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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542051/critical-airway-stenosis-in-an-adolescent-male-with-pompe-disease-and-thoracic-lordosis-a-case-report
#1
B Randall Brenn, Mary T Theroux, Suken A Shah, William G Mackenzie, Robert Heinle, Mena T Scavina
An adolescent male with late-onset Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II) presented with a history of restrictive airway disease and a near-cardiorespiratory arrest during anesthesia for a liver biopsy initially thought to be due to bronchospasm. During a subsequent posterior spinal fusion procedure, he suffered cardiorespiratory arrest resulting in the procedure being aborted. Bronchoscopy performed shortly after resuscitation revealed an undiagnosed narrowing of the distal trachea and bronchi. This is the first description of a patient with lateonset Pompe disease with undiagnosed critical tracheal stenosis due to the progression of thoracic lordosis, which was ultimately relieved by posterior spinal fusion...
May 23, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541755/epinephrine-but-not-vasopressin-attenuates-the-airway-response-to-anaphylactic-shock-in-rats
#2
Feng Zheng, Ruxandra Copotoiu, Charles Tacquard, Bruno Demoulin, Jean Marc Malinovsky, Bruno Levy, Dan Longrois, Grégoire Barthel, Paul Michel Mertes, François Marchal, Silvia Demoulin-Alexikova, Olivier Collange
PURPOSE: The two life-threatening signs of anaphylactic shock (AS) are severe arterial hypotension and bronchospasm. Guidelines recommend epinephrine as first-line treatment. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been proposed as an alternative if epinephrine does not correct arterial hypotension. These two drugs may have beneficial, neutral or deleterious effects on airflow either directly or by modifying factors that regulate vasodilatation and/or edema in the bronchial wall. AIM OF THE STUDY: To compare the effects of epinephrine and AVP on airflow and airway leakage in a rat model of AS...
May 25, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532657/mechanistic-link-between-diesel-exhaust-particles-and-respiratory-reflexes
#3
Ryan K Robinson, Mark A Birrell, John J Adcock, Michael A Wortley, Eric D Dubuis, Shu Chen, Catriona M McGilvery, Sheng Hu, Milo Sp Shaffer, Sara J Bonvini, Sarah A Maher, Ian S Mudway, Alexandra E Porter, Chris Carlsten, Teresa D Tetley, Maria G Belvisi
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of particulate matter in Europe's largest cities and epidemiological evidence links exposure with respiratory symptoms and asthma exacerbations. Respiratory reflexes are responsible for symptoms and are regulated by vagal afferent nerves which innervate the airway. It is not known how DEP exposure activates airway afferents to elicit symptoms such as cough and bronchospasm. OBJECTIVE: To identify the mechanisms involved in the activation of airway sensory afferents by DEPs...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525411/beta-blockers-and-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-eastern-association-for-the-surgery-of-trauma-guideline
#4
Aziz S Alali, Kaushik Mukherjee, Victoria A McCredie, Eyal Golan, Prakesh S Shah, James M Bardes, Susan E Hamblin, Elliott R Haut, James C Jackson, Kosar Khwaja, Nimitt J Patel, Satish R Raj, Laura D Wilson, Avery B Nathens, Mayur B Patel
OBJECTIVE: To determine if beta-(β)-blockers improve outcomes after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). BACKGROUND: There have been no new inpatient pharmacologic therapies to improve TBI outcomes in a half-century. Treatment of TBI patients with β-blockers offers a potentially beneficial approach. METHODS: Using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases, eligible articles for our systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO CRD42016048547) included adult (age ≥ 16 years) blunt trauma patients admitted with TBI...
May 18, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510296/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-single-dose-inhaled-loxapine-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
Sally Selim, Robert Riesenberg, James Cassella, Jeevan Kunta, Edward Hellriegel, Mark A Smith, Alexander A Vinks, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt
This multisite open-label study sought to characterize the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of inhaled loxapine in children and adolescents. Loxapine powder for oral inhalation was administered via a single-use handheld drug device to children and adolescents (aged 10-17 years) with any condition warranting chronic antipsychotic use. Patients were dosed according to body weight and cohort (<50 kg [n = 15], 2.5 or 5 mg; ≥50 kg [n = 15], 5 or 10 mg); the first 6 patients (cohort 1) enrolled in each weight group received the lower dose...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507428/propranolol-therapy-for-infantile-hemangioma-our-experience
#6
Ling Zhang, Hai-Wei Wu, Weien Yuan, Jia-Wei Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Hemangiomas are the most common benign vascular tumors of infancy. Although most infantile hemangiomas (IHs) have the ability to involute spontaneously after initial proliferation and resolve without consequence, intervention is required in a subset of IHs, which develop complications resulting in ulceration, bleeding, or aesthetic deformity. The primary treatment for this subset of IHs is pharmacological intervention, and propranolol has become the new first-line treatment for complicated hemangiomas...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506902/ski3301-a-purified-herbal-extract-from-sophora-tonkinensis-inhibited-airway-inflammation-and-bronchospasm-in-allergic-asthma-animal-models-in-vivo
#7
Hunseung Yoo, Minseok Kang, Sungsoo Pyo, Hee-Sung Chae, Keun Ho Ryu, Jinwoong Kim, Young-Won Chin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora tonkinensis (Leguminosae, ST) is a traditional herbal plant in Korea and China. Its roots and rhizomes have been used to dissipate heat, to clear toxic material and to treat acute pharyngolaryngeal infections and sore throats. AIM OF STUDY: In this study, we tried to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of a purified extract (SKI3301) from Sophora tonkinensis using in vitro enzyme assay models and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma animal models...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504252/pulmonary-delivery-of-nanoparticle-chemotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-lung-cancers-challenges-and-opportunities
#8
REVIEW
Sharad Mangal, Wei Gao, Tonglei Li, Qi Tony Zhou
Lung cancer is the second most prevalent and the deadliest among all cancer types. Chemotherapy is recommended for lung cancers to control tumor growth and to prolong patient survival. Systemic chemotherapy typically has very limited efficacy as well as severe systemic adverse effects, which are often attributed to the distribution of anticancer drugs to non-targeted sites. In contrast, inhalation routes permit the delivery of drugs directly to the lungs providing high local concentrations that may enhance the anti-tumor effect while alleviating systemic adverse effects...
