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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339186/quantum-chemical-strain-analysis-for-mechanochemical-processes
#1
Tim Stauch, Andreas Dreuw
The use of mechanical force to initiate a chemical reaction is an efficient alternative to the conventional sources of activation energy, i.e., heat, light, and electricity. Applications of mechanochemistry in academic and industrial laboratories are diverse, ranging from chemical syntheses in ball mills and ultrasound baths to direct activation of covalent bonds using an atomic force microscope. The vectorial nature of force is advantageous because specific covalent bonds can be preconditioned for rupture by selective stretching...
March 24, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339184/mxene-ti3c2-an-effective-2d-light-to-heat-conversion-material
#2
Renyuan Li, Lianbin Zhang, Le Shi, Peng Wang
MXene, a new series of 2D material, has been steadily advancing its applications to a variety of fields, such as catalysis, supercapacitor, molecular separation, electromagnetic wave interference shielding. This work reports a carefully designed aqueous droplet light heating system along with a thorough mathematical procedure, which combined leads to a precise determination of internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of a variety of nanomaterials. The internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of MXene, more specifically Ti3C2, was measured to be 100%, indicating a perfect energy conversion...
March 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335338/green-synthesis-of-iron-nanoparticles-and-their-environmental-applications-and-implications
#3
REVIEW
Sadia Saif, Arifa Tahir, Yongsheng Chen
Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have also led to the development of novel nanomaterials, which ultimately increase potential health and environmental hazards. Interest in developing environmentally benign procedures for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been increased. The purpose is to minimize the negative impacts of synthetic procedures, their accompanying chemicals and derivative compounds. The exploitation of different biomaterials for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered a valuable approach in green nanotechnology...
November 12, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333161/essential-fatty-acid-deficiency-during-parenteral-soybean-oil-lipid-minimization
#4
K D Ernst
OBJECTIVE: To determine if parenteral lipid minimization in infants results in essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of infants >30 days old and >34 weeks postmenstrual age receiving parenteral lipid minimization (<1.5 g kg(-1) per day) with either soybean oil or fish oil and >90% of total nutritional intake parenterally in the 14 days before a serum EFA sample. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analyses with significance at 0...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332673/hierarchical-porous-nico2o4-nanosheet-arrays-directly-grown-on-carbon-cloth-with-superior-lithium-storage-performance
#5
Li Zhao, Lei Wang, Peng Yu, Chungui Tian, He Feng, Zhongwei Diao, Honggang Fu
Binary metal oxides have been explored as advanced candidates in lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes due to their high specific capacity. Herein, the hierarchical structures of porous NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly grown on a conductive carbon cloth substrate (3D NCO-PSA/CC) were obtained by a facile in situ synthetic strategy. When applied as a binder-free LIB anode, it exhibited satisfactory performance with a high discharge capacity (a first discharge capacity of 2090.8 mA h g(-1) and a stable capacity of 1687...
March 23, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332537/mapping-vibrational-surface-and-bulk-modes-in-a-single-nanocube
#6
Maureen J Lagos, Andreas Trügler, Ulrich Hohenester, Philip E Batson
Imaging of vibrational excitations in and near nanostructures is essential for developing low-loss infrared nanophotonics, controlling heat transport in thermal nanodevices, inventing new thermoelectric materials and understanding nanoscale energy transport. Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy has previously been used to image plasmonic behaviour in nanostructures in an electron microscope, but hitherto it has not been possible to map vibrational modes directly in a single nanostructure, limiting our understanding of phonon coupling with photons and plasmons...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330686/imaging-of-acute-and-chronic-thromboembolic-disease-state-of-the-art
#7
REVIEW
A Ruggiero, N J Screaton
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Recent advances in imaging allow acute and rapid recognition even by the non-specialist radiologist. Most acute emboli resolve on anticoagulation without sequelae; however, some emboli fail to fully resolve becoming endothelialised with the development of chronic thromboembolic disease (CTED). Increased pulmonary vascular resistance arising from CTED may lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) a debilitating disease affecting up to 5% of survivors of acute PE...
