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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161317/evaluating-architecture-impact-on-system-energy-efficiency
#1
Shijie Yu, Hailong Yang, Rui Wang, Zhongzhi Luan, Depei Qian
As the energy consumption has been surging in an unsustainable way, it is important to understand the impact of existing architecture designs from energy efficiency perspective, which is especially valuable for High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter environment hosting tens of thousands of servers. One obstacle hindering the advance of comprehensive evaluation on energy efficiency is the deficient power measuring approach. Most of the energy study relies on either external power meters or power models, both of these two methods contain intrinsic drawbacks in their practical adoption and measuring accuracy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161314/conventional-and-technical-diving-surveys-reveal-elevated-biomass-and-differing-fish-community-composition-from-shallow-and-upper-mesophotic-zones-of-a-remote-united-states-coral-reef
#2
Roldan C Muñoz, Christine A Buckel, Paula E Whitfield, Shay Viehman, Randy Clark, J Christopher Taylor, Brian P Degan, Emma L Hickerson
The world's coral reefs appear to be in a global decline, yet most previous research on coral reefs has taken place at depths shallower than 30 m. Mesophotic coral ecosystem (depths deeper than ~30 m) studies have revealed extensive, productive habitats and rich communities. Despite recent advances, mesophotic coral ecosystems remain understudied due to challenges with sampling at deeper depths. The few previous studies of mesophotic coral ecosystems have shown variation across locations in depth-specific species composition and assemblage shifts, potentially a response to differences in habitat or light availability/water clarity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161014/toward-an-axial-nanoscale-ruler-for-fluorescence-microscopy
#3
Sabrina Simoncelli, Maria Makarova, William Wardley, Dylan M Owen
In the discussion of resolution in optical microscopy, axial precision has often come second to its lateral counterpart. However, biological systems make no special arrangements for our preferred direction of imaging. The ability to measure axial distances, that is, the heights of fluorophores relative to a plane of reference, is thus of paramount importance and has been the subject of several recent advances. A novel method is to modify the fluorescence emission based on the height of the individual fluorophore, such that its z-position is encoded somehow in the detected signal...
November 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160226/annealing-cycles-and-the-self-organization-of-functionalized-colloids
#4
Cristóvão S Dias, Nuno A M Araujo, Margarida M Telo da Gama
The self-assembly of functionalized (patchy) particles with directional interactions into target structures is still a challenge, despite the significant experimental advances on their synthesis. The self-assembly pathways are typically characterized by high energy barriers that hinder the access to stable (equilibrium) structures. A possible strategy to tackle this challenge is to perform annealing cycles. By periodically switching on and off the inter-particle bonds, one expects to smooth-out the kinetic pathways and favor the assembly of targeted structures...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160224/colloidal-paradigm-in-supercapattery-electrode-systems
#5
Kunfeng Chen, Dongfeng Xue
Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage system is now sorely in need of new design paradigm at nanosize and ion-level to satisfy the higher energy and higher power demand. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery which integrates multiple-scale matter existing forms, i.e., ion clusters, colloidal ions, nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e., electrostatic, van der Waals force, chemical bonding, leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159858/non-linear-effect-of-irradiance-on-photoheterotrophic-activity-and-growth-of-the-aerobic-anoxygenic-phototrophic-bacterium-dinoroseobacter-shibae
#6
Kasia Piwosz, David Kaftan, Jason Dean, Jiří Šetlík, Michal Koblížek
Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic (AAP) bacteria are an important component of marine microbial communities. They produce energy in light using bacteriochlorophyll a containing photosystems. This extra energy provides an advantage over purely heterotrophic bacteria. One of the most intensively studied AAP bacteria is Dinoroseobacter shibae, a member of the environmentally important Roseobacter clade. Light stimulates its growth and metabolism, but the effect of light intensity remains unclear. Here, we show that an increase in biomass along an irradiance gradient followed the exponential rise to the maximum curve, with saturation at about 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) , without any inhibition at light intensities up to 600 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157974/stability-of-aerobic-granules-during-long-term-bioreactor-operation
#7
REVIEW
Rita D G Franca, Helena M Pinheiro, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Nídia D Lourenço
Aerobic granular sludge technology has been extensively studied over the past 20 years and is regarded as the upcoming new standard for biological treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters. Aerobic granules (AG) are dense, compact, self-immobilized microbial aggregates that allow better sludge-water separation and thereby higher biomass concentrations in the bioreactor than conventional activated sludge aggregates. This brings potential practical advantages in terms of investment cost, energy consumption and footprint...
