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Collective intelligence

Steven M Lavrenz, Eleni I Vlahogianni, Konstantina Gkritza, Yue Ke
The use of statistical models for analyzing traffic safety (crash) data has been well-established. However, time series techniques have traditionally been underrepresented in the corresponding literature, due to challenges in data collection, along with a limited knowledge of proper methodology. In recent years, new types of high-resolution traffic safety data, especially in measuring driver behavior, have made time series modeling techniques an increasingly salient topic of study. Yet there remains a dearth of information to guide analysts in their use...
March 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jiaxing Ye, Takumi Kobayashi, Masaya Iwata, Hiroshi Tsuda, Masahiro Murakawa
Developing efficient Artificial Intelligence (AI)-enabled systems to substitute the human role in non-destructive testing is an emerging topic of considerable interest. In this study, we propose a novel hammering response analysis system using online machine learning, which aims at achieving near-human performance in assessment of concrete structures. Current computerized hammer sounding systems commonly employ lab-scale data to validate the models. In practice, however, the response signal patterns can be far more complicated due to varying geometric shapes and materials of structures...
March 9, 2018: Sensors
Erynn S Gordon, Deepti Babu, Dawn A Laney
Smartphones, artificial intelligence, automation, digital communication, and other types of technology are playing an increasingly important role in our daily lives. It is no surprise that technology is also shaping the practice of medicine, and more specifically the practice of genetic counseling. While digital tools have been part of the practice of medical genetics for decades, such as internet- or CD-ROM-based tools like Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man and Pictures of Standard Syndromes and Undiagnosed Malformations in the 1980s, the potential for emerging tools to change how we practice and the way patients consume information is startling...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Satabdi Mitra, Aditya Prasad Sarkar, Dibakar Haldar, Asit Baren Saren, Sourav Lo, Gautam Narayan Sarkar
Background: Perceived stress and burnout are by-products of powerless responsibility imposed on resident doctors. Emotional intelligence (EI) works as an adapting and coping tool. Objective: The objective of this study is to find out the role of work-related perceived stress on burnout and influence of EI on it. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2016 among 63 resident doctors of different departments of Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospital...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis, Megan J Oaten, Rebecca Schilt
The hippocampus is involved in interoceptive processing (i.e., perceiving internal bodily states), with much of this evidence relating to hunger and fullness. Here we examine whether cardiac and self-report measures of interoception are related to two measures of hippocampal dependent learning and memory (HDLM) - the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Logical Memory. Healthy adults completed a neuropsychological test battery including all of these measures, along with assessments of intelligence and executive function...
March 2, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Jorge Saraiva, Graça Esgalhado, Henrique Pereira, Samuel Monteiro, Rosa Marina Afonso, Manuel Loureiro
This study aimed to compare emotional intelligence (EI) levels and Internet addiction (IA) by gender and age groups and to assess the predictive relationship between EI and IA. One thousand four hundred thirteen young people and adults participated in the study. Participants were between 17 and 81 years old (M = 38.70 years old, SD = 13.72 years old); 42.2% were male, whereas 57.5% were female. We used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (Schutte, Malouff, & Bhullar, 2009), and the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998) as data collection instruments...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Taylor Etzel, Gina Muckle, Tye E Arbuckle, William D Fraser, Emmanuel Ouellet, Jean R Séguin, Bruce Lanphear, Joseph M Braun
BACKGROUND: Exposure to triclosan, an antimicrobial chemical, is ubiquitous among pregnant women and may reduce thyroid hormone levels that are important for fetal neurodevelopment. Few studies have examined the association between prenatal triclosan exposure and children's neurobehavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship of prenatal urinary triclosan concentrations with children's behavior and cognitive abilities at age three years in a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort in Canada...
March 1, 2018: Environment International
Lucas Fievet, Didier Sornette
Since the 2008 financial crisis, agent-based models (ABMs), which account for out-of-equilibrium dynamics, heterogeneous preferences, time horizons and strategies, have often been envisioned as the new frontier that could revolutionise and displace the more standard models and tools in economics. However, their adoption and generalisation is drastically hindered by the absence of general reliable operational calibration methods. Here, we start with a different calibration angle that qualifies an ABM for its ability to achieve abnormal trading performance with respect to the buy-and-hold strategy when fed with real financial data...
