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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328469/human-cytomegalovirus-ul141-protein-interacts-with-celf5-and-affects-viral-dna-replication
#1
Fei Zou, Zhi-Tao Lu, Shuang Wang, Si Wu, Ying-Ying Wu, Zheng-Rong Sun
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the primary viral cause of congenital abnormalities and mental retardation in newborns. The HCMV UL141‑encoded glycoprotein has been previously revealed to inhibit the cell‑surface expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)155, CD122, tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis‑inducing ligand death (TRAIL)‑receptor 1 (R1) and TRAIL‑receptor 2 (R2), thus protecting virally‑infected cells by allowing them to escape natural killer cell‑mediated cytotoxicity...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328393/paediatric-virology-and-its-interaction-between-basic-science-and-clinical-practice-review
#2
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Maria Rusan, Angeliki Melidou, Paraskevi Korovessi, Georgia Papaioannou, Alexia Papatheodoropoulou, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Liston, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
The 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on October 7th, 2017 in Athens, Greece, highlighted the role of breast feeding in the prevention of viral infections during the first years of life. Moreover, it focused on the long-term outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections in prematurely born infants and emphasised the necessity for the development of relevant preventative strategies. Other topics that were covered included the vaccination policy in relation to the migration crisis, mother‑to‑child transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, vaccination against human papilloma viruses in boys and advances on intranasal live‑attenuated vaccination against influenza...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327278/nicotinamide-inhibits-ethanol-induced-caspase-3-and-parp-1-over-activation-and-subsequent-neurodegeneration-in-the-developing-mouse-cerebellum
#3
Alessandro Ieraci, Daniel G Herrera
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the principal preventable cause of mental retardation in the western countries resulting from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Ethanol-induced massive neuronal cell death occurs mainly in immature neurons during the brain growth spurt period. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that are most sensitive to ethanol neurotoxicity. Currently, there is no effective treatment that targets the causes of these disorders and efficient treatments to counteract or reverse FASD are desirable...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320660/nicotine-replacement-therapy-for-smoking-cessation-during-pregnancy
#4
Yael Bar-Zeev, Ling Li Lim, Billie Bonevski, Maree Gruppetta, Gillian S Gould
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is recommended in current Australian clinical guidelines for pregnant women who are unable to quit smoking unassisted. Clinicians report low levels of prescribing NRT during pregnancy, due to safety concerns and low levels of confidence in their ability to prescribe NRT. Animal models show that nicotine is harmful to the fetus, especially for brain and lung development, but human studies have not found any harmful effects on fetal and pregnancy outcomes. Studies of efficacy and effectiveness in the real world suggest that NRT use during pregnancy increases smoking cessation rates...
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320328/twenty-five-diagnoses-on-midline-images-of-the-brain-from-fetus-to-child-to-adult
#5
Asim F Choudhri, Harris L Cohen, Adeel Siddiqui, Vijay Pande, Ari M Blitz
Midsagittal images of the brain provide a wealth of anatomic information and may show abnormalities that are pathognomonic for particular diagnoses. Using an anatomy-based approach, the authors identify pertinent anatomic structures to serve as a checklist when evaluating these structures. Subregions evaluated include the corpus callosum, pituitary gland and sellar region, pineal gland and pineal region, brainstem, and cerebellum. The authors present 25 conditions with characteristic identifiable abnormalities at midsagittal imaging...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317881/neospora-caninum-infection-during-the-first-gestation-of-holstein-heifers-that-consume-food-contaminated-naturally-with-zearalenone-under-field-conditions
#6
Carlos Cruz-Vázquez, Juan Vital-Gutiérrez, Leticia Medina-Esparza, Luis Ortega-Mora, Arturo Valdivia-Flores, Teódulo Quezada-Tristán, Agustín Orihuela-Trujillo
Background: This work studied the natural infection of Neospora caninum during the first gestation of heifers in a dairy farm in animals consuming a ration co ntaminated naturally with Zearalenone (ZEA), and to find out effect of mycotoxin in the levels of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P4) and that's relation to the infection to N. caninum and in the abortions. Methods: The study was conducted in a dairy farm located in El Llano municipality, in Aguascalientes, Mexico, in 2013...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315570/evolving-changes-in-fetal-heart-rate-variability-and-brain-injury-after-hypoxia-ischemia-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#7
Kyohei Yamaguchi, Christopher A Lear, Michael J Beacom, Tomoaki Ikeda, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major contributor to preterm brain injury, but there are currently no reliable biomarkers to identify at risk infants. We tested the hypothesis that fetal heart rate (FHR) and FHR variability (FHRV) would identify evolving brain injury after HI. Fetal sheep at 0.7 of gestation were subjected to either 15 (15-min, n = 10) or 25 min (25-min, n = 17) of complete umbilical cord occlusion or sham occlusion (n = 12). FHR and four measures of FHRV (STV, LTV, SDNN, RMSSD) were assessed until 72 h after HI...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313307/prenatal-and-postnatal-diagnosis-of-rhabdomyomas-and-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-by-ultrafast-and-standard-mri
#8
Ying Zhou, Su-Zhen Dong, Yu-Min Zhong, Ai-Min Sun
OBJECTIVE: To examine the features of cardiac rhabdomyomas and tuberous sclerosis in fetuses and infants using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine whether MRI is an effective tool to facilitate early detection of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHODS: Fifteen patients with TSC were evaluated by ultrafast or standard MRI between June 2005 and September 2016. Fifteen patients were divided into two groups. Group A included five cases in utero and followed in infancy with gestational ages from 26 + 1 to 38 + 2 wk...