November 17, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157823/lespedeza-bicolor-ameliorates-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-methylglyoxal-glucotoxicity
#8
Moon Ho Do, Jae Hyuk Lee, Hussain Mustatab Wahedi, Chaeho Pak, Choong Hwan Lee, Eui-Ju Yeo, Yunsook Lim, Sang Keun Ha, Inwook Choi, Sun Yeou Kim
BACKGROUND: Lespedeza species have been used as a traditional medicine to treat nephritis, azotemia, inflammation, energy depletion, diabetes, and diuresis. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to screen the most potent Lespedeza species against methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced glucotoxicity, and to elucidate the mechanisms of action. Also, we will attempt to identify small chemical metabolites that might be responsible for such anti-glucotoxicity effects. METHODS: Firstly, the protective effect of 26 different Lespedeza species against MGO-induced toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was investigated...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157491/monitoring-protein-folding-through-high-pressure-nmr-spectroscopy
#9
REVIEW
Julien Roche, Catherine A Royer, Christian Roumestand
High-pressure is a well-known perturbation method used to destabilize globular proteins. It is perfectly reversible, which is essential for a proper thermodynamic characterization of a protein equilibrium. In contrast to other perturbation methods such as heat or chemical denaturant that destabilize protein structures uniformly, pressure exerts local effects on regions or domains of a protein containing internal cavities. When combined with NMR spectroscopy, hydrostatic pressure offers the possibility to monitor at a residue level the structural transitions occurring upon unfolding and to determine the kinetic properties of the process...
November 2017: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157200/swellix-a-computational-tool-to-explore-rna-conformational-space
#10
Nathan Sloat, Jui-Wen Liu, Susan J Schroeder
BACKGROUND: The sequence of nucleotides in an RNA determines the possible base pairs for an RNA fold and thus also determines the overall shape and function of an RNA. The Swellix program presented here combines a helix abstraction with a combinatorial approach to the RNA folding problem in order to compute all possible non-pseudoknotted RNA structures for RNA sequences. The Swellix program builds on the Crumple program and can include experimental constraints on global RNA structures such as the minimum number and lengths of helices from crystallography, cryoelectron microscopy, or in vivo crosslinking and chemical probing methods...
November 21, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156650/nondestructive-evaluation-of-carbon-fiber-bicycle-frames-using-infrared-thermography
#11
Rubén Usamentiaga, Clemente Ibarra-Castanedo, Matthieu Klein, Xavier Maldague, Jeroen Peeters, Alvaro Sanchez-Beato
Bicycle frames made of carbon fibre are extremely popular for high-performance cycling due to the stiffness-to-weight ratio, which enables greater power transfer. However, products manufactured using carbon fibre are sensitive to impact damage. Therefore, intelligent nondestructive evaluation is a required step to prevent failures and ensure a secure usage of the bicycle. This work proposes an inspection method based on active thermography, a proven technique successfully applied to other materials. Different configurations for the inspection are tested, including power and heating time...
November 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156423/under-pressure-evolutionary-engineering-of-yeast-strains-for-improved-performance-in-fuels-and-chemicals-production
#12
REVIEW
Robert Mans, Jean-Marc G Daran, Jack T Pronk
Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical genetics and genome-editing techniques, evolutionary engineering has also become a powerful approach for identification and reverse engineering of molecular mechanisms that underlie industrially relevant traits. New techniques enable acceleration of in vivo mutation rates, both across yeast genomes and at specific loci...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155761/advanced-confocal-microscopy-techniques-to-study-protein-protein-interactions-and-kinetics-at-dna-lesions
#13
Soňa Legartová, Jana Suchánková, Jana Krejčí, Alena Kovaříková, Eva Bártová
Local microirradiation with lasers represents a useful tool for studies of DNA-repair-related processes in live cells. Here, we describe a methodological approach to analyzing protein kinetics at DNA lesions over time or protein-protein interactions on locally microirradiated chromatin. We also show how to recognize individual phases of the cell cycle using the Fucci cellular system to study cell-cycle-dependent protein kinetics at DNA lesions. A methodological description of the use of two UV lasers (355 nm and 405 nm) to induce different types of DNA damage is also presented...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155579/catalytic-conversion-of-carbohydrates-to-initial-platform-chemicals-chemistry-and-sustainability
#14
László T Mika, Edit Cséfalvay, Áron Németh
The replacement of fossil resources that currently provide more than 90% of our energy needs and feedstocks of the chemical industry in combination with reduced emission of carbon dioxide is one of the most pressing challenges of mankind. Biomass as a globally available resource has been proposed as an alternative feedstock for production of basic building blocks, which could partially or even fully replace the currently utilized fossil-based ones in well-established chemical processes. The destruction of lignocellulosic feed followed by oxygen removal from its cellulose and hemicellulose content by catalytic processes results in the formation of initial platform chemicals (IPCs)...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154452/recent-advances-in-nonfullerene-acceptors-for-organic-solar-cells
#15
REVIEW
Fuchuan Liu, Tianyu Hou, Xiangfei Xu, Liya Sun, Jiawang Zhou, Xingang Zhao, Shiming Zhang
Recently, research on nonfullerene acceptors in organic solar cells has gradually become a hot topic due to such superior characteristics of light absorption and energy-level-convenient manipulation, multiformity of the photoactive material structures, as well as the extensive area in production compared to the fullerene derivatives. However, the nonfullerene acceptors evolved slowly before 2012 and, as a matter of fact, the power conversion efficiency values could only bear 2.0%. Strikingly, nonfullerene acceptors have developed at a fast pace since 2013, with the best device performance of 13...
