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Krutika Joshi, Lily Shen, Feng Cao, Susan Dong, Zhengping Jia, Miguel A Cortez, O Carter Snead
OBJECTIVE: Infantile spasms (IS) is a catastrophic childhood seizure disorder that is characterized by extensor and/or flexor spasms, cognitive deterioration and a characteristic EEG abnormality. The latter consists of a pattern of a spike-wave followed by an electrodecremental response (EDR), which is a flattening of the EEG waveform amplitude. The mechanism/circuitry that underpins IS is unknown. Children with Down Syndrome (DS) are particularly vulnerable to IS. The standard mouse model of DS is the Ts65Dn mutant mouse (Ts)...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Layth Al Attar, Wiliam Kilgore
Acute liver injury is an alarming condition, as it may lead to a devastating outcome. Of the many causes of acute liver injury, review of medications is crucial to identifying the cause of the injury. Some commonly used medications may unpredictably be the underlying cause of liver injury. We present a case of Peyronie's disease treated with potassium para-aminobenzoate that developed acute liver injury. After starting the new treatment, the patient complained of right upper quadrant pain. He was found to have elevated liver enzymes...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Diego Fernández-Fernández, Alba Cadaveira-Mosquera, Lola Rueda-Ruzafa, Salvador Herrera-Pérez, Emma L Veale, Antonio Reboreda, Alistair Mathie, J Antonio Lamas
Two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P) constitute major candidates for the regulation of background potassium currents in mammalian cells. Channels of the TREK subfamily are also well positioned to play an important role in sensory transduction due to their sensitivity to a large number of physiological and physical stimuli (pH, mechanical, temperature). Following our previous report describing the molecular expression of different K2P channels in the vagal sensory system, here we confirm that TREK channels are functionally expressed in neurons from the mouse nodose ganglion (mNG)...
2018: PloS One
Zhao Huang, Zhi Chen, Shuangshuang Ding, Changmiao Chen, Ming Zhang
Potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) are considered as attractive alternatives to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the lack of suitable electrodes to host large K+ for rapid as well as reversible insertion/extraction hinders the developments of KIBs. As an attempt, the phosphoric acid doped SnO2-graphene-carbon (P-SGC) nanofibers synthesized with a facile electrospinning method are introduced and applied as anode materials for KIBs. The P-SGC anodes present a reversible capacity of 285.9 mAh g-1 over 60 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g-1, and the high rate capacity of 208...
June 21, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yan Li, Kai Sun, Meng-Yao An, Ying-Ying Pan, Tao Sun, Yong-Qiang Yin, Yi Kang, Jian-Shi Lou
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of taurine magnesium coordination compound (TMCC) on torsades de pointes (TdP) in isolated guinea pig hearts. METHODS: Healthy male guinea pigs weighting 250~300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups:①TdP model group ( n =7):Isolated hearts were perfused by normal K-H solution 20 minutes, then perfused by slowly activated delayed rectifier potassium current(IKs) blocker 10 μ mol/L Chromanol 293B under hypokalemic solution(1...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Yaoyun Zhang, Yonghui Zhao, Hongyue Liu, Weiwei Yu, Fan Yang, Wenhua Li, Zhijian Cao, Yingliang Wu
The human defensins are recently discovered to inhibit potassium channels, which are classical targets of the animal toxins. Whether other vertebrate defensins are potassium channel inhibitors remains unknown. In this work, we reported that the mouse β-defensin 3 (mBD3) was a novel inhibitor of both endogenous and exogenous potassium channels. The structural analysis showed that mBD3 is the most identical to human Kv1.3 channel-sensitive human β-defensin 2 (hBD2). However, the pharmacological profiles indicated that the recombinant mBD3 (rmBD3) weakly inhibited the mouse and human Kv1...