March 19, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330369/energy-transfer-in-multi-collision-environments-an-experimental-test-of-theory-lih-10-2-in-h2-0-0
#8
Xiaoyan Shen, Shuyin Wang, Kang Dai, Yifan Shen, Anthony J McCaffery
We report separate experimental and theoretical studies of the equilibration of highly excited LiH (v = 10; J = 2) in H2 at 680 K. Experiments that follow the time evolution of state-to-state population transfer in multi-collision conditions with μs resolution were carried out by Shen and co-workers at Xinjiang University and East China Institute of Science and Technology. At the same time, theoretical computations on the relaxation of this gas mixture were undertaken by McCaffery and co-workers at Sussex University...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328543/challenges-in-describing-ribosome-dynamics
#9
Kien Nguyen, Paul Charles Whitford
For decades, protein folding and functional dynamics have been described in terms of diffusive motion across an underlying energy landscape. With continued advances in structural biology and high-performance computing, the field is positioned to extend these approaches to large biomolecular assemblies. Through the application of energy landscape techniques to the ribosome, one may work towards establishing a comprehensive description of the dynamics, which will bridge theoretical concepts and experimental observations...
March 22, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327566/wholegrain-rye-but-not-wholegrain-wheat-lowers-body-weight-and-fat-mass-compared-with-refined-wheat-a-6-week-randomized-study
#10
J Suhr, S Vuholm, K N Iversen, R Landberg, M Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest inverse associations between wholegrain intake and body weight gain. Only few controlled intervention studies have supported this association and few compare effects of different grain varieties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how wholegrain wheat (WGW) and rye compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR)...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327563/health-benefits-and-consequences-of-the-eastern-orthodox-fasting-in-monks-of-mount-athos-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
S N Karras, A Persynaki, A Petróczi, E Barkans, H Mulrooney, M Kypraiou, T Tzotzas, K Tziomalos, K Kotsa, A A Tsioudas, C Pichard, D P Naughton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium homeostasis in Athonian monks (AMs). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Daily intakes of energy, macro- and micronutrients of a day during a weekend of Nativity Fast, defined as non-restrictive day (NRD), and a weekday during Great Lent, labeled as restrictive day (RD) were recorded...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326766/various-structured-molybdenum-based-nanomaterials-as-advanced-anode-materials-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#12
Zexing Wu, Wen Lei, Jie Wang, Rong Liu, Kedong Xia, Cuijuan Xuan, Deli Wang
A facile and scalable solvothermal high-temperature treatment strategy was developed to construct few-layered ultra-small MoS2 with less than three layers. These are embedded in carbon spheres (MoS2-C) and can be used as advanced anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In the resulting architecture, the intimate contact between MoS2 surface and carbon spheres can effectively avert aggregation and volume expansion of MoS2 during the lithiation-delithiation process. Moreover, it improves the structural integrity of the electrode remarkably, while the conductive carbon spheres provide quick transport of both electrons and ions within the electrode...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326666/from-millimeter-to-subnanometer-vapor-solid-deposition-of-carbon-nitride-hierarchical-nanostructures-directed-by-supramolecular-assembly
#13
Jingsan Xu, Hong Wang, Chao Zhang, Xiaofei Yang, Shaowen Cao, Jiaguo Yu, Menny Shalom
Shape and nanostructure control has great potential to enable graphitic carbon nitride (C3 N4 ) structures with new properties and functionalities. In this work, a new type of hierarchically structured nanoporous C3 N4 is introduced. The C3 N4 exhibits unique, edelweiss-like morphology, with components ranging from millimeter-sized bunches to subnanometer-thick layers. A one-step vapor-solid deposition approach using supramolecular aggregates as the precursor is carried out to accomplish the growth. Supramolecular pre-association plays a crucial role in achieving this nanostructure by directing the vaporization and deposition processes...
March 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326234/self-assembly-of-silicon-nanowires-studied-by-advanced-transmission-electron-microscopy
#14
Marta Agati, Guillaume Amiard, Vincent Le Borgne, Paola Castrucci, Richard Dolbec, Maurizio De Crescenzi, My Alì El Khakani, Simona Boninelli
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was successfully applied to the analysis of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) that were self-assembled during an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) process. The ICP-synthesized SiNWs were found to present a Si-SiO2 core-shell structure and length varying from ≈100 nm to 2-3 μm. The shorter SiNWs (maximum length ≈300 nm) were generally found to possess a nanoparticle at their tip. STEM energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy combined with electron tomography performed on these nanostructures revealed that they contain iron, clearly demonstrating that the short ICP-synthesized SiNWs grew via an iron-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism within the plasma reactor...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325740/proximal-tubulopathy-prime-mover-and-key-therapeutic-target-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#15
Richard E Gilbert
The current view of diabetic kidney disease, based on meticulously acquired ultrastructural morphometry and the utility of measuring plasma creatinine and urinary albumin, has been almost entirely focused on the glomerulus. While clearly of great importance, changes in the glomerulus are not the major determinant of renal prognosis in diabetes and may not be the primary event in the development of diabetic kidney disease either. Indeed, advances in biomarker discovery and a greater appreciation of tubulointerstitial histopathology and the role of tubular hypoxia in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease have given us pause to reconsider the current "glomerulocentric" paradigm and focus attention on the proximal tubule that by virtue of the high energy requirements and reliance on aerobic metabolism render it particularly susceptible to the derangements of the diabetic state...
