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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548861/emergent-optical-phononic-modes-upon-nanoscale-mesogenic-phase-transitions
#1
Dima Bolmatov, Mikhail Zhernenkov, Lewis Sharpnack, Dena M Agra-Kooijman, Satyendra Kumar, Alexey Suvorov, Ronald Pindak, Yong Q Cai, Alessandro Cunsolo
The investigation of phononic collective excitations in soft matter systems at the molecular scale has always been challenging due to limitations of experimental techniques in resolving low-energy modes. Recent advances in Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) enabled the study of such systems with unprecedented spectral contrast at meV excitation energies. In particular, it has become possible to shed light on the low-energy collective motions in materials whose morphology and phase behavior can easily be manipulated, such as mesogenic systems...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548648/electronic-retinal-implants-and-artificial-vision-journey-and-present
#2
REVIEW
J O Mills, A Jalil, P E Stanga
Retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration are two significant causes of severe visual dysfunction. In both, the retinal photoreceptors degenerate, preventing successful conversion of light into electrical energy that is interpreted in the visual cortex as visual function. Artificial vision or visual function began over two centuries ago with the idea of creating artificial light pulses, or phosphenes, through cortical stimulation. The pursuit is now on to improve artificial visual function. Two retinal implants appear the most likely to succeed in the future having undergone multicentre human trials: the Argus II electronic epiretinal device (Second Sight Medical Products, CA, USA) and Alpha-IMS electronic subretinal device (Retina Implant AG, Germany)...
May 26, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548098/rationally-designed-mineralization-for-selective-recovery-of-the-rare-earth-elements
#3
Takaaki Hatanaka, Akimasa Matsugami, Takamasa Nonaka, Hideki Takagi, Fumiaki Hayashi, Takao Tani, Nobuhiro Ishida
The increasing demand for rare earth (RE) elements in advanced materials for permanent magnets, rechargeable batteries, catalysts and lamp phosphors necessitates environmentally friendly approaches for their recovery and separation. Here, we propose a mineralization concept for direct extraction of RE ions with Lamp (lanthanide ion mineralization peptide). In aqueous solution containing various metal ions, Lamp promotes the generation of RE hydroxide species with which it binds to form hydrophobic complexes that accumulate spontaneously as insoluble precipitates, even under physiological conditions (pH ∼6...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547911/from-light-capture-to-metabolic-needs-oxygenic-photosynthesis-is-an-ever-expanding-field-of-study-in-plants-algae-and-cyanobacteria
#4
EDITORIAL
Pierre Cardol, Anja Krieger-Liszkay
Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of photosynthetic electron and proton transports and their regulation in plants and algae in response to changes in environmental conditions is an important issue for fundamental research on photosynthesis, and may extend even to practical applications by identifying important sites for improvement of photosynthesis. The significance and often centrality of regulatory mechanisms of photosynthetic electron transport is well established for processes in plant acclimation...
May 26, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546911/graphene-based-polymer-bilayers-with-superior-light-driven-properties-for-remote-construction-of-3d-structures
#5
Zhenhua Tang, Ziwei Gao, Shuhai Jia, Fei Wang, Yonglin Wang
3D structure assembly in advanced functional materials is important for many areas of technology. Here, a new strategy exploits IR light-driven bilayer polymeric composites for autonomic origami assembly of 3D structures. The bilayer sheet comprises a passive layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and an active layer comprising reduced graphene oxides (RGOs), thermally expanding microspheres (TEMs), and PDMS. The corresponding fabrication method is versatile and simple. Owing to the large volume expansion of the TEMs, the two layers exhibit large differences in their coefficients of thermal expansion...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546907/phosphate-framework-electrode-materials-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#6
REVIEW
Yongjin Fang, Jiexin Zhang, Lifen Xiao, Xinping Ai, Yuliang Cao, Hanxi Yang
Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative for the next generation of electric storage systems due to their similar electrochemistry to Li-ion batteries and the low cost of sodium resources. Exploring appropriate electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance is the key issue for development of sodium ion batteries. Due to the high structural stability, facile reaction mechanism and rich structural diversity, phosphate framework materials have attracted increasing attention as promising electrode materials for sodium ion batteries...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546559/mapping-few-femtosecond-slices-of-ultra-relativistic-electron-bunches
#7
Tim Plath, Christoph Lechner, Velizar Miltchev, Philipp Amstutz, Nagitha Ekanayake, Leslie Lamberto Lazzarino, Theophilos Maltezopoulos, Jörn Bödewadt, Tim Laarmann, Jörg Roßbach
Free-electron lasers are unique sources of intense and ultra-short x-ray pulses that led to major scientific breakthroughs across disciplines from matter to materials and life sciences. The essential element of these devices are micrometer-sized electron bunches with high peak currents, low energy spread, and low emittance. Advanced FEL concepts such as seeded amplifiers rely on the capability of analyzing and controlling the electron beam properties with few-femtosecond time resolution. One major challenge is to extract tomographic slice parameters instead of projected electron beam properties...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544221/single-atom-electrocatalysts
#8
Chengzhou Zhu, Shaofang Fu, Qiurong Shi, Dan Du, Yuehe Lin
Recent years have witnessed the increasing production of the sustainable and renewable energy. The limitations of electrochemical performances are closely associated with the search for highly efficient electrocatalysts with more rational control of size, shape, composition and structure. Specifically, the rapidly emerging studies on single-atom catalysts (SACs) have sparked new interests in electrocatalysis because of the unique properties such as high catalytic activity, selectivity and 100% atom utilization...