June 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ting Fan, Ao Wang, Jia-Qi Li, Jian-Liang Ye, Xiao Zheng, Pei-Qiang Huang
The imino-Nazarov cyclization of the polysubstituted pentan-1,4-diene-3-imine is realized. To this aim, a one-pot procedure involving reductive alkenyliminylation of α,β-unsaturated secondary amides with potassium organotrifluoroborates followed by acid-catalyzed imino-Nazarov cyclization of the polysubstituted pentan-1,4-diene-3-imine intermediates is studied systematically. This mild, operationally simple, flexible, and high-yielding protocol efficiently affords polysubstituted pentan-1,4-diene-3-imines, cyclopentenimines, and α-amino cyclopentenones, which are useful scaffolds in organic synthesis...
June 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Fang Xin, Yuan Cheng, Jie Ren, Sitao Zhang, Ping Liu, Haiyan Zhao, Haixia Huang, Wei Wang
The large conductance Ca2+ -activated potassium (BKCa ) channel is activated by stretch. The stress regulated exon (STREX) in α subunits is known to affect mechanosensitivity of BKCa channels. However, in human colonic smooth muscle cells (HCoSMCs) we found that the α subunits without STREX (ZERO-BK) and β1 subunits could be detected yet the cells were mechanosensitive. Whether the β1 subunit is involved in the regulation of BKCa mechanosensitivity is unclear. In the present study, ZERO-BK and β1 subunits were individually expressed or coexpressed in HEK293 cells and cell-attached patch-clamp techniques were used to measure BKCa currents defining mechanosensitivity...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Andrew Todd Ham, Jill Mackey, Gary Semb
Continuous electroencephalography (CEEG) is chiefly performed at The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) for identifying seizures, including its refined use within the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) as a differentiator between epileptic and psychogenic etiologies. CEEG also provides critical data that carry implications outside the bounds of both epilepsy and psychogenic events, such as the characterization of unorthodox clinical phenomena that are of physiological (though nonepileptic) origins. Although nonepileptic events (NEEs) are primarily linked with psychogenic phenomena (conversion disorder, malingering) that can mimic epileptic activity, they, like seizures, have diverse semiologies and etiologies...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Aylin R Rodan
WNK (With No Lysine (K)) kinases regulate renal epithelial ion transport to maintain homeostasis of electrolyte concentrations, extracellular volume and blood pressure. The SLC12 cation-chloride cotransporters, including the sodium-potassium-2-chloride (NKCC) and sodium-chloride (NCC) cotransporters, are targets of WNK regulation via the intermediary kinases SPAK (Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress response). The pathway is activated by low dietary potassium intake, resulting in increased phosphorylation and activity of NCC...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_260_17].
2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Hongliang Liu, Lingzhi Wang, Qiang Zeng, Liang Zhao, Yushan Cui, Changchun Hou, Bin Zhang, Zushan Zhang, Shun Zhang, Xuemin Chen, Aiguo Wang
Excessive iodide could induce intellectual damage in children, which has attracted broad attention. To investigate the neurotoxic effect of iodide and its mechanism, a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was treated with different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI). The results showed that excessive iodide could decrease cell viability, reduce glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase the degree of autophagy (by changing the cellular ultrastructure and raising the autophagy-related mRNA and protein expression of LC3, Beclin1, and p62), which were correlated with the immunofluorescence labeling...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
A Gaudchau, N Pfeiffer, A Gericke
We present a case of a toxic reaction in both eyes caused by secretions from an encrusting anemone of the genus Protopalythoa. The patient presented with chemosis and follicular reaction of the conjunctiva and whitish spots on the limbus. Under local treatment with steroids and antibiotic eyedrops, remission was achieved within a few days. Palytoxin, a poisonous component of Protopalythoa secretions, leads to inhibition of the sodium-potassium-ATPase, to destabilization of the membrane potential and to cell death...
