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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108286/the-impact-of-zika-virus-in-the-brain
#1
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
The recent outbreak of ZIKV in Brazil called the attention of the world because the effects of viral infection in the brain under development in fetuses. Consequences of vertical infection comprise brain malformation, especially microcephaly, eye and musculoskeletal abnormalities, among others. In adults, outcomes of infection include meningoencephalitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Recent data specific suggest that neural progenitor cells are the main targets of ZIKV infection, causing massive cellular death, which in turns, causes impairment in the neurogenesis process...
January 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106777/neuroprotection-by-caffeine-in-hyperoxia-induced-neonatal-brain-injury
#2
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Evelyn Strauß, Anja Schlör, Marco Sifringer, Till Scheuer, Christoph Bührer, Thomas Schmitz
Sequelae of prematurity triggered by oxidative stress and free radical-mediated tissue damage have coined the term "oxygen radical disease of prematurity". Caffeine, a potent free radical scavenger and adenosine receptor antagonist, reduces rates of brain damage in preterm infants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of caffeine on oxidative stress markers, anti-oxidative response, inflammation, redox-sensitive transcription factors, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105978/simultaneous-transplantation-of-fetal-ventral-mesencephalic-tissue-and-encapsulated-genetically-modified-cells-releasing-gdnf-in-a-hemi-parkinsonian-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Alberto Perez-Bouza, Stefano Di, Stefanie Seiler, Morten Meyer, Lukas Andereggen, Alexander Huber, Raphael Guzman, Hans R
Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by poor survival and suboptimal integration of grafted tissue into the host brain. In a 6-OHDA rat model of PD we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous transplantation of rat fetal VM tissue and polymer-encapsulated C2C12 myoblasts genetically modified to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or mocktransfected myoblasts on graft function. Amphetamine-induced rotations were assessed prior and 2, 4, 6 and 9 weeks post-transplantation...
January 20, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105853/identification-of-potential-molecular-associations-between-chikungunya-virus-non-structural-protein-2-and-human-host-proteins
#4
J Rana, S Gulati, S Rajasekharan, A Gupta, V Chaudhary, S Gupta
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) is considered to be the master regulator of viral RNA replication and host responses generated during viral infection. This protein has two main functional domains: an N-terminal domain which exhibits NTPase, RNA triphosphatase and helicase activities and a C-terminal protease domain. Understanding how CHIKV nsP2 interacts with its host proteins is essential for elucidating all the required processes for viral replication and pathogenesis along with the identification of potential targets for antiviral therapy...
January 19, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104703/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-adult-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-studies-in-north-america-and-europe
#5
Poulami Maitra, Melissa Caughey, Laura Robinson, Payal C Desai, Susan Jones, Mehdi Nouraie, Mark T Gladwin, Alan Hinderliter, Jianwen Cai, Kenneth I Ataga
Although recent studies show an improved survival of children with sickle cell disease in the US and Europe, mortality remains high for adult patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the factors associated with mortality in adult patients following the approval of hydroxyurea. We first evaluated the association between selected variables and mortality at an academic center (UNC cohort). Data sources were then searched for publications from 1998 to June, 2016, with meta-analysis of eligible studies conducted in North America and Europe to evaluate the associations of selected variables with mortality in adult patients...
January 19, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104460/fetal-growth-retardation-and-brain-sparing-by-malnutrition-are-associated-to-changes-in-neurotransmitters-profile
#6
C García-Contreras, D Valent, M Vázquez-Gómez, L Arroyo, B Isabel, S Astiz, A Bassols, A Gónzalez-Bulnes
The present study assesses possible changes in the levels of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines) in fetuses affected by nutrient shortage. Hence, we determined the concentration of catecholamines and indoleamines at the hypothalamus of 56 swine fetuses obtained at both 70 and 90days of pregnancy (n=33 and 23 fetuses, respectively). The degree of fetal development and the fetal sex affected the neurotransmitters profile at both stages. At Day 70, there were found higher mean concentrations of l-DOPA in both female and male fetuses with severe IUGR; male fetuses with severe IUGR also showed higher concentrations of TRP than normal male littermates...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102101/thyroid-in-pregnancy-from-physiology-to-screening
#7
Drahomira Springer, Jan Jiskra, Zdenka Limanova, Tomas Zima, Eliska Potlukova
Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. In case of maternal hypothyroidism, substitution with levothyroxine must be started in early pregnancy...
