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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340120/location-location-location-appraising-the-pleiotropic-function-of-hmgb1-in-fetal-brain
#1
Martin G Frasch, Karen L Nygard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334351/effects-of-antenatal-maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-socio-economic-status-on-neonatal-brain-development-are-modulated-by-genetic-risk
#2
Anqi Qiu, Mojun Shen, Claudia Buss, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Seang-Mei Saw, Peter D Gluckman, Pathik D Wadhwa, Sonja Entringer, Martin Styner, Neerja Karnani, Christine M Heim, Kieran J O'Donnell, Joanna D Holbrook, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney
This study included 168 and 85 mother-infant dyads from Asian and United States of America cohorts to examine whether a genomic profile risk score for major depressive disorder (GPRSMDD) moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms (or socio-economic status, SES) and fetal neurodevelopment, and to identify candidate biological processes underlying such association. Both cohorts showed a significant interaction between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and infant GPRSMDD on the right amygdala volume...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330415/novel-detection-of-placental-insufficiency-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#3
Jamie O Lo, Victoria H J Roberts, Matthias C Schabel, Xiaojie Wang, Terry K Morgan, Zheng Liu, Colin Studholme, Christopher D Kroenke, Antonio E Frias
The placenta is a vital organ necessary for healthy fetal development. Placental insufficiency creates an in utero environment where the fetus is at risk of insufficient oxygen or nutrient exchange. This is primarily caused by impairment of either maternal or fetal circulation or vascular thrombosis such as placental infarction. As a result of placental dysfunction, affected fetuses may be growth restricted, neurologically impaired, and at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. In a cohort of 4 pregnant Rhesus macaques, we describe antenatal detection of naturally occurring intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and aberrant fetal neurodevelopment in 1 animal...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329257/lessons-learned-at-the-epicenter-of-brazil-s-congenital-zika-epidemic-evidence-from-87-confirmed-cases
#4
Jucille do Amaral Meneses, Ana Catarina Ishigami, Luisa Medeiros de Mello, Luciano Lira de Albuquerque, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Lindomar José Pena
Congenital Zika virus infection has stimulated great international concern. A prospective case series of 87 infants with laboratory-confirmed congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) at the epicenter of the Brazilian Zika epidemic in Pernambuco state is presented. Mothers were interviewed for symptoms of possible Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and fetal ultrasounds were obtained. Infant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested for ZIKV specific antibodies and sera were screened for other congenital infections...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328129/the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-congenital-zika-syndrome
#5
Miguel Del Campo, Ian M L Feitosa, Erlane M Ribeiro, Dafne D G Horovitz, André L S Pessoa, Giovanny V A França, Alfredo García-Alix, Maria J R Doriqui, Hector Y C Wanderley, Maria V T Sanseverino, João I C F Neri, João M Pina-Neto, Emerson S Santos, Islane Verçosa, Mirlene C S P Cernach, Paula F V Medeiros, Saile C Kerbage, André A Silva, Vanessa van der Linden, Celina M T Martelli, Marli T Cordeiro, Rafael Dhalia, Fernanda S L Vianna, Cesar G Victora, Denise P Cavalcanti, Lavinia Schuler-Faccini
In October 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH). In response, the Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics established a task force (SBGM-ZETF) to study the phenotype of infants born with microcephaly due to ZIKV congenital infection and delineate the phenotypic spectrum of this newly recognized teratogen. This study was based on the clinical evaluation and neuroimaging of 83 infants born during the period from July, 2015 to March, 2016 and registered by the SBGM-ZETF. All 83 infants had significant findings on neuroimaging consistent with ZIKV congenital infection and 12 had confirmed ZIKV IgM in CSF...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322282/maternal-immune-activation-dysregulation-of-the-fetal-brain-transcriptome-and-relevance-to-the-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
M V Lombardo, H M Moon, J Su, T D Palmer, E Courchesne, T Pramparo
Maternal immune activation (MIA) via infection during pregnancy is known to increase risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unclear how MIA disrupts fetal brain gene expression in ways that may explain this increased risk. Here we examine how MIA dysregulates rat fetal brain gene expression (at a time point analogous to the end of the first trimester of human gestation) in ways relevant to ASD-associated pathophysiology. MIA downregulates expression of ASD-associated genes, with the largest enrichments in genes known to harbor rare highly penetrant mutations...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320595/brain-death-during-pregnancy-and-prolonged-corporeal-support-of-the-body-a-critical-discussion
#7
Lynne Staff, Meredith Nash
AIM: To discuss corporeal support of the brain-dead pregnant woman and to critically examine important aspects of this complex situation that remain as yet unexplored. BACKGROUND: When brain death of the woman occurs during pregnancy, the fetus may be kept inside the corporeally supported body for prolonged periods to enable continued fetal growth and development. This has been increasingly reported in medical literature since 1982 and has received considerable media attention in the past few years...