2018: PloS One
K H Ma, Z Y Cui, L Li, H Chao, Y Wang
Objective: To investigate the relationship between personality characteristics and turnover intention of the medical staff in an infectious diseases hospital. Methods: Using the cluster sampling method, a total of 366 members of medical staff were selected from different departments in an infectious disease hospital from May to August, 2013. The general information, such as sex, age, education level, and professional title, were collected and they were subjected to a survey using Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and Turnover Intention Scale...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
María Del Carmen Giménez-Espert, Vicente Javier Prado-Gascó
AIM: To analyse link between empathy and emotional intelligence (EI) as a predictor of nurses' attitudes towards communication while comparing the contribution of emotional aspects and attitudinal elements on potential behaviour. BACKGROUND: Nurses' attitudes towards communication, empathy and emotional intelligence are key skills for nurses involved in patient care. There are currently no studies analysing this link, and its investigation is needed because attitudes may influence communication behaviours...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Miha Mlakar, Paolo Emilio Puddu, Maja Somrak, Silvio Bonfiglio, Mitja Luštrek
This paper addresses patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and telemonitoring in congestive heart failure (CHF), both increasingly important topics. The interest in CHF trials is shifting from hard end-points such as hospitalization and mortality, to softer end-points such health-related quality of life. However, the relation of these softer end-points to objective parameters is not well studied. Telemonitoring is suitable for collecting both patient-reported outcomes and objective parameters. Most telemonitoring studies, however, do not take full advantage of the available sensor technology and intelligent data analysis...
2018: PloS One
So-Hee Lim, Sang-Sook Han, Yun-Su Joo
AIM: To investigate the causal relationship between nurses' emotional intelligence and their organizational citizenship behavior and the possible mediating effects of leader trust and value congruence. METHODS: The participants were 348 nurses who were working in a general hospital in a metropolitan area. The data were collected from December 16, 2012 to February 20, 2013. The hypothetical model of emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship behavior, leader trust, and value congruence was fitted to the actual data via structural equation modeling...
February 20, 2018: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
Michael O'Donnell, Leif D Nelson, Evi Ackermann, Balazs Aczel, Athfah Akhtar, Silvio Aldrovandi, Nasseem Alshaif, Ronald Andringa, Mark Aveyard, Peter Babincak, Nursena Balatekin, Scott A Baldwin, Gabriel Banik, Ernest Baskin, Raoul Bell, Olga Białobrzeska, Angie R Birt, Walter R Boot, Scott R Braithwaite, Jessie C Briggs, Axel Buchner, Desiree Budd, Kathryn Budzik, Lottie Bullens, Richard L Bulley, Peter R Cannon, Katarzyna Cantarero, Joseph Cesario, Stephanie Chambers, Christopher R Chartier, Peggy Chekroun, Clara Chong, Axel Cleeremans, Sean P Coary, Jacob Coulthard, Florien M Cramwinckel, Thomas F Denson, Marcos Díaz-Lago, Theresa E DiDonato, Aaron Drummond, Julia Eberlen, Titus Ebersbach, John E Edlund, Katherine M Finnigan, Justin Fisher, Natalia Frankowska, Efraín García-Sánchez, Frank D Golom, Andrew J Graves, Kevin Greenberg, Mando Hanioti, Heather A Hansen, Jenna A Harder, Erin R Harrell, Andree Hartanto, Michael Inzlicht, David J Johnson, Andrew Karpinski, Victor N Keller, Olivier Klein, Lina Koppel, Emiel Krahmer, Anthony Lantian, Michael J Larson, Jean-Baptiste Légal, Richard E Lucas, Dermot Lynott, Corey M Magaldino, Karlijn Massar, Matthew T McBee, Neil McLatchie, Nadhilla Melia, Michael C Mensink, Laura Mieth, Samantha Moore-Berg, Geraldine Neeser, Ben R Newell, Marret K Noordewier, Asil Ali Özdogğru, Myrto Pantazi, Michał Parzuchowski, Kim Peters, Michael C Philipp, Monique M H Pollmann, Panagiotis Rentzelas, Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón, Jan Philipp Röer, Ivan Ropovik, Nelson A Roque, Carolina Rueda, Bastiaan T Rutjens, Katey Sackett, Janos Salamon, Ángel Sánchez-Rodríguez, Blair Saunders, Juliette Schaafsma, Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck, David R Shanks, Martin F Sherman, Kenneth M Steele, Niklas K Steffens, Jessie Sun, Kyle J Susa, Barnabas Szaszi, Aba Szollosi, Ricardo M Tamayo, Gustav Tinghög, Yuk-Yue Tong, Carol Tweten, Miguel A Vadillo, Deisy Valcarcel, Nicolas Van der Linden, Michiel van Elk, Frenk van Harreveld, Daniel Västfjäll, Simine Vazire, Philippe Verduyn, Matt N Williams, Guillermo B Willis, Sarah E Wood, Chunliang Yang, Oulmann Zerhouni, Robert Zheng, Mark Zrubka
Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with a category associated with intelligence ("professor") subsequently performed 13% better on a trivia test than participants primed with a category associated with a lack of intelligence ("soccer hooligans"). In two unpublished replications of this study designed to verify the appropriate testing procedures, Dijksterhuis, van Knippenberg, and Holland observed a smaller difference between conditions (2%-3%) as well as a gender difference: Men showed the effect (9...