January 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101838/renal-consequences-of-preterm-birth
#8
REVIEW
Amelie Stritzke, Sumesh Thomas, Harish Amin, Christoph Fusch, Abhay Lodha
BACKGROUND: The developmental origin of health and disease concept identifies the brain, cardiovascular, liver, and kidney systems as targets of fetal adverse programming with adult consequences. As the limits of viability in premature infants have been pushed to lower gestational ages, the long-term impact of prematurity on kidneys still remains a significant burden during hospital stay and beyond. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to summarize available evidence, mechanisms, and short- and long-term renal consequences of prematurity and identify nephroprotective strategies and areas of uncertainty...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098253/the-clinically-approved-antiviral-drug-sofosbuvir-inhibits-zika-virus-replication
#9
Carolina Q Sacramento, Gabrielle R de Melo, Caroline S de Freitas, Natasha Rocha, Lucas Villas Bôas Hoelz, Milene Miranda, Natalia Fintelman-Rodrigues, Andressa Marttorelli, André C Ferreira, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Juliana L Abrantes, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Mônica M Bastos, Eduardo de Mello Volotão, Estevão Portela Nunes, Diogo A Tschoeke, Luciana Leomil, Erick Correia Loiola, Pablo Trindade, Stevens K Rehen, Fernando A Bozza, Patrícia T Bozza, Nubia Boechat, Fabiano L Thompson, Ana M B de Filippis, Karin Brüning, Thiago Moreno L Souza
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, along with other agents of clinical significance such as dengue (DENV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. Since ZIKV causes neurological disorders during fetal development and in adulthood, antiviral drugs are necessary. Sofosbuvir is clinically approved for use against HCV and targets the protein that is most conserved among the members of the Flaviviridae family, the viral RNA polymerase. Indeed, we found that sofosbuvir inhibits ZIKV RNA polymerase, targeting conserved amino acid residues...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095495/dna-methylation-analysis-of-brd1-promoter-regions-and-the-schizophrenia-rs138880-risk-allele
#10
Mads Dyrvig, Per Qvist, Jacek Lichota, Knud Larsen, Mette Nyegaard, Anders D Børglum, Jane H Christensen
The bromodomain containing 1 gene, BRD1 is essential for embryogenesis and CNS development. It encodes a protein that participates in histone modifying complexes and thereby regulates the expression of a large number of genes. Genetic variants in the BRD1 locus show association with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and risk alleles in the promoter region correlate with reduced BRD1 expression. Insights into the transcriptional regulation of BRD1 and the pathogenic mechanisms associated with BRD1 risk variants, however, remain sparse...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089577/neutralizing-anti-interleukin-1%C3%AE-antibodies-reduce-ischemia-related-interleukin-1%C3%AE-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-fetal-sheep
#11
Aparna Patra, Xiaodi Chen, Grazyna B Sadowska, Jiyong Zhang, Yow-Pin Lim, James F Padbury, William A Banks, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic ischemic insults predispose to perinatal brain injury. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important in the evolution of this injury. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key mediator of inflammatory responses and elevated IL-1β levels in brain correlate with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after brain injury. Impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the fetus. In addition, ischemia-reperfusion increases cytokine transport across the BBB of the ovine fetus...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086878/a-case-of-cranium-bifidum-with-meningocele-in-ayrshire-calf
#12
Mosiany Letura Kisipan, Caleb Oburu Orenge, David Njogu Gacheru, Raphael Muchangi Ngure
BACKGROUND: Congenital cranial bone defects predispose to herniation of meninges, sometimes with brain tissue involvement, to form a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled cyst in the head. Such defects mainly results from focal failure of neural tube closure during fetal development and has been reported in various species of domestic mammals. CASE PRESENTATION: A one week old Ayrshire calf with a fluctuant swelling on parieto-occipital region of the head was referred to the faculty...