March 17, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318025/maternal-chronic-hypoxia-increases-expression-of-genes-regulating-lung-liquid-movement-and-surfactant-maturation-in-male-fetuses-in-late-gestation
#8
Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, Beth J Allison, Kirsty L Brain, Youguo Niu, Nozomi Itani, Katie L Skeffington, Andrew D Kane, Emilio A Herrera, Dino A Giussani, Janna L Morrison
Chronic fetal hypoxaemia is a common pregnancy complication that may arise from maternal, placental and/or fetal factors. Respiratory outcome of the infant at birth likely depends on the duration, timing and severity of the hypoxaemic insult. We have isolated the effect of maternal chronic hypoxia (MCH) for a month in late gestation on fetal lung development. Pregnant ewes were exposed to normoxia (21% O2 ) or hypoxia (10% O2 ) from 105-138 d gestation (term ∼145 d). At 138 d, gene expression in fetal lung tissue was determined by qRT-PCR...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316773/vitamin-d-treatment-during-pregnancy-prevents-autism-related-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-immune-activation
#9
Stephanie Vuillermot, Wei Luan, Urs Meyer, Darryl Eyles
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infection is a recognized environmental risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders of developmental origins such as autism or schizophrenia. Experimental work in animals indicates that this link is mediated by maternal immune activation (MIA) involving interactions between cytokine-associated inflammatory events, oxidative stress, and other pathophysiological processes such as hypoferremia and zinc deficiency. Maternal administration of the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) in mice produces several behavioral phenotypes in adult offspring of relevance to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315866/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-parenchymal-brain-development-and-growth-in-the-healthy-fetus
#10
Nickie N Andescavage, Adre DuPlessis, Robert McCarter, Gilbert Vezina, Richard Robertson, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to apply quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to characterize absolute cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) development, as well as its relative development to fetal brain parenchyma in the healthy human fetus. DESIGN: We created three-dimensional high-resolution reconstructions of the developing brain for healthy fetuses between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation, segmented the parenchymal and CSF spaces, and calculated the volumes for the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles; extra-axial CSF space; and the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306540/4d-assessment-of-fetal-brain-function-in-diabetic-patients
#11
Panagiotis Antsaklis, Selma Porovic, George Daskalakis, Asim Kurjak
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is a difference in the behavior of fetuses of pregnant women with diabetes under treatment with insulin, compared to fetuses of pregnant women without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kurjak's antenatal neurodevelopmental test (KANET) - a method that, by application of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound, assesses fetal behavior in a similar way that neonatologists perform a neurological assessment in newborns - was applied from 28 to 38 weeks of gestation to 40 pregnancies with pre-existing diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requiring insulin (diabetic group) and to 40 non-diabetic cases, with otherwise low-risk pregnancies (non-diabetic group)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304179/discrepancy-in-fetal-head-biometry-between-ultrasound-and-mri-in-suspected-microcephalic-fetuses
#12
Gal Yaniv, Eldad Katorza, Vered Tsehmaister Abitbol, Arik Eisenkraft, Ronen Bercovitz, Salim Bader, Chen Hoffmann
Background Microcephaly is one of the most common fetal structural abnormalities, and prenatal microcephaly is considered a group I malformation of cortical development diagnosed according to ultrasound (US) skull measurements. Purpose To evaluate the agreement between fetal head US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biometric measurements of suspected microcephalic fetuses. Material and Methods This institutional review board-approved retrospective study with waived informed consent included 180 pregnant women and was conducted at our medical center from March 2011 to April 2013...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303207/management-strategies-for-neoplastic-and-vascular-brain-lesions-presenting-during-pregnancy-a-series-of-29-patients
#13
Celestino Esteves Pereira, Jose Carlos Lynch
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of a brain tumor or intracranial vascular lesion during pregnancy is a rare event, but when it happens, it jeopardizes the lives of both the mother and infant. It also creates challenges of a neurosurgical, obstetric, and ethical nature. A multidisciplinary approach should be used for their care. METHODS: Between 1986 and 2015, 12 pregnant women diagnosed with brain tumors and 17 women with intracranial vascular lesion underwent treatment at the Neurosurgery Department of the Servidores do Estado Hospital and Rede D'Or/São Luis...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302607/brain-development-in-fetuses-of-mothers-with-diabetes-a-case-control-mr-imaging-study
#14
F C Denison, G Macnaught, S I K Semple, G Terris, J Walker, D Anblagan, A Serag, R M Reynolds, J P Boardman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Offspring exposed to maternal diabetes are at increased risk of neurocognitive impairment, but its origins are unknown. With MR imaging, we investigated the feasibility of comprehensive assessment of brain metabolism ((1)H-MRS), microstructure (DWI), and macrostructure (structural MRI) in third-trimester fetuses in women with diabetes and determined normal ranges for the MR imaging parameters measured. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with singleton pregnancies with diabetes (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 26) were recruited prospectively for MR imaging studies between 34 and 38 weeks' gestation...
