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Collective intelligence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219492/microstructural-white-matter-alterations-in-the-corpus-callosum-of-girls-with-conduct-disorder
#1
Willeke Martine Menks, Reto Furger, Claudia Lenz, Lynn Valérie Fehlbaum, Christina Stadler, Nora Maria Raschle
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in adolescent conduct disorder (CD) have demonstrated white matter alterations of tracts connecting functionally distinct fronto-limbic regions, but only in boys or mixed-gender samples. So far, no study has investigated white matter integrity in girls with CD on a whole-brain level. Therefore, our aim was to investigate white matter alterations in adolescent girls with CD. METHOD: We collected high-resolution DTI data from 24 girls with CD and 20 typically developing control girls using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging system...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217543/effect-of-fluoridated-water-on-intelligence-in-10-12-year-old-school-children
#2
A Aravind, R S Dhanya, Ajay Narayan, George Sam, V J Adarsh, M Kiran
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of drinking water fluoride levels with children's intelligence quotient (IQ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Water was collected from initially identified endemic fluoride regions according to the geological research of Government of India. Fluoride concentration of the water was assessed by utilizing fluoride ion selective electrode, Orion 9609BN, and categorized on the basis of fluoride concentration into low, medium, and high-fluoride regions, i...
December 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216586/state-space-formulation-of-nonlinear-vibration-responses-collected-from-a-dynamic-rotor-bearing-system-an-extension-of-bearing-diagnostics-to-bearing-prognostics
#3
Peter W Tse, Dong Wang
Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL)...
February 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215473/machine-learning-based-prediction-of-adverse-drug-effects-an-example-of-seizure-inducing-compounds
#4
Mengxuan Gao, Hideyoshi Igata, Aoi Takeuchi, Kaoru Sato, Yuji Ikegaya
Various biological factors have been implicated in convulsive seizures, involving side effects of drugs. For the preclinical safety assessment of drug development, it is difficult to predict seizure-inducing side effects. Here, we introduced a machine learning-based in vitro system designed to detect seizure-inducing side effects. We recorded local field potentials from the CA1 alveus in acute mouse neocortico-hippocampal slices, while 14 drugs were bath-perfused at 5 different concentrations each. For each experimental condition, we collected seizure-like neuronal activity and merged their waveforms as one graphic image, which was further converted into a feature vector using Caffe, an open framework for deep learning...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215253/early-features-associated-with-the-neurocognitive-development-at-36-months-of-age-the-aube-study
#5
Sabine Plancoulaine, Camille Stagnara, Sophie Flori, Flora Bat-Pitault, Jian-Sheng Lin, Hugues Patural, Patricia Franco
BACKGROUND: Few studies on the relations between sleep quantity and/or quality and cognition have been conducted among preschoolers from healthy general population. We aimed at identifying, among 36 months old children, early factors associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) estimated through the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale Intelligence-III test and its indicators: Full-Scale-, Verbal- and Performance-IQs and their subscale scores. METHODS: We included 194 children from the French birth cohort AuBE with both available Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale Intelligence-III scores at three years and sleep data...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214562/leveraging-health-informatics-to-a-foster-smart-systems-response-to-health-disparities-and-health-equity-challenges
#6
Timothy Jay Carney, Amanda Y Kong
Informaticians are challenged to design health IT solutions for complex problems like health disparities but are only achieving mixed results in demonstrating a direct impact on health outcomes. This presentation of collective intelligence and the corresponding terms of smart health, knowledge ecosystem, enhanced health disparities informatics capacities, knowledge exchange, big-data, and situational awareness are means of demonstrating the complex challenges informatics professional face in trying to model, measure, and manage an intelligence and a smart systems response to health disparities...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214237/knowledge-attitudes-and-preferences-of-advance-decisions-end-of-life-care-and-place-of-care-and-death-in-hong-kong-a%C3%A2-population-based-telephone-survey-of-1067-adults
#7
Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Eliza Lai-Yi Wong, Nicole Kiang, Patsy Yuen-Kwan Chau, Janice Y C Lau, Samuel Yeung-Shan Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh, Jean W Woo
OBJECTIVES: According to the 2015 Quality of Death Index published by the Intelligence Unit of the Economist, Hong Kong is ranked 22nd in terms of quality of palliative care in the world, behind many other major developed countries in Asia, including Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and South Korea. The objectives of the present study were to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preferences of the general Hong Kong adult population across different age groups regarding end-of-life (EOL) care decisions, place of care and death, as well as advance directive (AD)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210517/facetgist-collective-extraction-of-document-facets-in-large-technical-corpora
#8
Tarique Siddiqui, Xiang Ren, Aditya Parameswaran, Jiawei Han
Given the large volume of technical documents available, it is crucial to automatically organize and categorize these documents to be able to understand and extract value from them. Towards this end, we introduce a new research problem called Facet Extraction. Given a collection of technical documents, the goal of Facet Extraction is to automatically label each document with a set of concepts for the key facets (e.g., application, technique, evaluation metrics, and dataset) that people may be interested in...
