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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445051/potential-air-pollutant-emissions-and-permitting-classifications-for-two-biorefinery-process-designs-in-the-united-states
#1
Annika Eberle, Arpit Bhatt, Yimin Zhang, Garvin A Heath
Advanced biofuel production facilities (biorefineries), such as those envisioned by the United States (U.S.) Renewable Fuel Standard and U.S. Department of Energy's research and development programs, often lack historical air pollutant emissions data, which can pose challenges for obtaining air emission permits that are required for construction and operation. To help fill this knowledge gap, we perform a thorough regulatory analysis and use engineering process designs to assess the applicability of federal air regulations and quantify air pollutant emissions for two feasibility-level biorefinery designs...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444520/elevational-plant-species-richness-patterns-and-their-drivers-across-non-endemics-endemics-and-growth-forms-in-the-eastern-himalaya
#2
Kumar Manish, Maharaj K Pandit, Yasmeen Telwala, Dinesh C Nautiyal, Lian Pin Koh, Sudha Tiwari
Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444374/measurement-of-neutron-ambient-dose-equivalent-in-proton-radiotherapy-with-line-scanning-and-wobbling-mode-treatment-system
#3
Sangmin Lee, Chaeyeong Lee, Eun Hyuk Shin, Sungkoo Cho, Dae-Hyun Kim, Youngyih Han, Doo Ho Choi, Sung-Joon Ye, Jin Sung Kim
The primary objective of this study was to measure secondary neutron dose during proton therapy using a detector that covers the entire neutron energy range produced in proton therapy. We analyzed and compared the neutron dose during proton treatment with passive scattering and line scanning. The neutron ambient dose equivalents were measured with a 190 MeV wobbling and line-scanning proton beam. The center of a plastic water phantom (30 × 30 × 60 cm3) was placed at the isocenter. A Wide-Energy Neutron Detection Instrument (WENDI-2) was located 1m from the isocenter at four different angles (0°, 45°, 90° and 135°)...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443722/reflections-on-o2-as-a-biosignature-in-exoplanetary-atmospheres
#4
Victoria S Meadows
Oxygenic photosynthesis is Earth's dominant metabolism, having evolved to harvest the largest expected energy source at the surface of most terrestrial habitable zone planets. Using CO2 and H2O-molecules that are expected to be abundant and widespread on habitable terrestrial planets-oxygenic photosynthesis is plausible as a significant planetary process with a global impact. Photosynthetic O2 has long been considered particularly robust as a sign of life on a habitable exoplanet, due to the lack of known "false positives"-geological or photochemical processes that could also produce large quantities of stable O2...
April 26, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443683/redox-signaling-mediated-by-the-thioredoxin-and-glutathione-systems-in-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Xiaoyuan Ren, Lili Zou, Xu Zhang, Vasco Branco, Jun Wang, Cristina Carvalho, Arne Holmgren, Jun Lu
SIGNIFICANCE: The thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems play important roles in maintaining the redox balance in the brain, a tissue that is prone to oxidative stress due to its high energy demand. These two disulfide reductase systems are active in various areas of the brain, and are considered to be the critical antioxidant systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Various neuronal disorders have been characterized to have imbalanced redox homeostasis. Recent Advances: In addition to their detrimental effects, recent studies have highlighted that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) act as critical signaling molecules by modifying thiols in proteins...
April 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443679/emerging-roles-of-carbonyl-sulfide-cos-in-chemical-biology-sulfide-transporter-or-gasotransmitter
#6
Andrea K Steiger, Yu Zhao, Michael D Pluth
SIGNIFICANCE: Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most prevalent sulfur-containing gas in Earth's atmosphere and plays important roles in the global sulfur cycle. COS has been implicated in origin of life peptide ligation, is the primary energy source for certain bacteria, and has been detected in mammalian systems. Despite this long and intertwined history with terrestrial biology, limited attention has focused on potential roles of COS as a biological mediator. Recent Advances. Although bacterial COS production is well documented, definitive sources of mammalian COS production have not been confirmed...
April 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443608/dynamic-behaviour-of-interphases-and-its-implication-on-high-energy-density-cathode-materials-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#7
Wangda Li, Andrei Dolocan, Pilgun Oh, Hugo Celio, Suhyeon Park, Jaephil Cho, Arumugam Manthiram
Undesired electrode-electrolyte interactions prevent the use of many high-energy-density cathode materials in practical lithium-ion batteries. Efforts to address their limited service life have predominantly focused on the active electrode materials and electrolytes. Here an advanced three-dimensional chemical and imaging analysis on a model material, the nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide, reveals the dynamic behaviour of cathode interphases driven by conductive carbon additives (carbon black) in a common nonaqueous electrolyte...
