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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944655/metal-nanowire-based-hybrid-electrodes-exhibiting-high-charge-discharge-rates-and-long-lived-electrocatalysis
#1
Rakesh K Pandey, Yuto Kawabata, Satoshi Teraji, Tomohisa Norisuye, Qui Tran-Cong-Miyata, Siowling Soh, Hideyuki Nakanishi
Nanostructured electrodes are at the forefront of advanced materials research, and have been studied extensively in the context of their potential applications in energy storage and conversion. Here, we report on the properties of core-shell (gold-polypyrrole) hybrid nanowires and their suitability as electrodes in electrochemical capacitors and as electrocatalysts. In general, the specific capacitance of electrochemical capacitors can be increased by faradaic reactions, but their charge transfer resistance impedes charge transport, decreasing the capacitance with increasing charge/discharge rate...
September 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944518/scenarios-reveal-pathways-to-sustain-future-ecosystem-services-in-an-agricultural-landscape
#2
Jiangxiao Qiu, Stephen R Carpenter, Eric G Booth, Melissa Motew, Samuel C Zipper, Christopher J Kucharik, Xi Chen, Steven P Loheide, Jenny Seifert, Monica G Turner
Sustaining food production, water quality, soil retention, flood and climate regulation in agricultural landscapes is a pressing global challenge given accelerating environmental changes. Scenarios are stories about plausible futures, and scenarios can be integrated with biophysical simulation models to explore quantitatively how the future might unfold. However, few studies have incorporated a wide range of drivers (e.g., climate, land-use, management, population, human diet) in spatially explicit, process-based models to investigate spatial-temporal dynamics and relationships of a portfolio of ecosystem services...
September 25, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943110/therapies-for-mitochondrial-diseases-and-current-clinical-trials
#3
REVIEW
Ayman W El-Hattab, Ana Maria Zarante, Mohammed Almannai, Fernando Scaglia
Mitochondrial diseases are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that result from dysfunction of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation due to molecular defects in genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Despite the advances in molecular and biochemical methodologies leading to better understanding of the etiology and mechanism of these diseases, there are still no satisfactory therapies available for mitochondrial disorders. Treatment for mitochondrial diseases remains largely symptomatic and does not significantly alter the course of the disease...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941867/3d-investigation-of-dynamic-behavior-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-the-parameters-of-spherical-biological-particles-in-the-first-phase-of-afm-based-manipulations-with-the-consideration-of-humidity-effect
#4
M H Korayem, Z Mahmoodi, M Mohammadi
The imaging and manipulation tools being the same in an AFM has necessitated the modeling and simulation of the AFM-based manipulation processes. In earlier studies, the dynamic behavior of biological particles in the course of manipulation has been modeled and simulated two-dimensionally. Now, with the advancements made in the modeling techniques, a 3D model of the manipulation of biological particles is more accurate than its 2D counterpart. In this paper, the effect of humidity has been taken into consideration in the three-dimensional manipulation modeling...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941346/-progress-in-improving-photosynthetic-efficiency-by-synthetic-biology
#5
Lixin Zhang, Congming Lu, Lianwei Peng, Weimin Ma, Wanqiang Qian
The contradiction between the increasing population and the decrease of tillable land areas is becoming more and more serious in our country. Food security is an important guarantee for sustainable development of our national economy. Photosynthesis is the basis for crop yield. Improving crop photosynthetic efficiency is one of the important approaches to increase crop yield. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in engineering photosynthetic performance by synthetic biology from three key aspects including absorption, transduction and conversion of light energy, light utilization efficiency and carbon assimilation...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941331/-preface-for-special-issue-on-synthetic-biology-2017
#6
Xian-En Zhang
Synthetic biology has developed quickly over the past decade. To review the research progress in synthetic biology, we published this special issue that consists of three columns, namely scientific significance, technological advances, and applications in medical science, pharmaceutics, agriculture, material, environment and energy.
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940991/guidewire-electrosurgery-assisted-trans-septal-puncture
#7
Jaffar M Khan, Toby Rogers, Marvin H Eng, Robert J Lederman, Adam B Greenbaum
OBJECTIVES: Electrifying a coronary guidewire may be a simple escalation strategy when trans-septal needle puncture is unsuccessful. BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency energy to facilitate trans-septal puncture through a dedicated device is costly and directly through a trans-septal needle may be less safe. Our technique overcomes these limitations. METHODS: The technique was used in patients when trans-septal needle penetration failed despite excessive force or tenting of the atrial septum...