October 2016: Proceedings of the ... ACM International Conference on Information & Knowledge Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204482/collective-behaviour-and-swarm-intelligence-in-slime-moulds
#9
Chris R Reid, Tanya Latty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198761/emotional-intelligence-of-nurse-managers-an-exploratory-study
#10
Patricia Prufeta
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study are to determine the level of emotional intelligence (EI) among nurse managers (NMs) in an academic medical center and determine the relationship of EI and demographic variables. BACKGROUND: Emotional intelligence is a concept that warrants further research in nursing because there is a huge gap in knowledge about nurse leaders' EI. METHODS: Data were collected from 38 NMs recruited from a large academic medical center in the Northeast...
March 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171772/maternal-prenatal-urinary-phthalate-metabolite-concentrations-and-visual-recognition-memory-among-infants-at-27-weeks
#11
Khristina N Ipapo, Pam Factor-Litvak, Robin M Whyatt, Antonia M Calafat, Diurka Diaz, Frederica Perera, Virginia Rauh, Julie B Herbstman
BACKGROUND: Prior research has demonstrated inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and cognitive development assessed in preschool and school-aged children. While there are a limited number of studies that evaluated these associations during infancy, no study has evaluated whether these associations exist when using the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII), which captures novelty preference as a function of visual recognition memory...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160385/processing-binary-and-fuzzy-logic-by-chaotic-time-series-generated-by-a-hydrodynamic-photochemical-oscillator
#12
Pier Luigi Gentili, Maria Sole Giubila, B Mark Heron
This work demonstrates the computational power of a hydrodynamic photochemical oscillator based on a photochromic naphthopyran, generating aperiodic time series. The chaotic character of the time series is tested by calculating its largest Lyapunov exponent and the correlation dimension of its attractor after building its phase space through the Takens' theorem. Then, the chaotic dynamic is shown to be suitable to implement all the fundamental Boolean two-inputs-one-output logic gates. Finally, the strategy to implement Fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) based on the time series is described...
February 3, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159113/using-rgb-d-sensors-and-evolutionary-algorithms-for-the-optimization-of-workstation-layouts
#13
Jose Antonio Diego-Mas, Rocio Poveda-Bautista, Diana Garzon-Leal
RGB-D sensors can collect postural data in an automatized way. However, the application of these devices in real work environments requires overcoming problems such as lack of accuracy or body parts' occlusion. This work presents the use of RGB-D sensors and genetic algorithms for the optimization of workstation layouts. RGB-D sensors are used to capture workers' movements when they reach objects on workbenches. Collected data are then used to optimize workstation layout by means of genetic algorithms considering multiple ergonomic criteria...
January 31, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155300/the-emotional-intelligence-of-registered-nurses-commencing-critical-care-nursing
#14
Yvette Nagel, Amanda Towell, Elzabe Nel, Fiona Foxall
BACKGROUND: Critical care is described as complex, detailed healthcare in a unique, technologically rich environment. Critical care nursing requires a strong knowledge base and exceptional clinical and technological skills to cope in this demanding environment. Many registered nurses (RNs) commencing work in these areas may lack resilience, and because of the stress of the critical care environment, coping mechanisms need to be developed. To prevent burnout and to enable critical care nurses to function holistically, emotional intelligence (EI) is essential in the development of such coping mechanisms...