April 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442739/mixing-of-quantum-states-a-new-route-to-creating-optical-activity
#8
Anvar S Baimuratov, Nikita V Tepliakov, Yurii K Gun'ko, Alexander V Baranov, Anatoly V Fedorov, Ivan D Rukhlenko
The ability to induce optical activity in nanoparticles and dynamically control its strength is of great practical importance due to potential applications in various areas, including biochemistry, toxicology, and pharmaceutical science. Here we propose a new method of creating optical activity in originally achiral quantum nanostructures based on the mixing of their energy states of different parities. The mixing can be achieved by selective excitation of specific states or via perturbing all the states in a controllable fashion...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441861/anionic-polymer-and-quantum-dot-excipients-to-facilitate-sirna-release-and-self-reporting-of-disassembly-in-stimuli-responsive-nanocarrier-formulations
#9
Chad T Greco, Jason C Andrechak, Thomas H Epps Iii, Millicent O Sullivan
The incorporation of anionic excipients into polyplexes is a promising strategy for modulating siRNA binding vs. release and integrating diagnostic capabilities; however, specific design criteria and structure-function relationships are needed to facilitate the development of nanocarrier-based theranostics. Herein, we incorporated poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and quantum dot (QD) excipients into photolabile siRNA polyplexes to increase gene silencing efficiencies by up to 100% and enable self-reporting of nanocarrier disassembly...
April 25, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441484/fully-quantum-description-of-the-zundel-ion-combining-variational-quantum-monte-carlo-with-path-integral-langevin-dynamics
#10
Félix Mouhat, Sandro Sorella, Rodolphe Vuilleumier, Antonino Marco Saitta, Michele Casula
We introduce a novel approach for a fully quantum description of coupled electron-ion systems from first principles. It combines the variational quantum Monte Carlo solution of the electronic part with the path integral formalism for the quantum nuclear dynamics. On the one hand, the path integral molecular dynamics includes nuclear quantum effects by adding a set of fictitious classical particles (beads) aimed at reproducing nuclear quantum fluctuations via a harmonic kinetic term. On the other hand, variational quantum Monte Carlo can provide Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces with a precision comparable to the most advanced post Hartree-Fock approaches, and with a favorable scaling with the system size...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440379/high-voltage-positive-electrode-materials-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#11
REVIEW
Wangda Li, Bohang Song, Arumugam Manthiram
The ever-growing demand for advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries in portable electronics and electric vehicles has spurred intensive research efforts over the past decade. The key to sustaining the progress in Li-ion batteries lies in the quest for safe, low-cost positive electrode (cathode) materials with desirable energy and power capabilities. One approach to boost the energy and power densities of batteries is to increase the output voltage while maintaining a high capacity, fast charge-discharge rate, and long service life...
April 25, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439869/studying-protein-protein-interactions-in-planta-using-advanced-fluorescence-microscopy
#12
Marc Somssich, Rüdiger Simon
The formation of protein complexes through direct protein-protein interaction is essential for virtually every biological process, and accordingly the ability to determine the interaction properties of specific proteins is important to understand these processes. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements are state-of-the-art confocal fluorescence microscopy- and imaging-based techniques that allow the analysis of protein interactions in vivo and in planta, in specific compartments of single cells or tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439569/the-obesity-paradox-in-kidney-disease-how-to-reconcile-it-with-obesity-management
#13
Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Connie M Rhee, Jason Chou, S Foad Ahmadi, Jongha Park, Joline Lt Chen, Alpesh N Amin
Obesity, a risk factor for de novo chronic kidney disease (CKD), confers survival advantages in advanced CKD. This so-called obesity paradox is the archetype of the reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risks, in addition to the lipid, blood pressure, adiponectin, homocysteine, and uric acid paradoxes. These paradoxical phenomena are in sharp contradistinction to the known epidemiology of cardiovascular risks in the general population. In addition to advanced CKD, the obesity paradox has also been observed in heart failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, liver cirrhosis, and metastatic cancer, as well as in the elderly...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439415/stretchable-biofuel-cells-as-wearable-textile-based-self-powered-sensors
#14
Itthipon Jeerapan, Juliane R Sempionatto, Adriana Pavinatto, Jung-Min You, Joseph Wang