May 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544208/ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-novel-mechanistic-and-diagnostic-insights-of-energy-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-advanced-fibrosis
#9
Stefan Traussnigg, Christian Kienbacher, Martin Gajdošík, Ladislav Valkovič, Emina Halilbasic, Judith Stift, Christian Rechling, Harald Hofer, Petra Steindl-Munda, Peter Ferenci, Fritz Wrba, Siegfried Trattnig, Martin Krššák, Michael Trauner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: With the rising prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) non-invasive tools obtaining pathomechanistic insights to improve risk stratification are urgently needed. We therefore explored high- and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to obtain novel mechanistic and diagnostic insights into alterations of hepatic lipid, cell membrane and energy metabolism across the spectrum of NAFLD. METHODS: MRS and liver biopsy were performed in 30 NAFLD patients with NAFL (n=8) or NASH (n=22)...
April 24, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542832/integrated-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveals-adaptive-changes-of-hibernating-retinas
#10
Yizhao Luan, Jingxing Ou, Vincent P Kunze, Fengyu Qiao, Yan Wang, Lai Wei, Wei Li, Zhi Xie
Hibernation is a seasonally adaptive strategy that allows hibernators to live through extremely cold conditions. Despite the profound reduction of blood flow to the retinas, hibernation causes no lasting retinal injury. Instead, hibernators show an increased tolerance to ischemic insults during the hibernation period. To understand the molecular changes of the retinas in response to hibernation, we applied an integrative transcriptome and metabolome analysis to explore changes in gene expression and metabolites of 13-lined ground squirrel retinas during hibernation...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541663/mechanistic-insight-into-the-reactivity-of-chlorine-derived-radicals-in-the-aqueous-phase-uv-chlorine-advanced-oxidation-process-quantum-mechanical-calculations
#11
Daisuke Minakata, Divya Kamath, Shaye Maetzold
The combined ultraviolet (UV) and free chlorine (UV/chlorine) advanced oxidation process that produces highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (HO•) and chlorine radicals (Cl•) is an attractive alternative to UV alone or chlorination for disinfection because of the destruction of a wide variety of organic compounds. However, concerns about the potential formation of chlorinated transformation products require an understanding of the radical-induced elementary reaction mechanisms and their reaction rate constants...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541324/a-cold-atom-fermi-hubbard-antiferromagnet
#12
Anton Mazurenko, Christie S Chiu, Geoffrey Ji, Maxwell F Parsons, Márton Kanász-Nagy, Richard Schmidt, Fabian Grusdt, Eugene Demler, Daniel Greif, Markus Greiner
Exotic phenomena in systems with strongly correlated electrons emerge from the interplay between spin and motional degrees of freedom. For example, doping an antiferromagnet is expected to give rise to pseudogap states and high-temperature superconductors. Quantum simulation using ultracold fermions in optical lattices could help to answer open questions about the doped Hubbard Hamiltonian, and has recently been advanced by quantum gas microscopy. Here we report the realization of an antiferromagnet in a repulsively interacting Fermi gas on a two-dimensional square lattice of about 80 sites at a temperature of 0...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541250/plasmonic-surface-nanostructuring-of-au-dots-sio2-via-laser-irradiation-induced-dewetting
#13
Ruixuan Yu, Tamaki Shibayama, Junya Ishioka, Xuan Meng, Yanhua Lei, Seiichi Watanabe
The in-situ observation of Au dot formation and the self-assembly dynamics of Au nanoparticles (NPs) was successfully demonstrated via dewetting of Au thin films on SiO<sub>2</sub> glass substrates under nano-second pulsed laser irradiation using a multi-quantum beam high-voltage electron microscope. Moreover, using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), the plasmonic properties of the formed Au/SiO<sub>2</sub> nanostructure were analyzed to demonstrate its validity in advanced optical devices...