September 20, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940885/high-energy-density-metal-oxygen-batteries-lithium-oxygen-batteries-vs-sodium-oxygen-batteries
#8
REVIEW
Kyeongse Song, Daniel Adjei Agyeman, Mihui Park, Junghoon Yang, Yong-Mook Kang
The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future...
September 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940609/technical-note-scanning-of-parallel-plate-ionization-chamber-and-diamond-detector-for-measurements-of-water-dose-profiles-in-the-vicinity-of-a-narrow-x-ray-microbeam
#9
Nobuteru Nariyama
PURPOSE: Scanning of dosimeters facilitates dose distribution measurements with fine spatial resolutions. This paper presents a method of conversion of the scanning results to water-dose profiles and provides an experimental verification. METHODS: An Advanced Markus chamber and a diamond detector were scanned at a resolution of 6 μm near the beam edges during irradiation with a 25-μm-wide white narrow x-ray beam from a synchrotron radiation source. For comparison, GafChromic films HD-810 and HD-V2 were also irradiated...
September 22, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940315/increased-grassland-arthropod-production-with-mammalian-herbivory-and-eutrophication-a-test-of-mediation-pathways
#10
Eric M Lind, Kimberly J La Pierre, Eric W Seabloom, Juan Alberti, Oscar Iribarne, Jennifer Firn, Daniel S Gruner, Adam D Kay, Jesus Pascal, Justin P Wright, Louie Yang, Elizabeth T Borer
Increases in nutrient availability and alterations to mammalian herbivore communities are a hallmark of the Anthropocene, with consequences for the primary producer communities in many ecosystems. While progress has advanced understanding of plant community responses to these perturbations, the consequences for energy flow to higher trophic levels in the form of secondary production are less well understood. We quantified arthropod biomass after manipulating soil nutrient availability and wild mammalian herbivory, using identical methods across 13 temperate grasslands...
September 21, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938405/short-term-high-fat-diet-increases-leptin-activation-of-cart-neurons-and-advances-puberty-in-female-mice
#11
Jade Cabestre Venancio, Lisandra Oliveira Margatho, Rodrigo C Rorato, Roberta Ribeiro Costa Rosales, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Ricardo Coletti, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Carol F Elias, Lucila Leico K Elias
Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic CART neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day 21 (PN21) and were studied at PN28 and PN32...
September 4, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938307/design-and-development-of-a-miniaturized-percutaneously-deployable-wireless-left-ventricular-assist-device-early-prototypes-and-feasibility-testing
#12
Brian Letzen, Jiheum Park, Zeynep Tuzun, Pramod Bonde
The current left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are limited by a highly invasive implantation procedure in a severely unstable group of advanced heart failure patients. Additionally, the current transcutaneous power drive line acts as a nidus for infection resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. In an effort to decrease this invasiveness and eliminate drive line complications, we have conceived a wireless miniaturized percutaneous LVAD, capable of being delivered endovascularly with a tether-free operation...
September 21, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938297/new-advancements-in-spinal-cord-stimulation-for-chronic-pain-management
#13
Jijun Xu, Aijun Liu, Jianguo Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update the recent development of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) technology in the management of chronic pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Efficacy of SCS therapy has been significantly improved by the recent development of high frequency (HF-10 kHz) stimulation, burst stimulation, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation. A few latest SCS modalities are in clinical trial. New approaches to guide lead placement and advances in surgical lead are introduced...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938248/a-youth-compendium-of-physical-activities-activity-codes-and-metabolic-intensities
#14
Nancy F Butte, Kathleen B Watson, Kate Ridley, Issa F Zakeri, Robert G McMurray, Karin A Pfeiffer, Scott E Crouter, Stephen D Herrmann, David R Bassett, Alexander Long, Zekarias Berhane, Stewart G Trost, Barbara E Ainsworth, David Berrigan, Janet E Fulton
PURPOSE: A Youth Compendium of Physical Activities (Youth Compendium) was developed to estimate the energy costs of physical activities using data on youth only. METHODS: Based on a literature search and pooled data of energy expenditure measurements in youth, the energy costs of 196 activities were compiled in 16 activity categories to form a Youth Compendium of Physical Activities. To estimate the intensity of each activity, measured oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) was divided by basal metabolic rate (Schofield age-, sex- and mass-specific equations) to produce a youth MET (METy)...