January 9, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311261/towards-stem-cell-based-therapies-for-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Malin Parmar
Treating neurodegenerative diseases with cell transplantation has been within reach since the first pioneering clinical trials in which dopamine neuron progenitors from the fetal brain were transplanted to individuals with Parkinson's disease. However, the use of fetal tissue is problematic in terms of low availability and high variability, and it is also associated with ethical concerns that vary between countries. For decades, the field has therefore investigated new scalable source of therapeutic cells from stem cells or via reprogramming...
January 8, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306932/clinical-study-of-fetal-neurobehavior-by-the-kanet-test
#10
REVIEW
Raul Moreira Neto, Selma Porovic
Fetal neurology is evolving as an area of great interest in prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine. The identification and diagnosis of brain damage prenatally has been a great challenge in obstetrics for many years. Investigations of fetal behavior in comparison with morphological studies led to the conclusion that fetal behavioral patterns directly reflect developmental and maturational processes of the fetal central nervous system (CNS). Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound has greatly improved the assessment of the quality of the fetal spontaneous movements, and enabled a better evaluation of fetal behavior...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302701/structure-and-function-of-the-nppa-nppb-cluster-locus-during-heart-development-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Joyce Man, Phil Barnett, Vincent M Christoffels
Atrial natriuretic factor and brain natriuretic peptide are two important biomarkers in clinical cardiology. These two natriuretic peptide hormones are encoded by the paralogous genes Nppa and Nppb, which are evolutionary conserved. Both genes are predominantly expressed by the heart muscle during the embryonic and fetal stages, and in particular Nppa expression is strongly reduced in the ventricles after birth. Upon cardiac stress, Nppa and Nppb are strongly upregulated in the ventricular myocardium. Much is known about the molecular and physiological ques inducing Nppa and Nppb expression; however, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of the Nppa-Nppb cluster in vivo has proven to be quite complex and is not well understood...
January 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298325/conditional-ablation-of-the-rfx4-isoform-1-transcription-factor-allele-dosage-effects-on-brain-phenotype
#12
Ping Xu, James P Morrison, Julie F Foley, Deborah J Stumpo, Toni Ward, Darryl C Zeldin, Perry J Blackshear
Regulatory factor X4 (RFX4) isoform 1 is a recently discovered isoform of the winged helix transcription factor RFX4, which can bind to X-box consensus sequences that are enriched in the promoters of cilia-related genes. Early insertional mutagenesis studies in mice first identified this isoform, and demonstrated that it was crucial for mouse brain development. RFX4 isoform 1 is the only RFX4 isoform significantly expressed in the mouse fetal and adult brain. In this study, we evaluated conditional knock-out (KO) mice in which one or two floxed alleles of Rfx4 were deleted early in development through the use of a Sox2-Cre transgene...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297281/suggested-mechanisms-for-zika-virus-causing-microcephaly-what-do-the-genomes-tell-us
#13
Se-Ran Jun, Trudy M Wassenaar, Visanu Wanchai, Preecha Patumcharoenpol, Intawat Nookaew, David W Ussery
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging human pathogen. Since its arrival in the Western hemisphere, from Africa via Asia, it has become a serious threat to pregnant women, causing microcephaly and other neuropathies in developing fetuses. The mechanisms behind these teratogenic effects are unknown, although epidemiological evidence suggests that microcephaly is not associated with the original, African lineage of ZIKV. The sequences of 196 published ZIKV genomes were used to assess whether recently proposed mechanistic explanations for microcephaly are supported by molecular level changes that may have increased its virulence since the virus left Africa...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296901/low-fetal-hemoglobin-percentage-is-associated-with-silent-brain-lesions-in-adults-with-homozygous-sickle-cell-disease
#14
David Calvet, Titien Tuilier, Nicolas Mélé, Guillaume Turc, Anoosha Habibi, Nassim Ait Abdallah, Loubna Majhadi, François Hemery, Myriam Edjlali, Frédéric Galacteros, Pablo Bartolucci
Silent white matter changes (WMCs) on brain imaging are common in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) and are associated with cognitive deficits in children. We investigated the factors predictive of WMCs in adults with homozygous SCD and no history of neurological conditions. Patients were recruited from a cohort of adults with homozygous SCD followed up at an adult sickle cell referral center for which steady-state measurements of biological parameters and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain were available...