March 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298706/an-assessment-of-fetal-cerebral-and-hepatic-perfusion-in-normal-pregnancy-and-pre-eclampsia-using-three-dimensional-ultrasound
#15
Susan Addley, Amanda Ali, Stephen Ong
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia and placental causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are part of the same spectrum of disorders. In IUGR, there is preferential shunting of blood to the fetal brain at the expense of other organs. We wanted to demonstrate that this also occurs in pre-eclampsia using three dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The 3D indices of perfusion are: flow index (FI), vascular index (VI) and vascularisation flow index (VFI) which reflect tissue vascularity and flow intensity...
January 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295775/comparative-study-of-conventional-and-virtual-autopsy-using-postmortem-mri-in-the-phenotypic-characterization-of-stillbirths-and-malformed-fetuses
#16
Mohan Shruthi, Neerja Gupta, Manisha Jana, Asit R Mridha, Atin Kumar, Ramesh Agarwal, Raju Sharma, Dipika Deka, Arun Kumar Gupta, Madhulika Kabra
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively compare conventional and virtual autopsy using postmortem-MRI in the phenotypic characterization of stillbirths and malformed fetuses and their acceptability to parents. METHODS: We performed whole body postmortem-MRI (1.5T) prior to conventional autopsy in 43 fetuses/still births (≥20 weeks of gestation) after excluding maternal causes of fetal death. With conventional autopsy as gold standard, postmortem-MRI findings were assessed and compared...
March 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293472/learning-and-memory-disabilities-in-iugr-babies-functional-and-molecular-analysis-in-a-rat-model
#17
Marta Camprubí Camprubí, Rafel Balada Caballé, Juan A Ortega Cano, Maria de Los Angeles Ortega de la Torre, Cristina Duran Fernández-Feijoo, Montserrat Girabent-Farrés, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Xavier Krauel, Soledad Alcántara
INTRODUCTION: 1Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the failure of the fetus to achieve its inherent growth potential, and it has frequently been associated with neurodevelopmental problems in childhood. Neurological disorders are mostly associated with IUGR babies with an abnormally high cephalization index (CI) and a brain sparing effect. However, a similar correlation has never been demonstrated in an animal model. The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between CI, functional deficits in learning and memory and alterations in synaptic proteins in a rat model of IUGR...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292840/using-brain-organoids-to-understand-zika-virus-induced-microcephaly
#18
Xuyu Qian, Ha Nam Nguyen, Fadi Jacob, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming
Technologies to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells into three-dimensional organized structures that resemble in vivo organs are pushing the frontiers of human disease modeling and drug development. In response to the global health emergency posed by the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak, brain organoids engineered to mimic the developing human fetal brain have been employed to model ZIKV-induced microcephaly. Here, we discuss the advantages of brain organoids over other model systems to study development and highlight recent advances in understanding ZIKV pathophysiology and its underlying pathogenesis mechanisms...
March 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288540/brainstem-vermis-and-brainstem-tentorium-angles-3d-ultrasound-study-of-the-intra-and-inter-observer-agreement
#19
Tamara Illescas, Pilar Martínez-Ten, Carmina Bermejo, María Estévez, Begoña Adiego
OBJECTIVE: The brainstem-vermis angle (BVA) and the brainstem-tentorium angle (BTA) have been proposed to quantify vermian and tentorial alterations associated to fetal posterior fossa malformations. Our objective is to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer agreement for the measurement of these angles during the prenatal ultrasound scan. METHODS: Fifteen 3D sets from fetuses with posterior fossa pathology were processed by multiplanar navigation. Four experts in prenatal ultrasound measured the BVA and the BTA on a mid-sagittal view of the fetal brain, following the criteria described by Volpe(1)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288452/fetal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-prenatal-zika-virus-infection
#20
José Enrique Sanín-Blair, Carolina Gutiérrez-Márquez, Diego A Herrera, Arastoo Vossough
Brain lesions and malformations have been described on ultrasonography of prenatal Zika infection; however, there are scarce reports about fetal magnetic resonance (MR) findings. We report 3 cases of fetuses with confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection evaluated by ultrasound and fetal MR. Various morphometric measurements were assessed and brain maturation was calculated with the fetal total maturation score. Fetuses with prenatal Zika virus infection showed retardation in brain maturation indexes evaluated by fetal MR...
March 14, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
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