Highly stretchable textile-based biofuel cells (BFCs), acting as effective self-powered sensors, have been fabricated using screen-printing of customized stress-enduring inks. Due to synergistic effects of nanomaterial-based engineered inks and the serpentine designs, these printable bioelectronic devices endure severe mechanical deformations, e.g., stretching, indentation, or torsional twisting. Glucose and lactate BFCs with the single enzyme and membrane-free configurations generated the maximum power density of 160 and 250 µW cm(-2) with the open circuit voltages of 0...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439258/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Paras K Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K Patel, Sushil K Mahata
The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437190/consuming-a-ketogenic-diet-while-receiving-radiation-and-chemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-lung-cancer-and-pancreatic-cancer-the-university-of-iowa-experience-of-two-phase-1-clinical-trials
#16
Amir Zahra, Melissa A Fath, Emyleigh Opat, Kranti A Mapuskar, Sudershan K Bhatia, Daniel C Ma, Samuel N Rodman Iii, Travis P Snyders, Catherine A Chenard, Julie M Eichenberger-Gilmore, Kellie L Bodeker, Logan Ahmann, Brian J Smith, Sandy A Vollstedt, Heather A Brown, Taher Abu Hejleh, Gerald H Clamon, Daniel J Berg, Luke I Szweda, Douglas R Spitz, John M Buatti, Bryan G Allen
Ketogenic diets are low in carbohydrates and high in fat, which forces cells to rely more heavily upon mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids for energy. Relative to normal cells, cancer cells are believed to exist under a condition of chronic mitochondrial oxidative stress that is compensated for by increases in glucose metabolism to generate reducing equivalents. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a ketogenic diet concurrent with radiation and chemotherapy would be clinically tolerable in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer and could potentially exploit cancer cell oxidative metabolism to improve therapeutic outcomes...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437078/a-step-towards-high-energy-silicon-based-thin-film-lithium-ion-batteries
#17
Antonia Reyes Jiménez, Richard Klöpsch, Ralf Wagner, Uta C Rodehorst, Martin Kolek, Roman Nölle, Martin Winter, Tobias Placke
The next generation of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with increased energy density for large-scale applications, such as electric mobility, but also for small electronic devices, e.g. micro-batteries and on-chip batteries, requires advanced electrode active materials with enhanced specific and volumetric capacities. In this regard, silicon (Si) as anode material has attracted much attention due to its high specific capacity. However, the enormous volume changes during lithiation/de-lithiation are still a main obstacle avoiding the broad commercial use of Si-based electrodes...
April 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437000/magnetically-guided-capsule-endoscopy
#18
REVIEW
Naveen Shamsudhin, Vladimir I Zverev, Henrik Keller, Salvador Pane, Peter W Egolf, Bradley J Nelson, Alexander M Tishin
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a powerful tool for medical screening and diagnosis, where a small capsule is swallowed and moved by means of natural peristalsis and gravity through the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The camera-integrated capsule allows for visualization of the small intestine, a region which was previously inaccessible to classical flexible endoscopy. As a diagnostic tool, it allows to localize the sources of bleedings in the middle-part of the gastrointestinal tract and to identify diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease), Polyposis-Syndrome and tumors...
April 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436954/optimized-expression-based-microdissection-of-formalin-fixed-lung-cancer-tissue
#19
Markus Grafen, Thurid R Hofmann, Andreas H Scheel, Julia Beck, Alexander Emmert, Stefan Küffer, Bernhard C Danner, Ekkehard Schütz, Reinhardt Büttner, Andreas Ostendorf, Philipp Ströbel, Hanibal Bohnenberger
Analysis of specific DNA alterations in precision medicine of tumors is crucially important for molecular targeted treatments. Lung cancer is a prototypic example and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. One major technical problem of detecting DNA alterations in tissue samples is cellular heterogeneity, that is, mixture of tumor and normal cells. Microdissection is an important tool to enrich tumor cells from heterogeneous tissue samples. However, conventional laser capture microdissection has several disadvantages like user-dependent selection of regions of interest (ROI), high costs for dissection systems and long processing times...
April 24, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436948/mitochondrial-elongation-mediated-glucose-metabolism-reprogramming-is-essential-for-tumour-cell-survival-during-energy-stress
#20
J Li, Q Huang, X Long, X Guo, X Sun, X Jin, Z Li, T Ren, P Yuan, X Huang, H Zhang, J Xing
To date, mechanisms of tumour cell survival under energy stress are not well understood. Cumulative evidence is beginning to reveal that specific mitochondrial morphologies are often associated with energetic states and survival of cells. However, the functional roles of mitochondria in the metabolic adaptation of tumour cells to energy stress remain to be elucidated. In this study, we first investigated the changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by nutrition deprivation in tumour cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
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