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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#1
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772145/lithium-monotherapy-associated-clinical-improvement-effects-on-amygdala-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-resting-state-connectivity-in-bipolar-disorder
#2
Murat Altinay, Harish Karne, Amit Anand
BACKGROUND: This study, for the first time, investigated lithium monotherapy associated effects on amygdala- ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) resting-state functional connectivity and correlation with clinical improvement in bipolar disorder (BP) METHODS: Thirty-six medication-free subjects - 24 BP (12 hypomanic BPM) and 12 depressed (BPD)) and 12 closely matched healthy controls (HC), were included. BP subjects were treated with lithium and scanned at baseline, after 2 weeks and 8 weeks...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764396/atypical-transistor-based-chaotic-oscillators-design-realization-and-diversity
#3
Ludovico Minati, Mattia Frasca, Paweł Oświȩcimka, Luca Faes, Stanisław Drożdż
In this paper, we show that novel autonomous chaotic oscillators based on one or two bipolar junction transistors and a limited number of passive components can be obtained via random search with suitable heuristics. Chaos is a pervasive occurrence in these circuits, particularly after manual adjustment of a variable resistor placed in series with the supply voltage source. Following this approach, 49 unique circuits generating chaotic signals when physically realized were designed, representing the largest collection of circuits of this kind to date...
July 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763060/bace1-inhibition-by-microdose-lithium-formulation-np03-rescues-memory-loss-and-early-stage-amyloid-neuropathology
#4
E N Wilson, S Do Carmo, M F Iulita, H Hall, A Ducatenzeiler, A R Marks, S Allard, D T Jia, J Windheim, A C Cuello
Lithium is first-line therapy for bipolar affective disorder and has recently been shown to have protective effects in populations at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying this protection is poorly understood and consequently limits its possible therapeutic application in AD. Moreover, conventional lithium formulations have a narrow therapeutic window and are associated with a severe side effect profile. Here we evaluated a novel microdose formulation of lithium, coded NP03, in a well-characterized rat model of progressive AD-like amyloid pathology...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762663/impact-of-monopolar-turp-bipolar-turp-and-photoselective-vaporization-of-prostate-for-enlarged-prostate-on-erectile-function
#5
Pawan Vasudeva, Niraj Kumar, Anup Kumar, Gaurav Kumar, Mikir Patel, Pankaj Gupta
OBJECTIVES: To compare monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), bipolar TURP and photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) by 120-W GreenLight laser with regard to the impact on International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 score in patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to prostate >80 mL. METHODS: Between April 2012 and March 2015, 110 patients who satisfied eligibility criteria were divided into three groups according to surgical modality adopted to treat benign prostatic enlargement...
August 1, 2017: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749089/cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-a-comparative-study-between-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-primary-psychiatric-disorders
#6
Everard G B Vijverberg, Sigfried Schouws, Paul David Meesters, Esmée Verwijk, Hannie Comijs, Ted Koene, Charlotte Schreuder, Aartjan Beekman, Philip Scheltens, Max Stek, Yolande Pijnenburg, Annemieke Dols
OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological profiles in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) with its most common primary psychiatric differential diagnoses, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia, in older patients with active symptoms. METHODS: We included patients from different cohorts with MDD (DSM-IV-TR: 296.20-296.23, 296.30-296.33; n = 42; mean ± SD age, 72.0 ± 8.0 years; female = 57.1%) included from 2002 to 2007, noneuthymic BD (DSM-IV-TR: 296...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721494/a-comprehensive-characterization-of-parameters-affecting-high-frequency-irreversible-electroporation-lesions
#7
Tyler Miklovic, Eduardo L Latouche, Matthew R DeWitt, Rafael V Davalos, Michael B Sano
Several focal therapies are being investigated clinically to treat tumors in which surgery is contraindicated. Many of these ablation techniques, such as radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation, rely on thermal damage mechanisms which can put critical nerves or vasculature at risk. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a minimally invasive, non-thermal technique to destroy tumors. A series of short electric pulses create nanoscale defects in the cell membrane, eventually leading to cell death. Typical IRE protocols deliver a series of 50-100 µs monopolar pulses...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720617/protocol-for-an-online-randomised-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-the-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-peer-supported-self-management-intervention-for-relatives-of-people-with-psychosis-or-bipolar-disorder-relatives-education-and-coping-toolkit-react
#8
Fiona Lobban, Heather Robinson, Duncan Appelbe, Johanna Barraclough, Emma Bedson, Lizzie Collinge, Susanna Dodd, Sue Flowers, Mahsa Honary, Sonia Johnson, Ceu Mateus, Barbara Mezes, Valerie Minns, Elizabeth Murray, Andrew Walker, Paula Williamson, Catherine Wintermeyer, Steven Jones
INTRODUCTION: Despite clinical guidelines recommendations, many relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder do not currently receive the support they need. Online information and support may offer a solution. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blind, parallel, online randomised controlled trial will determine clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit (REACT) (including an online resource directory (RD)), compared with RD only, for relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714555/evidence-that-eye-movement-profiles-do-not-explain-slow-binocular-rivalry-rate-in-bipolar-disorder-support-for-a-perceptual-endophenotype
#9
Phillip Cf Law, Caroline T Gurvich, Trung T Ngo, Steven M Miller
OBJECTIVES: Presenting conflicting images simultaneously, one to each eye, produces perceptual alternations known as binocular rivalry (BR). Slow BR rate has been proposed as an endophenotype for bipolar disorder (BD) for use in large-scale genome-wide association studies. However, the trait could conceivably reflect eye movement (EM) dysfunction in BD rather than anomalous perceptual processing per se. To address this question, we examined the relationship between EM profiles and BR rate for various stimulus types in BD and healthy subjects...
