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Keliane Liberman, Louis N Forti, Ingo Beyer, Ivan Bautmans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review reports the most recent literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. All articles were assessed for methodological quality and where possible effect size was calculated. RECENT FINDINGS: Thirty-four articles were included - four involving frail, 24 healthy and five older adults with a specific disease. One reported on both frail and nonfrail patients...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Eric Goudie, Mehdi Tahiri, Moishe Liberman
VATS lobectomy is a safe and effective treatment strategy for operable stage I and II lung cancer. It has a similar five-year survival compared to open lobectomy (thoracotomy). VATS lobectomy is associated with less postoperative complications and shorter hospital length of stay when compared to lobectomy by thoracotomy. VATS lobectomy has not been widely adopted by the thoracic surgical community, in part, due to technical reasons. Pulmonary artery branch manipulation in VATS lobectomy is one of the most critical parts of the procedure, especially when endostaplers are used for ligation and division of the vessel...
October 6, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Ava L Liberman, Hooman Kamel, Michael T Mullen, Steven R Messé
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a relatively rare and understudied disease. We sought to determine the accuracy of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes to identify CVT. METHODS: Retrospective chart review using the electronic medical record (EMR) to identify all patients discharged with CVT following admission or emergency department visit from May 1, 2010 to May 1, 2015 at our center. RESULTS: We identified 111 patients with an ICD-9 discharge diagnosis code of 325...
October 2016: Neurohospitalist
Shadi Yaghi, Ava L Liberman, Michael Atalay, Christopher Song, Karen L Furie, Hooman Kamel, Richard A Bernstein
Stroke of undetermined aetiology or 'cryptogenic' stroke accounts for 30-40% of ischaemic strokes despite extensive diagnostic evaluation. The role and yield of cardiac imaging is controversial. Cardiac MRI (CMR) has been used for cardiac disorders, but its use in cryptogenic stroke is not well established. We reviewed the literature (randomised trials, exploratory comparative studies and case series) on the use of CMR in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with ischaemic stroke. The literature on the use of CMR in the diagnostic evaluation of ischaemic stroke is sparse...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Eli Vakil, Hadas Liberman
There is ample evidence supporting the dissociation between the role of the left and right cerebral hemispheres in processing words and faces, respectively. Nevertheless, research has not yet studied the effect of perceptual asymmetry in memory context effect tasks using words and faces. Thus, the present study researches the advantages of presenting information in the right versus left hemispace and the effect of context on recognition when using faces compared to words presented in the right versus left hemispace...
September 16, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Mark C Lipke, Allegra L Liberman-Martin, T Don Tilley
Hydrosilation reactions represent an important class of chemical transformations and there has been considerable recent interest in expanding the scope of these reactions by developing new catalysts. A major theme to emerge from these investigations is the development of catalysts with electrophilic character that transfer electrophilicity to silicon via Si-H activation. This type of mechanism has been proposed for catalysts ranging from Group 4 transition metals to Group 15 main group species. Additionally, other electrophilic silicon species, such as silylene complexes and η3-H2SiRR' complexes, have been identified as intermediates in hydrosilation reactions...
September 19, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
M Charles Liberman, Michael J Epstein, Sandra S Cleveland, Haobing Wang, Stéphane F Maison
Recent work suggests that hair cells are not the most vulnerable elements in the inner ear; rather, it is the synapses between hair cells and cochlear nerve terminals that degenerate first in the aging or noise-exposed ear. This primary neural degeneration does not affect hearing thresholds, but likely contributes to problems understanding speech in difficult listening environments, and may be important in the generation of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. To look for signs of cochlear synaptopathy in humans, we recruited college students and divided them into low-risk and high-risk groups based on self-report of noise exposure and use of hearing protection...
2016: PloS One
Keith Hunley, Kiela Gwin, Brendan Liberman
Our current understanding of pre-Columbian history in the Americas rests in part on several trends identified in recent genetic studies. The goal of this study is to reexamine these trends in light of the impact of post-Columbian admixture and the methods used to study admixture. The previously-published data consist of 645 autosomal microsatellite genotypes from 1046 individuals in 63 populations. We used STRUCTURE to estimate ancestry proportions and tested the sensitivity of these estimates to the choice of the number of clusters, K...
2016: PloS One
Stéphane Maison, Leslie D Liberman, M Charles Liberman
The cochlear nerve includes a small population of unmyelinated sensory fibers connecting outer hair cells to the brain. The functional role of these type II afferent neurons is controversial, because neurophysiological data are sparse. A recent study (Froud et al., 2015) reported that targeted deletion of peripherin, a type of neurofilament, eliminated type II afferents and inactivated efferent feedback to the outer hair cells, thereby suggesting that type II afferents were the sensory drive to this sound-evoked, negative-feedback reflex, the olivocochlear pathway...
July 2016: ENeuro
Uri Liberman, Hilla Behar, Marcus W Feldman
Most models for the evolution of mutation under frequency-dependent selection involve some form of host-parasite interaction. These generally involve cyclic dynamics under which mutation may increase. Here we show that the reduction principle for the evolution of mutation, which is generally true for frequency-independent selection, also holds under frequency-dependent selection on haploids and diploids that does not involve cyclic dynamics.
August 25, 2016: Theoretical Population Biology
Nicolò Pecorelli, Olivia Hershorn, Gabriele Baldini, Julio F Fiore, Barry L Stein, A Sender Liberman, Patrick Charlebois, Franco Carli, Liane S Feldman
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines recommend incorporation of more than 20 perioperative interventions within an enhanced recovery program (ERP). However, the impact of overall adherence to the pathway and the relative contribution of each intervention are unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the extent to which adherence to ERP elements is associated with outcomes and identify key ERP elements predicting successful recovery following bowel resection. METHODS: Prospectively collected data entered in a registry specifically designed for ERPs were reviewed...