December 12, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291210/the-role-of-the-placenta-in-prenatally-acquired-zika-virus-infection
#15
EDITORIAL
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Farzaneh Shobeirian
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne arbovirus from the family Flaviviridae, which has been recently confirmed to cause severe neurological abnormalities (such as microcephaly, brain parenchymal calcification, hydrocephalus, and malformations of cortical development) in the infected fetuses. The Placenta plays a multifold role in prenatally acquired ZIKV infection. It serves as a port of virus transmission to the fetus, and also can be directly affected by ZIKV leading to a diminished fetal blood supply or a disrupted/changed biological mediators' synthesis...
September 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289663/identification-of-the-antigenic-epitopes-of-maternal-autoantibodies-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Elizabeth Edmiston, Karen L Jones, Tam Vu, Paul Ashwood, Judy Van de Water
Several groups have described the presence of fetal brain-reactive maternal autoantibodies in the plasma of some mothers whose children have autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We previously identified seven autoantigens targeted by these maternal autoantibodies, each of which is expressed at significant levels in the developing brain and has demonstrated roles in typical neurodevelopment. To further understand the binding repertoire of the maternal autoantibodies, as well as the presence of any meaningful differences with respect to the recognition and binding of these ASD- specific autoantibodies to each of these neuronal autoantigens, we utilized overlapping peptide microarrays incubated with maternal plasma samples obtained from the Childhood Autism Risk from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) Study...
December 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287136/cerebrovascular-hemodynamics-in-fetuses-with-congenital-heart-disease
#17
Tingting Man, Yihua He, Ying Zhao, Lin Sun, Xiaowei Liu, Shuping Ge
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is hypothesized that diminished cerebral vascular resistance or the "brain sparing effect" is associated with fetuses with complex congenital heart defects (CHD) and may affect their neurodevelopmental outcome. An alternative explanation is that it is related to the location, cardiac output, pressure, and resistance in left heart obstructive CHDs. We sought to determine the effects of various left and right heart obstructive defects on the cerebral and placental hemodynamics and to evaluate the utility of these variables for the assessment and prognosis of CHDs...
December 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286930/hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-planned-delivery-before-intrapartum-events
#18
David Odd, Axel Heep, Karen Luyt, Tim Draycott
BACKGROUND: Mothers are increasingly given greater control over many of the choices around birth, although there is little robust evidence to inform these choices. After an infant is born with HIE the question of whether it was predictable, or preventable, is often raised. Intrapartum 'sentinel' events and antenatal predictors of HIE have been well described, however there is little evidence how antenatal and intrapartum factors interact. This is particularly important when elective delivery by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) has been shown to be beneficial in high risk groups...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286511/cerebral-impact-of-prenatal-irradiation-by-131i-an-experimental-model-of-clinical-neuroradioembryological-effects
#19
V V Talko, K M Loganovsky, I P Drozd, Ye V Tukalenko, T K Loganovska, S Yu Nechayev, S V Masiuk, Ye M Prokhorova
Human brain in prenatal period is a most vulnerable to ionizing radiation body structure. Unlike atomic bombings or radiological interventions in healthcare leading at most to external irradiation the intensive internal exposure may occur upon nuclear reactor accidents followed by substantial release and fallout of radioactive 131I. The latter can lead to specific neuroradioembryological effects. OBJECTIVE: To create an experimental model of prenatal cerebral radiation effects of 131I in human and to determine the experimental and clinical neuroradioembryological effects...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285173/rapamycin-therapy-for-neonatal-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-with-cardiac-rhabdomyomas-a-case-report-and-review
#20
Shanshan Mao, Qi Long, Huijia Lin, Jinling Liu
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that varies greatly in its expression. The current study reports a novel case of TSC caused by a TSC2 mutation (TSC2c.1642_1643insA or TSC2p.K549fsX589), in which multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas were detected by fetal echocardiography in week 31 of pregnancy. The infant was delivered successfully; however, seizures began 16 days following birth. Subsequent genetic tests confirmed a diagnosis of TSC. Rapamycin treatment resulted in regression of cardiac rhabdomyomas and controlled seizures...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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