September 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936500/confined-naalh4-nanoparticles-inside-ceo2-hollow-nanotubes-towards-enhanced-hydrogen-storage
#15
Qili Gao, Guanglin Xia, Xuebin Yu
NaAlH4 has been widely regarded as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its favorable thermodynamics and high energy density. The high activation energy barrier and high dehydrogenation temperature, however, significantly hinder its practical application. In this paper, CeO2 hollow nanotubes (HNTs) prepared by a simple electrospinning technique are adopted as functional scaffolds to support NaAlH4 nanoparticles (NPs) towards advanced hydrogen storage performance. The nanoconfined NaAlH4 inside CeO2 HNTs, synthesized via the infiltration of molten NaAlH4 into the CeO2 HNTs under high hydrogen pressure, exhibited significantly improved dehydrogenation properties compared with both bulk and ball-milled CeO2 HNTs-catalyzed NaAlH4...
September 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936158/bayesian-tractography-using-geometric-shape-priors
#16
Xiaoming Dong, Zhengwu Zhang, Anuj Srivastava
The problem of estimating neuronal fiber tracts connecting different brain regions is important for various types of brain studies, including understanding brain functionality and diagnosing cognitive impairments. The popular techniques for tractography are mostly sequential-tracts are grown sequentially following principal directions of local water diffusion profiles. Despite several advancements on this basic idea, the solutions easily get stuck in local solutions, and can't incorporate global shape information...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934809/ct-and-mri-techniques-for-imaging-around-orthopedic-hardware
#17
Thuy Duong Do, Reto Sutter, Stephan Skornitzke, Marc-André Weber
Orthopedic hardware impairs image quality in cross-sectional imaging. With an increasing number of orthopedic implants in an aging population, the need to mitigate metal artifacts in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is becoming increasingly relevant. This review provides an overview of the major artifacts in CT and MRI and state-of-the-art solutions to improve image quality. All steps of image acquisition from device selection, scan preparations and parameters to image post-processing influence the magnitude of metal artifacts...
September 21, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934762/dose-response-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-body-composition-among-colon-cancer-survivors-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Justin C Brown, Babette S Zemel, Andrea B Troxel, Michael R Rickels, Nevena Damjanov, Bonnie Ky, Andrew D Rhim, Anil K Rustgi, Kerry S Courneya, Kathryn H Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with a higher risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. The pathways through which physical activity may alter disease outcomes are unknown, but may be mediated by changes in visceral adipose tissue. METHODS: Thirty-nine stage I-III colon cancer survivors were randomised to one of three groups: usual-care control, 150 min wk(-1) of aerobic exercise (low dose) and 300 min wk(-1) of aerobic exercise (high dose) for 6 months...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934673/an-analysis-of-chemicals-and-other-constituents-found-in-produced-water-from-hydraulically-fractured-wells-in-california-and-the-challenges-for-wastewater-management
#19
Emily A Chittick, Tanja Srebotnjak
As high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HF) has grown substantially in the United States over the past decade, so has the volume of produced water (PW), i.e., briny water brought to the surface as a byproduct of oil and gas production. According to a recent study (Groundwater Protection Council, 2015), more than 21 billion barrels of PW were generated in 2012. In addition to being high in TDS, PW may contain hydrocarbons, PAH, alkylphenols, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), metals, and other organic and inorganic substances...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933835/light-induced-spin-state-switching-and-relaxation-in-spin-pairs-of-copper-ii-nitroxide-based-molecular-magnets
#20
Sergey V Tumanov, Sergey L Veber, Svyatoslav E Tolstikov, Natalia A Artiukhova, Galina V Romanenko, Victor I Ovcharenko, Matvey V Fedin
Similar to spin-crossover (SCO) compounds, spin states of copper(II)-nitroxide based molecular magnets can be switched by various external stimuli including temperature and light. Although photoswitching and reverse relaxation of nitroxide-copper(II)-nitroxide triads were investigated in some detail, similar study for copper(II)-nitroxide spin pairs was still missing. In this work we address photoswitching and relaxation phenomena in exchange-coupled spin pairs of this family of molecular magnets. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with photoexcitation, we demonstrate that compared to triad-containing compounds the photoinduced weakly coupled spin (WS) states of copper(II)-nitroxide pairs are remarkably more stable at cryogenic temperatures and relax to the ground strongly coupled spin (SS) states on the scale of days...
September 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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