July 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672735/safety-concerns-associated-with-second-generation-antipsychotic-long-acting-injection-treatment-a-systematic-update
#10
Salvatore Gentile
Background It has been recently suggested that second-generation antipsychotic long-acting injection (SGA-LAIs) are underutilized in clinical practice, despite that their costs significantly impact on national health system budgets. Hence, an updated analysis of safety data shown by SGA-LAIs may contribute to clarify their role in clinical practice. Materials and methods English-language, peer-reviewed articles reporting updated, primary findings on the SGA-LAI safety were identified (updated through an electronic search of five databases - PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, DARE and the Cochrane Library)...
June 23, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667890/subcortical-structural-volumes-in-recently-remitted-first-episode-mania
#11
Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Ivan J Torres, Donna J Lang, Wayne Su, Raymond W Lam, William G Honer, Lakshmi N Yatham
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to subcortical volumetric abnormalities in patients with bipolar I disorder. Duration of illness and long term medication intake could have confounded the findings. METHOD: Volumes of nine subcortical structures were compared between 63 patients who recently remitted from their first manic episode and 77 healthy volunteers. The volumetric segmentation was performed with the automated segmentation algorithm Freesurfer version 5...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666638/a-study-on-the-bioequivalence-of-lithium-and-valproate-salivary-and-blood-levels-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder
#12
A Murru, M Torra, A Callari, I Pacchiarotti, S Romero, B Gonzalez de la Presa, C Varo, J M Goikolea, V Pérez-Sola, E Vieta, F Colom
Lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA) are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD), with narrow therapeutic window requiring periodic control of serum levels. This prevents intoxication, lack of efficacy due to low serum concentrations, and allows monitoring adherence. We aimed at evaluating the bioequivalence of salivary and blood levels of LI or VPA in a sample of adult BD patients. Secondarily, lithium bioequivalence was evaluated across different patients' lifespans. BD patients treated with either Li or VPA underwent contemporary standard serum and salivary measurements...
June 27, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657634/multiscale-modeling-of-a-rectifying-bipolar-nanopore-explicit-water-versus-implicit-water-simulations
#13
Zoltán Ható, Mónika Valiskó, Tamás Kristóf, Dirk Gillespie, Dezsö Boda
In a multiscale modeling approach, we present computer simulation results for a rectifying bipolar nanopore at two modeling levels. In an all-atom model, we use explicit water to simulate ion transport directly with the molecular dynamics technique. In a reduced model, we use implicit water and apply the Local Equilibrium Monte Carlo method together with the Nernst-Planck transport equation. This hybrid method makes the fast calculation of ion transport possible at the price of lost details. We show that the implicit-water model is an appropriate representation of the explicit-water model when we look at the system at the device (i...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649145/do-ssris-and-snris-reduce-the-frequency-and-or-severity-of-hot-flashes-in-menopausal-women
#14
Chris Stubbs, Lisa Mattingly, Steven A Crawford, Elizabeth A Wickersham, Jessica L Brockhaus, Laine H McCarthy
CLINICAL QUESTION: In menopausal women who experience regular hot flashes, does treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) reduce the frequency and/or severity of hot flashes? ANSWER: Yes. Review of the literature suggests that treatment with SSRIs or SNRIs reduces the frequency and severity of hot flashes in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Studies demonstrated that paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa) and escitolapram (Lexapro) were the most effective SSRIs, and venlafaxine (Effexor) was the most effective first line SNRI, with desvenlafaxine as a second option...