August 18, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Gal Netanel Liberman, Guy Ochbaum, Shoshana Malis Arad, Ronit Bitton
The cell-wall sulfated polysaccharide of the marine red microalga Porphyridium sp. is a high molecular weight biopolymer that has potential for use as a platform for metal complexation for various applications. This paper describes the structural and rheological characterization and antibacterial activity of the polysaccharide in combination with Zn(2+) (Zn-PS). SAXS and rheology studies indicate that with the addition of ZnCl2 to the sulfated polysaccharide the only change was the increase in viscosity in the entangled regime...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yong-Cheol Lee, Ting Wang, Mark Liberman
This study uses production and perception experiments to explore tone 3 focus in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, contrastive focus in Mandarin is clearly marked with increased duration, intensity, and pitch range: in the experiments, listeners identified focused syllables correctly more than 90% of the time. However, a tone 3 syllable offers a smaller capacity for pitch range expansion under focus, and also yields less intensity increase; in addition, local dissimilation increases the duration, intensity, and pitch range of adjacent syllables within the same phrase as a focused tone 3 syllable...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Zoe Liberman, Amanda L Woodward, Kathleen R Sullivan, Katherine D Kinzler
Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants' reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents' intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Enrico M Minnella, Rashami Awasthi, Chelsia Gillis, Julio F Fiore, A Sender Liberman, Patrick Charlebois, Barry Stein, Guillaume Bousquet-Dion, Liane S Feldman, Francesco Carli
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that multimodal prehabilitation programs comprising interventions directed at physical activity, nutrition, and anxiety coping can improve functional recovery after colorectal cancer operations; however, such programs may be more clinically meaningful and cost-effective if targeted to specific subgroups. This study aimed to estimate the extent to which patients with poor baseline functional capacity improve their functional capacity. METHODS: Data for 106 participants enrolled in a multimodal, prehabilitation program before colorectal operations were analyzed...
October 2016: Surgery
Zoe Liberman, Amanda L Woodward, Katherine D Kinzler
Language provides rich social information about its speakers. For instance, adults and children make inferences about a speaker's social identity, geographic origins, and group membership based on her language and accent. Although infants prefer speakers of familiar languages (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007), little is known about the developmental origins of humans' sensitivity to language as marker of social identity. We investigated whether 9-month-olds use the language a person speaks as an indicator of that person's likely social relationships...
July 29, 2016: Cognitive Science
Tal Biron-Shental, Meital Liberman, Michal Elbaz, Ido Laish, Reuven Sharony, Aliza Amiel
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes during pregnancy causes an intrauterine environment that influences lifetime sickness of the mother and the fetus. There is a correlation between diabetes and telomere shortening; however, very little is known about telomere homeostasis in the placenta. We aimed to study the telomerase complex in placentas and in cord blood leukocytes from patients with poorly controlled diabetes. METHODS: Biopsies from 16 third-trimester placentas and cord blood samples from pregnancies complicated with uncontrolled diabetes and from 16 gestational age-matched controls from uncomplicated pregnancies were examined...
August 2016: Placenta
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Guy Nadav, Deborah T Blumenthal, Felix Bokstein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
The interstitium-to-plasma rate constant (kep), extracted from dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI) MRI data, seems to have an important role in the assessment of patients with brain tumors. This parameter is affected by the slow behavior of the system, and thus is expected to be highly dependent on acquisition duration. The aim of this study was to optimize the scan duration and protocol of DCE-MRI for accurate estimation of the kep parameter in patients with high grade brain tumors. The effects of DCE-MRI scan duration and protocol design (continuous vs integrated scanning) on the estimated pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and on model selection, were studied using both simulated and patient data...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
John D Puskas, Michael E Halkos, Joseph J DeRose, Emilia Bagiella, Marissa A Miller, Jessica Overbey, Johannes Bonatti, V S Srinivas, Mark Vesely, Francis Sutter, Janine Lynch, Katherine Kirkwood, Timothy A Shapiro, Konstantinos D Boudoulas, Juan Crestanello, Thomas Gehrig, Peter Smith, Michael Ragosta, Steven J Hoff, David Zhao, Annetine C Gelijns, Wilson Y Szeto, Giora Weisz, Michael Argenziano, Thomas Vassiliades, Henry Liberman, William Matthai, Deborah D Ascheim
BACKGROUND: Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) combines minimally invasive surgical coronary artery bypass grafting of the left anterior descending artery with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of non-left anterior descending vessels. HCR is increasingly used to treat multivessel coronary artery disease that includes stenoses in the proximal left anterior descending artery and at least 1 other vessel, but its effectiveness has not been rigorously evaluated. OBJECTIVES: This National Institutes of Health-funded, multicenter, observational study was conducted to explore the characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing clinically indicated HCR and multivessel PCI for hybrid-eligible coronary artery disease, to inform the design of a confirmatory comparative effectiveness trial...
July 26, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Michael Gilead, Nira Liberman, Anat Maril
How does our brain allow us comprehend abstract/symbolic descriptions of human action? Whereas past research suggested that processing action language relies on sensorimotor brain regions, recent work suggests that sensorimotor activation depends on participants' task goals, such that focusing on abstract (vs. concrete) aspects of an action activates "default mode network" (rather than sensorimotor) regions. Following a Piagetian framework, we hypothesized that for actions acquired at an age wherein abstract/symbolic cognition is fully-developed, even when participants focus on the concrete aspects of an action, they should retrieve abstract-symbolic mental representations...
November 1, 2016: NeuroImage
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