May 1, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492106/higher-risk-of-revision-for-infection-using-systemic-clindamycin-prophylaxis-than-with-cloxacillin
#9
Otto Robertsson, Olof Thompson, Annette W-Dahl, Martin Sundberg, Lars Lidgren, Anna Stefánsdóttir
Background and purpose - Clindamycin has not been compared with other antibiotics for prophylaxis in arthroplasty. Since 2009, the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) has been collecting information on the prophylactic antibiotic regime used at every individual operation. In Sweden, when there is allergy to penicillin, clindamycin has been the recommended alternative. We examined whether there were differences in the rate of revision due to infection depending on which antibiotic was used as systemic prophylaxis...
May 11, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489678/safety-and-efficacy-of-the-antiganglioside-gd3-antibody-ecromeximab-kw2871-combined-with-high-dose-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-in-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma
#10
Ahmad A Tarhini, Stergios J Moschos, Yan Lin, Hui-Min Lin, Cindy Sander, Yan Yin, Ralph Venhaus, Thomas F Gajewski, John M Kirkwood
This study evaluated the safety and clinical benefit of ecromeximab (KW2871) combined with high-dose interferon-α2b (HDI) in patients with metastatic melanoma. We also carried out pharmacokinetic and immune monitoring studies of this combination. This was an open-label, phase 1/2 study of ecromeximab plus HDI in patients with measurable metastatic melanoma. Eligible patients received ecromeximab-HDI combination therapy: ecromeximab administered intravenously once every 2 weeks and HDI at a dose of 20 million units (MU)/m administered intravenously for 5 consecutive days per week for the first 4 weeks (induction phase) and then at 10 MU/m subcutaneously thrice weekly through week 14 (maintenance phase)...
April 7, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474649/endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-in-diagnosing-mediastinal-lymphadenopathy
#11
Tanushree Gahlot, Ujjwal Parakh, Kusum Verma, Bobby Bhalotra, Neeraj Jain
CONTEXT: The diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy is always a challenge. There always a need of a technique that is highly accurate as well as safe for diagnosis the same. AIMS: The aim of the study is to assess the clinical usefulness and safety profile of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in diagnosing the patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was an observational prospective study...
May 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469716/allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
Ibrahim Ahmed Janahi, Abdul Rehman, Amal Rashid Al-Naimi
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder that often occurs in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF) and is characterized by a hypersensitivity response to the allergens of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In patients with CF, growth of A. fumigatus hyphae within the bronchial lumen triggers an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in airway inflammation, bronchospasm, and bronchiectasis. In most published studies, the prevalence of ABPA is about 8...
April 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465842/postoperative-airway-obstruction-by-a-bone-fragment
#13
Patrick Schober, K Hakki Karagozoglu, Stephan A Loer, Lothar A Schwarte
Postoperative airway obstructions are potentially life-threatening complications. These obstructions may be classified as functional (sagging tongue, laryngospasm, or bronchospasm), pathoanatomical (airway swelling or hematoma within the airways), or foreign body-related. Various cases of airway obstruction by foreign bodies have previously been reported, for example, by broken teeth or damaged airway instruments. Here we present the exceptional case of a postoperative airway obstruction due to a large fragment of the patient's maxillary bone, left accidentally in situ after transoral surgical tumor resection...