May 2017: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607613/complex-fractionated-atrial-electrograms-high-dominant-frequency-regions-and-left-atrial-voltages-during-sinus-rhythm-and-atrial-fibrillation
#15
Naoko Sasaki, Ichiro Watanabe, Yasuo Okumura, Koichi Nagashima, Rikitake Kogawa, Kazumasa Sonoda, Kazuki Iso, Keiko Takahashi, Masaru Arai, Ryuta Watanabe, Sayaka Kurokawa, Kimie Ohkubo, Toshiko Nakai, Atsushi Hirayama, Mizuki Nikaido
BACKGROUND: Ablation targeting complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAEs) or high dominant frequency (DF) sites is generally effective for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). CFAEs and/or high DF sites may exist in low-voltage regions, which theoretically represent abnormal substrates. However, whether CFAEs or high DF sites reflect low voltage substrates during sinus rhythm (SR) is unknown. METHODS: Sixteen patients with AF (8 with paroxysmal AF; 8, persistent AF) underwent high-density mapping of the left atrium (LA) with a 3-dimensional electroanatomic mapping system before ablation...
June 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585513/meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies-of-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder-comparison-with-healthy-controls-and-schizophrenia
#16
E Bora, A Özerdem
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with significant cognitive impairment. Recent evidence suggests that cognitive deficits are already evident after first-episode mania. However, it is not clear whether BP is associated with further decline in cognitive functions in individuals with established illness. Aim of this meta-analytic review was to examine longitudinal neurocognitive changes in BP and to compare trajectory of cognitive deficits in BP with schizophrenia and healthy controls...
June 6, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585221/vagal-nerve-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#17
REVIEW
Flavia R Carreno, Alan Frazer
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent. Although standards antidepressants are more effective than placebo, up to 35% of patients do not respond to 4 or more conventional treatments and are considered to have treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Considerable effort has been devoted to trying to find effective treatments for TRD. This review focuses on vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), approved for TRD in 2005 by the Food and Drugs Administration. Stimulation is carried by bipolar electrodes on the left cervical vagus nerve, which are attached to an implanted stimulator generator...
July 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583708/prefrontal-fatty-acid-composition-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-association-with-reelin-expression
#18
Clare L Beasley, William G Honer, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Alasdair M Barr
OBJECTIVE: The extracellular matrix protein reelin regulates early brain development and synaptic plasticity in adulthood. Reelin is decreased in the postmortem brain in schizophrenia patients. Reelin's two receptors, ApoER2 and VLDLR, are also substrates for ApoE - a key lipoprotein that regulates phospholipid homeostasis in the brain. The goal of the present study was therefore to examine phospholipids and their constituent fatty acids, and determine whether there is an association between reelin, its receptors and phospholipids in the brain...
June 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581442/photopharmacological-control-of-bipolar-cells-restores-visual-function-in-blind-mice
#19
Laura Laprell, Ivan Tochitsky, Kuldeep Kaur, Michael B Manookin, Marco Stein, David M Barber, Christian Schön, Stylianos Michalakis, Martin Biel, Richard H Kramer, Martin P Sumser, Dirk Trauner, Russell N Van Gelder
Photopharmacological control of neuronal activity using synthetic photochromic ligands, or photoswitches, is a promising approach for restoring visual function in patients suffering from degenerative retinal diseases. Azobenzene photoswitches, such as AAQ and DENAQ, have been shown to restore the responses of retinal ganglion cells to light in mouse models of retinal degeneration but do not recapitulate native retinal signal processing. Here, we describe diethylamino-azo-diethylamino (DAD), a third-generation photoswitch that is capable of restoring retinal ganglion cell light responses to blue or white light...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576914/do-not-treat-the-numbers-lithium-toxicity
#20
Peter Foulser, Yasmin Abbasi, Anand Mathilakath, Ramin Nilforooshan
We describe the case of a 62-year-old man with a history of bipolar disorder, previously stable on lithium for over 20 years, who presented with a manic relapse and signs of lithium toxicity in the form of a coarse tremor. Serum lithium levels were in the normal range, and the patient had stage 3 chronic kidney disease. He was admitted for treatment under Section 2 of the Mental Health Act, and after stopping lithium was started on olanzapine. Signs of lithium toxicity improved after withdrawal of lithium. This case highlights the need to treat normal serum lithium levels with caution in patients showing signs of clinical lithium toxicity...
June 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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