February 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Dorothy Nakiwala, Hugo Peyre, Barbara Heude, Jonathan Y Bernard, Rémi Béranger, Rémy Slama, Claire Philippat
BACKGROUND: There are concerns that developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as phenolic compounds and phthalates could affect child cognitive function. Epidemiological studies tackling this question have mainly focused on phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A, but not on the other phenolic compounds. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between in-utero exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and other phenolic compounds (parabens, triclosan, dichlorophenols and benzophenone-3) and the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of boys at 5-6 years...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Dganit Sharon, Keren Grinberg
BACKGROUND: Emotional intelligence (EI) reflects the general capacity to comprehend emotions (in ourselves and in others), to regulate emotions, and to cope effectively with emotional situations. The study program in nursing is varied, and includes theoretical and practical aspects, but teaching EI is not part of the core curriculum. We argue that teaching EI should not only be included in the curriculum, but that EI tests should be included in the admissions process. OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the relationship between EI level and the degree of success in nursing studies, and its importance...
February 7, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Hsiu-Fen Lee, Ching-Shiang Chi
PURPOSE: To understand the long-term neurological outcomes and chronological changes of brain MRIs in patients with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). METHODS: From December 2000 to May 2016, 29 patients diagnosed with FIRES were collected retrospectively. The demographic distribution, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and treatment methodology were described. Follow-up clinical outcomes and chronological evolution of neuroimaging findings were analyzed...
February 6, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Meropi Tzanetakis
INTRODUCTION: Cryptomarkets operating on the darknet are a recent phenomenon that has gained importance only over the last couple of years (Barratt, 2012). However, they now constitute an evolving part of illicit drug markets. Although selling and buying a variety of psychoactive substances on the Internet has a long history, new technological developments enable systematic drug trading on the net.These technological innovations on the Internet allow users to proceed with (illicit) drug transactions with almost completely anonymous identities and locations...
February 12, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Behzad Imani, Sima Mohamad Khan Kermanshahi, Zohreh Vanaki, Anoshiravan Kazemnejad Lili
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore Iranian hospital nurses' lived experiences of intelligent resilience. BACKGROUND: Nurses do high levels of emotional work when fulfilling patients' and their family members' complex needs. Intelligent resilience can alleviate nurses' stress and enhance their endurance. DESIGN: This study was based on the Husserlian descriptive phenomenology. METHODS: A purposive sample of ten hospital nurses was drawn from hospitals affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Hongtao Li, Feng Guo, Wenyin Zhang, Jie Wang, Jinsheng Xing
The widely use of IoT technologies in healthcare services has pushed forward medical intelligence level of services. However, it also brings potential privacy threat to the data collection. In healthcare services system, health and medical data that contains privacy information are often transmitted among networks, and such privacy information should be protected. Therefore, there is a need for privacy-preserving data collection (PPDC) scheme to protect clients (patients) data. We adopt (a,k)-anonymity model as privacy pretection scheme for data collection, and propose a novel anonymity-based PPDC method for healthcare services in this paper...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Mitchell A Pet, Ryan Dodge, Babette Siebold, Sara Kinter, Jonathan Perkins, Raymond W Tse
OBJECTIVE: This study compares speech and surgical outcomes in internationally adopted and nonadopted patients undergoing cleft palate repair, and examines the influence of age at initial palatoplasty. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study setting: Tertiary Care Children's Hospital. PATIENTS: 70 international adoptees and 211 nonadoptees with Veau type III and IV clefts (without associated syndrome) repaired at our institution. OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included VPI, compensatory misarticulations, intelligibility, nasal air emission, oronasal fistula, and secondary speech surgery...
March 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
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