the main anatomical structures of the female pelvis. They are reconstructed from serial sections of corpse, from the Visible Human project of the Medical Library of the United States and from serial sections of high-resolution magnetic resonance. It is possible to represent these three-dimensional structures in any spatial orientation, together with sectional images of corpse and magnetic resonance imaging, in the three planes of space (axial, coronal and sagittal) that facilitates the anatomical understanding and the identification of the set of visceral structures of this body region...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Katrin Muradas Mujika, Juan Antonio Juanes Méndez, Andrés Framiñan de Miguel
Currently, there are sophisticated applications that make it possible to visualize medical images and even to manipulate them. These software applications are of great interest, both from a teaching and a radiological perspective. In addition, some of these applications are known as Free Open Source Software because they are free and the source code is freely available, and therefore it can be easily obtained even on personal computers. Two examples of free open source software are Osirix Lite® and 3D Slicer®...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
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