November 20, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154310/tutorial-on-x-ray-photon-counting-detector-characterization
#16
Liqiang Ren, Bin Zheng, Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in photon counting detection technology have led to significant research interest in X-ray imaging. OBJECTIVE: As a tutorial level review, this paper covers a wide range of aspects related to X-ray photon counting detector characterization. METHODS: The tutorial begins with a detailed description of the working principle and operating modes of a pixelated X-ray photon counting detector with basic architecture and detection mechanism...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153161/a-100-year-review-a-century-of-dairy-heifer-research
#17
A J Heinrichs, G I Zanton, G J Lascano, C M Jones
The years 1917 to 2017 saw many advances in research related to the dairy heifer, and the Journal of Dairy Science currently publishes more than 20 articles per year focused on heifers. In general, nutrition and management changes made in rearing the dairy heifer have been tremendous in the past century. The earliest literature on the growing heifer identified costs of feeding and implications of growth on future productivity as major concepts requiring further study to improve the overall sustainability of the dairy herd...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152907/hierarchical-multicomponent-inorganic-metamaterials-intrinsically-driven-self-assembly-at-the-nanoscale
#18
REVIEW
Igor Levchenko, Kateryna Bazaka, Michael Keidar, Shuyan Xu, Jinghua Fang
Increasingly intricate in their composition and structural organization, hierarchical multicomponent metamaterials with nonlinear spatially reconfigurable functionalities challenge the intrinsic constraints of natural materials, revealing tremendous potential for the advancement of biochemistry, nanophotonics, and medicine. Recent breakthroughs in high-resolution nanofabrication utilizing ultranarrow, precisely controlled ion or laser beams have enabled assembly of architectures of unprecedented structural and functional complexity, yet costly, time- and energy-consuming high-resolution sequential techniques do not operate effectively at industry-required scale...
November 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149836/are-there-different-kinds-of-aging
#19
Amalia Gabriela Diaconeasa
A critical analysis of the accelerated aging syndromes may explain what aging is, but also why some tissues and organs age at accelerated rates in comparison with aging rates of other tissues. Syndromes of accelerated aging are caused by mutations affecting the integrity of the genetic material. Among them, the most studied is Werner's syndrome, "adult progeria", caused by a recessive autosomal mutation with a frequency of 1 in 10 millions, which affects a helicase involved in DNA repair. In Werner syndrome, there is a loss of heterochromatin, though the stability of heterochromatin is also affected in "normal" aging...
November 16, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148804/a-nanobionic-light-emitting-plant
#20
Seon-Yeong Kwak, Juan Pablo Giraldo, Min Hao Wong, Volodymyr Koman, Tedrick Lew, Jon Ell, Mark Weidman, Rosalie Sinclair, Markita P Landry, William A Tisdale, Michael S Strano
The engineering of living plants for visible light emission and sustainable illumination is compelling because plants possess independent energy generation and storage mechanisms and autonomous self-repair. Herein, we demonstrate a plant nanobionic approach that enables exceptional luminosity and lifetime utilizing four chemically-interacting nanoparticles, including firefly luciferase conjugated silica (SNP-Luc), D-luciferin releasing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-LH2), coenzyme A functionalized chitosan (CS-CoA) and semiconductor nanocrystal phosphors for longer wavelength modulation...
November 17, 2017: Nano Letters
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