April 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322252/structure-and-mechanism-of-a-group-i-cobalt-energy-coupling-factor-transporter
#16
Zhihao Bao, Xiaofeng Qi, Sen Hong, Ke Xu, Fangyuan He, Minhua Zhang, Jiugeng Chen, Daiyin Chao, Wei Zhao, Dianfan Li, Jiawei Wang, Peng Zhang
Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters are a large family of ATP-binding cassette transporters recently identified in microorganisms. Responsible for micronutrient uptake from the environment, ECF transporters are modular transporters composed of a membrane substrate-binding component EcfS and an ECF module consisting of an integral membrane scaffold component EcfT and two cytoplasmic ATP binding/hydrolysis components EcfA/A'. ECF transporters are classified into groups I and II. Currently, the molecular understanding of group-I ECF transporters is very limited, partly due to a lack of transporter complex structural information...
March 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320909/theoretical-and-computational-studies-of-non-equilibrium-and-non-statistical-dynamics-in-the-gas-phase-in-the-condensed-phase-and-at-interfaces
#17
Riccardo Spezia, Emilio Martínez-Nuñez, Saulo Vazquez, William L Hase
In this Introduction, we show the basic problems of non-statistical and non-equilibrium phenomena related to the papers collected in this themed issue. Over the past few years, significant advances in both computing power and development of theories have allowed the study of larger systems, increasing the time length of simulations and improving the quality of potential energy surfaces. In particular, the possibility of using quantum chemistry to calculate energies and forces 'on the fly' has paved the way to directly study chemical reactions...
April 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319854/extremely-thermophilic-energy-metabolisms-biotechnological-prospects
#18
REVIEW
Christopher T Straub, Benjamin M Zeldes, Gerrit J Schut, Michael Ww Adams, Robert M Kelly
New strategies for metabolic engineering of extremely thermophilic microorganisms to produce bio-based fuels and chemicals could leverage pathways and physiological features resident in extreme thermophiles for improved outcomes. Furthermore, very recent advances in genetic tools for these microorganisms make it possible for them to serve as metabolic engineering hosts. Beyond providing a higher temperature alternative to mesophilic platforms, exploitation of strategic metabolic characteristics of high temperature microorganisms grants new opportunities for biotechnological products...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319103/microglia-activation-due-to-obesity-programs-metabolic-failure-leading-to-type-two-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
R Maldonado-Ruiz, L Montalvo-Martínez, L Fuentes-Mera, A Camacho
Obesity is an energy metabolism disorder that increases susceptibility to the development of metabolic diseases. Recently, it has been described that obese subjects have a phenotype of chronic inflammation in organs that are metabolically relevant for glucose homeostasis and energy. Altered expression of immune system molecules such as interleukins IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum amyloid A (SAA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), among others, has been associated with the development of chronic inflammation in obesity...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317972/recent-progress-in-van-der-waals-heterojunctions
#20
REVIEW
Wanshun Xia, Liping Dai, Peng Yu, Xin Tong, Wenping Song, Guojun Zhang, Zhiming Wang
Following the development of many novel two-dimensional (2D) materials, investigations of van der Waals heterojunctions (vdWHs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent properties such as smooth heterointerface, highly gate-tunable bandgap, and ultrafast carrier transport. Benefits from the atom-scale thickness, physical and chemical properties and ease of manipulation of the heterojunctions formulated by weak vdW forces were demonstrated to indicate their outstanding potential in electronic and optoelectronic applications, including photodetection and energy harvesting, and the possibility of integrating them with the existing semiconductor technology for the next-generation electronic and sensing devices...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
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