January 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079886/hiv-1-nef-is-released-in-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-astrocytes-evidence-for-nef-mediated-neurotoxicity
#13
A Sami Saribas, Stephanie Cicalese, Taha Mohseni Ahooyi, Kamel Khalili, Shohreh Amini, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disorders (HANDs) affect the majority of AIDS patients and are a significant problem among HIV-1-infected individuals who live longer because of combined anti-retroviral therapies. HIV-1 utilizes a number of viral proteins and subsequent cytokine inductions to unleash its toxicity on neurons. Among HIV-1 viral proteins, Nef is a small protein expressed abundantly in astrocytes of HIV-1-infected brains and has been suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of HAND...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076893/-pseudo-feeders-on-fetal-mri-predict-outcome-in-vein-of-galen-malformations
#14
Guillaume Saliou, Irène Vraka, Jean-Paul Teglas, Marie-Victoire Senat, Philippe Durand, Claire Colmant, Augustin Ozanne, Jelena Martinovic, Pierre Tissiere, Catherine Adamsbaum
OBJECTIVE: While vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) can be diagnosed in the fetus, the challenge is predicting the occurrence of its two major complications: cardiopulmonary failure and encephalomalacia. This study attempts to determine which fetal brain MRI features might be used to predict the development of these complications at birth. METHODS: The cohort was extracted from a prospectively-assembled database of VGAM cases managed at a single referral centre from 2000 to 2014...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076682/effect-of-maternal-%C3%A2-citalopram-exposure-on-p11-expression-and-neurogenesis-in-the-mouse-fetal-brain
#15
Jennifer R King, Juan C Velasquez, Masaaki Torii, Alexandre Bonnin
Fetal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been associated with increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. In the adult brain, SSRI therapy regulates p11 (s100a10) expression and alters neurogenesis. The protein p11 indirectly regulates 5-HT signaling through 5-HT1B/D receptors. In the fetal brain, signaling through these receptors modulates axonal circuit formation. We determined whether p11 is expressed in the fetal mouse brain, and whether maternal SSRI exposure affects fetal p11 expression and neurogenesis...
January 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075019/differential-recruitment-of-brain-regions-during-response-inhibition-in-children-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#16
Vikas N Kodali, Joseph L Jacobson, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls...
January 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070105/%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-potentially-targets-amp-activated-protein-kinase-and-energy-production-in-the-fetal-brain-to-ameliorate-dioxin-produced-attenuation-in-fetal-steroidogenesis
#17
Tomoki Takeda, Yuki Matsuo, Kyoko Nishida, Akihisa Fujiki, Yukiko Hattori, Takayuki Koga, Yuji Ishii, Hideyuki Yamada
Our previous studies demonstrated that treating pregnant rats with dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), targets the pituitary expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) to attenuate testicular steroidogenesis in fetuses, resulting in the imprinting of sexual immaturity of the offspring after reaching maturity. Furthermore, we found that although TCDD disturbs the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the fetal hypothalamus, maternal co-treatment with α-lipoic acid (α-LA), a cofactor of the TCA cycle, restores a TCDD-produced reduction in the LH-evoked steroidogenesis as well as the TCA cycle activity in fetuses...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069920/folding-but-not-surface-area-expansion-is-associated-with-cellular-morphological-maturation-in-the-fetal-cerebral-cortex
#18
Xiaojie Wang, Colin Studholme, Peta L Grigsby, Antonio E Frias, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher D Kroenke
: Altered macroscopic anatomical characteristics of the cerebral cortex have been identified in individuals affected by various neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the cellular developmental mechanisms that give rise to these abnormalities are not understood. Recently, advances in image reconstruction of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI) have made possible high resolution in utero measurements of water diffusion anisotropy in the fetal brain. Here, diffusion anisotropy within the developing fetal cerebral cortex is longitudinally characterized in the rhesus macaque, focusing on gestation days (G) 85 through G135 of the 165 day term...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067865/weak-functional-connectivity-in-the-human-fetal-brain-prior-to-preterm-birth
#19
Moriah E Thomason, Dustin Scheinost, Janessa H Manning, Lauren E Grove, Jasmine Hect, Narcis Marshall, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Susan Berman, Athina Pappas, Lami Yeo, Sonia S Hassan, R Todd Constable, Laura R Ment, Roberto Romero
It has been suggested that neurological problems more frequent in those born preterm are expressed prior to birth, but owing to technical limitations, this has been difficult to test in humans. We applied novel fetal resting-state functional MRI to measure brain function in 32 human fetuses in utero and found that systems-level neural functional connectivity was diminished in fetuses that would subsequently be born preterm. Neural connectivity was reduced in a left-hemisphere pre-language region, and the degree to which connectivity of this left language region extended to right-hemisphere homologs was positively associated with the time elapsed between fMRI assessment and delivery...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063919/proteomic-analysis-of-the-protective-effects-of-aqueous-bark-extract-of-terminalia-arjuna-roxb-on-isoproterenol-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-rats
#20
Santosh Kumar, Md Jahangir Alam, Pankaj Prabhakar, Sayeed Ahmad, Subir K Maulik, Manish Sharma, Shyamal K Goswami
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been in use as an ethnomedicine for cardiovascular ailments in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Studies using hemodynamic, ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory parameters in animal models have shown its anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. However, details analysis on its effects on established molecular and cell biological markers are a prerequisite for its wider acceptance to the medical community...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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