November 29, 2016: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119962/collapse-of-chain-anadiplosis-structured-dna-nanowires-for-highly-sensitive-colorimetric-assay-of-nucleic-acids
#15
Jianguo Xu, Zai-Sheng Wu, Yanru Chen, Tingting Zheng, Jingqing Le, Lee Jia
In this work, we have proposed a chain anadiplosis-structured DNA nanowire by using two well-defined assembly strands (AS1 and AS2). The presence of a target analyte would drive the single-stranded AS1 dissociate from the pre-formatted nanowire, converting into a fully double-stranded form responsible for extensive accumulation of G-rich cleavage fragment1 (GCF1) because of an autonomously performed polymerization/nicking/displacement process. In turn, the produced GCF1 is able to hybridize with the un-peeled AS2, allowing the replication over AS2 to occur and generate large amounts of G-rich cleavage fragment2 (GCF2) with the ability to hybridize with the un-peeled AS1, thereafter initiating new enzymatic reactions for further collection of GCF1...
January 25, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119206/sex-differences-in-verbal-working-memory-performance-emerge-at-very-high-loads-of-common-neuroimaging-tasks
#16
Jessica L Reed, Natalie M Gallagher, Marie Sullivan, Joseph H Callicott, Adam E Green
Working memory (WM) supports a broad range of intelligent cognition and has been the subject of rich cognitive and neural characterization. However, the highest ranges of WM have not been fully characterized, especially for verbal information. Tasks developed to test multiple levels of WM demand (load) currently predominate brain-based WM research. These tasks are typically used at loads that allow most healthy participants to perform well, which facilitates neuroimaging data collection. Critically, however, high performance at lower loads may obscure differences that emerge at higher loads...
January 21, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112524/national-and-subnational-patterns-of-cause-of-death-in-iran-1990-2015-applied-methods
#17
Ali Sheidaei, Kimiya Gohari, Amir Kasaeian, Nazila Rezaei, Anita Mansouri, Ardeshir Khosravi, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Younes Mohammadi, Parinaz Mehdipour, Shadi Rahimzadeh, Farshad Sharifi, Mehdi Varmaghani, Maryam Chegini, Shohreh Naderimagham, Hamid Reza Jamshidi, Farshad Farzadfar
BACKGROUND: Causes of death statistics provide crucial health intelligence in national and international communities. An efficient death registration system provides reliable information for health policy system. In many developing countries, death registration systems face a degree of misclassification and incompleteness. There are many impediments to putting an estimate of cause-specific death rates. Addressing those challenges could prevent misleading results. METHODS: Our data was collected by Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran and Isfahan cemeteries from 1995 to 2010...
January 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110986/nurse-led-competency-model-for-emergency-physicians-a-qualitative-study
#18
Lina Daouk-Öyry, Afif Mufarrij, Maya Khalil, Tina Sahakian, Miriam Saliba, Rima Jabbour, Eveline Hitti
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To develop a competency model for emergency physicians from the perspective of nurses, juxtapose this model with the widely adopted Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) model, and identify competencies that might be unique to the nurses' perspective. METHODS: The study relied on secondary data originally collected as part of nurses' assessment of emergency physicians' nonclinical skills in the emergency department (ED) of an academic medical center in the Middle East...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110428/exploring-relationship-between-spiritual-intelligence-religiosity-and-life-satisfaction-among-elderly-pakistani-muslims
#19
Khadeeja Munawar, Omama Tariq
This study is an effort to explore the relationship between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction in elderly Pakistani Muslims. A non-probability purposive sampling technique is utilized in order to recruit a sample of 100 elderly people (n = 50 men; n = 50 = women). Standardized questionnaires were used for collecting data. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson product-moment correlation analysis and independent sample t test. Findings revealed a significant correlation between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction among Pakistani elderly Muslim people...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104051/relation-between-emotional-intelligence-socio-demographic-and-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-depressive-disorders
#20
Sayeda Ahmed Abdellatif, El-Sayed Saleh Hussien, Warda Elshahat Hamed, Mohamed Ali Zoromba
The present study aims to assess the emotional intelligence in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with depressive disorders. A descriptive correlational study was utilized with a sample of (106) depressed patients who were diagnosed by a psychiatrist with depressive disorders at psychiatric outpatient clinics in Mansoura University Hospital. Data were collected through assessing socio demographic and clinical characteristics, assessing level of depression using Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II, and assessing emotional intelligence using Barchard emotional intelligence scales...
February 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
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