2017: Case Reports in Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459406/-application-of-modified-percutaneous-rotating-dilative-tracheostomy-with-fiberoptic-bronchoscope-in-critical-patients-of-icu-a-control-study-for-four-kinds-of-tracheostomy
#14
Hong Zhang, Yanmin Xu, Haihong Li, Yao Zhang, Lunmeng Cui, Linlin Zhao, Qinghuan Yao, Fengjie Xie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical application of modified percutaneous rotating dilative tracheostomy with fiberoptic bronchoscope (MPRDT-FOB) in critical patients of intensive care unit (ICU) by comparing it with percutaneous dilative tracheostomy (PDT), modified percutaneous dilative tracheostomy (MPDT), and percutaneous dilative tracheostomy with fiberoptic bronchoscope (PDT-FOB). METHODS: A prospective control study was conducted. 240 critical patients underwent tracheotomy admitted to ICU of Mudanjiang Medical University Hongqi Hospital from February 2011 to November 2016 were enrolled, and they were randomly divided into four groups with 60 patients in each group...
January 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417683/tracheostomy-for-severe-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-indications-and-outcomes
#15
Christopher J Rizzi, Julian D Amin, Amal Isaiah, Tulio A Valdez, Anita Jeyakumar, Suzanne E Smart, Kevin D Pereira
Objectives (1) To describe characteristics of pediatric patients undergoing tracheostomy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). (2) To highlight perioperative events and outcomes of the procedure. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Four tertiary care academic children's hospitals. Subjects and Methods Twenty-nine children aged <18 years from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015, who underwent tracheostomy for severe OSA, defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >10, were included in the study...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410262/life-saving-esophageal-intubation-in-neonate-with-undiagnosed-tracheal-agenesis-a-case-report
#16
Christopher Sattler, Franklin Chiao, David Stein, Denise Murphy
A 3-day-old, 2.2-kg former 34-week premature infant with imperforate anus required loop ileostomy surgery. At delivery, the child had respiratory distress. Endotracheal intubation was "confirmed" by detection of exhaled carbon dioxide with a Pedi-Cap (Covidien, Dublin, Ireland) and subsequent chest x-ray. On arrival to the operating room, the pulse oximeter reading was 100% despite a large leak around the endotracheal tube and high-airway pressures. Packing the throat reduced the leak and increased the tidal volume...
April 13, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400472/novel-selective-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-antagonists-for-concomitant-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-disease
#17
Jillian G Baker, Sheila M Gardiner, Jeanette Woolard, Christophe Fromont, Gopal P Jadhav, Shailesh N Mistry, Kevin S J Thompson, Barrie Kellam, Stephen J Hill, Peter M Fischer
β-Blockers reduce mortality and improve symptoms in people with heart disease; however, current clinically available β-blockers have poor selectivity for the cardiac β1-adrenoceptor (AR) over the lung β2-AR. Unwanted β2-blockade risks causing life-threatening bronchospasm and reduced efficacy of β2-agonist emergency rescue therapy. Thus, current life-prolonging β-blockers are contraindicated in patients with both heart disease and asthma. Here, we describe NDD-713 and -825, novel highly β1-selective neutral antagonists with good pharmaceutical properties that can potentially overcome this limitation...
April 11, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397992/mucoactive-agents-for-chronic-non-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin J Tarrant, Caitlin Le Maitre, Lorena Romero, Ranjana Steward, Brenda M Button, Bruce R Thompson, Anne E Holland
Inhaled mucoactive agents are used in respiratory disease to improve mucus properties and enhance secretion clearance. The effect of mannitol, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease/dornase alfa (rhDNase) and hypertonic saline (HS) or normal saline (NS) are not well described in chronic lung conditions other than cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this review was to determine the benefit and safety of inhaled mucoactive agents outside of CF. We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL and CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of mucoactive agents on lung function, adverse events (AEs), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), hospitalization, length of stay, exacerbations, sputum clearance and inflammation...
April 11, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391760/use-of-temperature-controlled-laminar-airflow-in-the-management-of-atopic-asthma-clinical-evidence-and-experience
#19
John O Warner
Avoidance of allergens in the treatment of asthma has hitherto not achieved significant benefit despite the strong evidence that allergy both increases severity and contributes to exacerbations of asthma. House dust mite, cat and dog allergens are the most common perennial allergic triggers and most avoidance strategies have focused on reducing exposures in bedrooms. Cochrane reviews have suggested that they neither significantly reduce allergen levels nor improve asthma. While the lack of efficacy may be assumed to be a consequence of exposures occurring outside the bedroom, prolonged sleep is associated with increased susceptibility to bronchospasm and airway inflammation...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384964/post-extubation-bronchospasm-in-an-undiagnosed-case-of-ascariasis-anaesthetic-challenges
#20
Ravindra Gehlot, Shekhar Suman Saxena, Indira Kumari, Virendra Verma, Aditya Bidwaikar
One of the most prevalent parasitic infestation is ascariasis which poses a great challenge to both the person being infested with and the treating medical team. We present here a case of round worm (Ascaris lumbricoides) infestation. A 40-year-old male, weighing 60 kg, diagnosed as perforation peritonitis, was scheduled for emergency exploratory laparotomy. The round worm was crawling out from duodenal perforation vent during laparotomy confirming the infestation. Patient later developed bronchospasm in post-extubation period and was managed accordingly...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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