June 19, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Nina Simonovic, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Jovana Jeremic, Zarko Finderle, Ivan Srejovic, Tamara Nikolic Turnic, Isidora Milosavljevic, Vladimir Zivkovic
The aim of this study was to examine and compare the effects of the acute administration of verapamil or amlodipine as representatives of the calcium channel blockers or nicorandil as a representative of the mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium (KATP ) channel opener to cardiac contractility, coronary flow, and oxidative stress markers on ischemia/reperfusion injury in the isolated rat heart. The hearts of adult male Wistar albino rats (n = 60 total, 12 per group) were divided into five groups, two controls (preconditioning with Krebs-Henseleit solution) and three experimental depending on acute administrated pharmacological agents (0,63 µmol/L of verapamil, 0,1 µmol/L of amlodipine, and 200 µmol/L of nicorandil)...
June 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ying-Tai Shih, Chai-Hock Chua, Sheng-Wen Hou, Li-Wei Lin, Chee-Fah Chong
A 74-year-old male with chronic kidney disease presented to the emergency department with asystole. Mechanical chest compression was started immediately using a piston-type thumper device. The initial potassium level was 7.7 mEq/L and bedside point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) revealed no pericardial fluid. With standard resuscitation and anti-hyperkalemia treatment, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved within 10 minutes of compressions. At 15 minutes post-ROSC, the patient went into pulseless electrical activity...
June 2018: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Lasse Skibsbye, Anne K Bengaard, A M Uldum-Nielsen, Kim Boddum, Torsten Christ, Thomas Jespersen
Sympathetic and vagal activation is linked to atrial arrhythmogenesis. Here we investigated the small conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (SK)-channel pore-blocker N -(pyridin-2-yl)-4-(pyridine-2-yl)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) on action potential (AP) and atrial fibrillation (AF) parameters in isolated rat atria during β-adrenergic [isoprenaline (ISO)] and muscarinic M2 [carbachol (CCh)] activation. Furthermore, antiarrhythmic efficacy of ICA was benchmarked toward the class-IC antiarrhythmic drug flecainide (Fleca)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rafaela Alvim Garcia, Chislene Pereira Vanelli, Olavo Dos Santos Pereira Junior, José Otávio do Amaral Corrêa
BACKGROUND: Hydroelectrolytic disorders are common in clinical situations and may be harmful to the patient, especially those involving plasma sodium and potassium dosages. Among the possible methods for the dosages are flame photometry, ion-selective electrode (ISE) and colorimetric enzymatic method. METHODS: We analyzed 175 samples in the three different methods cited from patients attending the laboratory of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Biranchi N Mishra, Manish S Kaushik, Gerard Abraham, Pawan K Singh
Spore (akinete) formation in the heterocystous and branched filamentous cyanobacterium Fischerella muscicola involves a significant increase in cell size and formation of several endospores in each of the cells. In present study, the physico-chemical factors (pH, light sources, nutrient deficiency, nitrogen sources, carbon sources, and growth hormones) affecting the germination of spores of F. muscicola were examined. Increase in spore germination frequency was detected above pH 8 with maximum germination (46...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Rui Li, Noemi Linares, James G Sutjianto, Aseem Chawla, Javier Garcia Martinez, Jeffrey D Rimer
The preparation of nanosized zeolites is critical for applications where mass transport limitations within microporous networks hinder their performance. Oftentimes the ability to generate ultrasmall zeolite crystals is dependent upon the use of expensive organics with limited commercial relevance. Here, we report the generation of zeolite L crystals with uniform sizes less than 30 nm using a facile, organic-free method. Time-resolved analysis of precursor assembly and evolution during nonclassical crystallization highlights key differences among silicon sources...
June 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Ning Wang, Christopher D Ivey, Rebecca A Dorman, Christopher G Ingersoll, Jeffery Steevens, Edward J Hammer, Candice R Bauer, David R Mount
Freshwater mussels (order Unionoida) are one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the world. However, many ambient water quality criteria and other environmental guideline values do not include data for freshwater mussels, in part because mussel toxicity test methods are comparatively new and data may not have been available when criteria and guidelines were derived. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the acute toxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) to larvae (glochidia) and/or juveniles of a unionid mussel (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea), and to determine the potential influences of water hardness (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/L as CaCO3 ) and other major ions (Ca, K, SO4 , or HCO3 ) on the acute toxicity of NaCl to the mussels...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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