May 25, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540719/one-step-toward-a-new-generation-of-c-mos-compatible-oxide-p-n-junctions-structure-of-the-lsmo-zno-interface-elucidated-by-an-experimental-and-theoretical-synergic-work
#14
Daniele Pullini, Mauro Francesco Sgroi, Agnes Nora Mahmoud, Nicolas Gauquelin, Lorenzo Maschio, Anna Maria Ferrari, Rik Groenen, Cas Damen, Guus Rijnders, Karel H W van den Bos, Sandra Van Aert, Johan Verbeeck
Heterostructures formed by La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/ZnO (LSMO/ZnO) interfaces exhibit extremely interesting electronic properties making them promising candidatea for novel oxide p-n junctions with multifunctional features. In this work, the structure of the interface is studied through a combined experimental/theoretical approach, . Hetero-structures were grown epitaxially and homogeneously on 4" silicon wafers, characterized by advanced electron microscopy imaging and spectroscopy, and simulated by ab-initio DFT calculations...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540682/the-limitations-of-existing-approaches-in-improving-microrna-target-prediction-accuracy
#15
Rasiah Loganantharaj, Thomas A Randall
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (18-24 nt) endogenous RNAs found across diverse phyla involved in posttranscriptional regulation, primarily downregulation of mRNAs. Experimentally determining miRNA-mRNA interactions can be expensive and time-consuming, making the accurate computational prediction of miRNA targets a high priority. Since miRNA-mRNA base pairing in mammals is not perfectly complementary and only a fraction of the identified motifs are real binding sites, accurately predicting miRNA targets remains challenging...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540557/dissolution-of-steel-slags-in-aqueous-media
#16
Shashikant Yadav, Anurag Mehra
Steel slag is a major industrial waste in steel industries, and its dissolution behavior in water needs to be characterized in the larger context of its potential use as an agent for sequestering CO2. For this purpose, a small closed system batch reactor was used to conduct the dissolution of steel slags in an aqueous medium under various dissolution conditions. In this study, two different types of steel slags were procured from steel plants in India, having diverse structural features, mineralogical compositions, and particle sizes...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540498/metabolic-regulation-of-hematopoietic-and-leukemic-stem-progenitor-cells-under-homeostatic-and-stress-conditions
#17
REVIEW
Daiki Karigane, Keiyo Takubo
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exhibit multilineage differentiation and self-renewal activities that maintain the entire hematopoietic system during an organism's lifetime. These abilities are sustained by intrinsic transcriptional programs and extrinsic cues from the microenvironment or niche. Recent studies using metabolomics technologies reveal that metabolic regulation plays an essential role in HSC maintenance. Metabolic pathways provide energy and building blocks for other factors functioning at steady state and in stress...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537392/dispersion-corrected-spin-component-scaled-double-hybrid-density-functional-theory-implementation-and-performance-for-non-covalent-interactions
#18
Loïc M Roch, Kim K Baldridge
The implementation of 300 combinations of generalized gradient approximation/local density approximation exchange-correlation dispersion-corrected spin-component-scaled double-hybrid (DSD) density functional theory (DFT) methods has been carried out and the performance assessed against several DFT and post-Hartree-Fock methods, enabling further advancements toward the long-standing challenge of accurate prediction of interaction energies and associated properties. The resulting framework is flexible and has been further extended to include the resolution of identity (RI) approximation for solving the critical four-center two-electron repulsion integrals in the basis of the Kohn-Sham orbitals for cost effectiveness...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535650/-texture-analysis-based-on-contrast-enhanced-mri-can-predict-treatment-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-of-breast-cancer
#19
S H Sun, C W Zhou, L Y Zhao, R Z Zhang, H Ouyang
Objective: To investigate whether texture analysis based on contrast-enhanced MRI can predict pathological complete response of locally advanced breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NAC). Methods: Forty-seven patients with breast cancer undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy from January 2015 to February 2016 were divided into pathological complete response (pCR) group or non-pathological complete response (non-pCR) group based on surgical pathology. Their parameters of texture analysis based on MRI before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after 2 cycles of treatment were analyzed...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535338/a-flexible-lithium-ion-fiber-battery-by-regularly-stacking-two-dimensional-titanium-oxide-nanosheets-hybridized-with-reduced-graphene-oxide
#20
Tatsumasa Hoshide, Yuanchuan Zheng, Junyu Hou, Zhiqiang Wang, Qingwen Li, Zhigang Zhao, Renzhi Ma, Takayoshi Sasaki, Fengxia Geng
Increasing interest has recently been devoted to developing small, rapid, and portable electronic devices; thus, it is becoming critically important to provide matching light and flexible energy-storage systems to power them. To this end, compared with the inevitable drawbacks of being bulky, heavy, and rigid for traditional planar sandwiched structures, linear fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have become increasingly important owing to their combined superiorities of miniaturization, adaptability, and weavability, the progress of which is heavily dependent on developing new fiber-shaped electrodes...
May 23, 2017: Nano Letters
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