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advanced energy

Dimitar Popmintchev, Benjamin R Galloway, Ming-Chang Chen, Franklin Dollar, Christopher A Mancuso, Amelia Hankla, Luis Miaja-Avila, Galen O'Neil, Justin M Shaw, Guangyu Fan, Skirmantas Ališauskas, Giedrius Andriukaitis, Tadas Balčiunas, Oliver D Mücke, Audrius Pugzlys, Andrius Baltuška, Henry C Kapteyn, Tenio Popmintchev, Margaret M Murnane
Recent advances in high-order harmonic generation have made it possible to use a tabletop-scale setup to produce spatially and temporally coherent beams of light with bandwidth spanning 12 octaves, from the ultraviolet up to x-ray photon energies >1.6  keV. Here we demonstrate the use of this light for x-ray-absorption spectroscopy at the K- and L-absorption edges of solids at photon energies near 1 keV. We also report x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in the water window spectral region (284-543 eV) using a high flux high-order harmonic generation x-ray supercontinuum with 10^{9}  photons/s in 1% bandwidth, 3 orders of magnitude larger than has previously been possible using tabletop sources...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
E Curry, S Fabbri, J Maxson, P Musumeci, A Gover
Terahertz (THz) radiation promises breakthrough advances in compact advanced accelerators due to the gigavolts-per-meter fields achievable, but the challenge of maintaining overlap and synchronism between beams and short laser-generated THz pulses has so far limited interactions to the few-millimeter scale. We implement a novel scheme for simultaneous group and phase velocity matching of nearly single-cycle THz radiation with a relativistic electron beam for meter-scale inverse free-electron laser interaction in a magnetic undulator, resulting in energy modulations of up to 150 keV using modest THz pulse energies (≤1  μJ)...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Xiulin Fan, Jie Yue, Fudong Han, Ji Chen, Tao Deng, Xiuquan Zhou, Singyuk Hou, Chunsheng Wang
Room temperature all solid-state Na-S batteries (ASNSBs) using sulfide solid electrolytes are a promising next-generation battery technology due to the high energy, enhanced safety, and earth abundant resources of both sodium and sulfur. Currently, the sulfide electrolyte ASNSBs are fabricated by simple cold-pressing process leaving with high residential stress. Even worse, the large volume change of S/Na2S during charge/discharge cycles induces additional stress, seriously weakening the less-contacted interfaces among the solid electrolyte, active materials and the electron conductive agent that are formed in the cold-pressing process...
March 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Srabanti Ghosh, Laurence Ramos, Hynd Remita
Materials are the key roadblocks for the commercialization of energy conversion devices in fuel cells and solar cells. Significant research has focused on tuning the intrinsic properties of materials at the nanometer scale. The soft template mediated controlled fabrication of advanced nanostructured materials is attracting considerable interest due to the promising applications of these materials in catalysis and electrocatalysis. Swollen hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystals (SLCs) consist of oil-swollen surfactant-stabilized 1D, 2D or 3D nanometric assemblies regularly arranged in an aqueous solvent...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Wenjiao Ren, Liqiang Xu, Lin Zhu, Xinye Wang, Xiaojian Ma, Debao Wang
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has attracted increasing attention owning to its high energy density and the abundance of sulfur. However, its commercialization is still restricted owing to the low conductivity of sulfur, large volume expansion and severe polysulfide-shuttle effect. To address these problems, here we reported a simple template-free solvothermal method combined with subsequent calcination method to prepare cobalt-doped VN yolk-shell nanospheres encapsulated in thin layer of nitrogen-doped carbon (Co-VN@C) composite as an ideal sulfur hosts for the first time...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ekaterina A Dolgopolova, Allison M Rice, Corey R Martin, Natalia B Shustova
In this review, we highlight how recent advances achieved in the fields of photochemistry and photophysics of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) could be applied towards the engineering of next generation MOF-based sensing devices. In addition to high surface area and structural tunability, which are crucial for efficient sensor development, progress in the field of MOF-based sensors could rely on the combination of MOF light-harvesting ability, understanding energy transfer processes within a framework, and application of MOF-based photocatalysis towards sensing enhancement...
March 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Damith Mohotti, P L N Fernando, Amir Zaghloul
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is to study the behaviour of a human head during the event of an impact of a cricket ball. While many recent incidents were reported in relation to head injuries caused by the impact of cricket balls, there is no clear information available in the published literature about the possible threat levels and the protection level of the current protective equipment. This research investigates the effects of an impact of a cricket ball on a human head and the level of protection offered by the existing standard cricket helmet...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Clarisse Ribeiro, Carlos M Costa, Daniela M Correia, João Nunes-Pereira, Juliana Oliveira, Pedro Martins, Renato Gonçalves, Vanessa F Cardoso, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymers are the polymers with the highest dielectric constants and electroactive responses, including piezoelectric, pyroelectric and ferroelectric effects. This semicrystalline polymer can crystallize in five different forms, each related to a different chain conformation. Of these different phases, the β phase is the one with the highest dipolar moment and the highest piezoelectric response; therefore, it is the most interesting for a diverse range of applications...
April 2018: Nature Protocols
Cristina Rodríguez-Seco, Lydia Cabau, Anton Vidal-Ferran, Emilio Palomares
Over hundreds of new organic semiconductor molecules have been synthesized as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. However, to date, the well-known N2 , N2 , N2' , N2' , N7 , N7 , N7' , octakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi-[9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2',7,7'-tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD) is still the best choice for the best perovskite device performance. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that spiro-OMeTAD by itself is not stable enough for long-term stable devices, and its market price makes its use in large-scale production costly...
March 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yaqiong Long, Jing Yang, Xin Gao, Xuena Xu, Weiliu Fan, Jian Yang, Shifeng Hou, Yitai Qian
Transition metal sulfides/selenides are explored as advanced electrode materials for non-aqueous sodium-ion capacitors, using FeS2-xSex as an example. Solid solution of S/Se in FeS2-xSex allows it to combine the high capacity of FeS2 and the good diffusion kinetics of FeSe2 together, thereby exhibiting excellent cycle stability (~220 mAh g-1 after 6000 cycles at 2 A g-1) and superior rate capability (~210 mAh g-1 at 40 A g-1) within 0.8-3.0 V. These results are much better than those of FeS2 and FeSe2, confirming the advantages of S/Se solid solution as supported by EIS spectra, DFT calculations and electron conductivity...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Je Min Yoo, Baekwon Park, Sang Jin Kim, Yong Seok Choi, Sungmin Park, Eun Hye Jeong, Hyukjin Lee, Byung Hee Hong
Ferrous ion-based catalysts have been widely employed to oxidatively destruct the major industrial pollutants such as phenolic compounds through advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). These agents, however, inevitably show several drawbacks including the need for pH adjustment and further purification steps to remove residual salts. Here we report the use of a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene film as a novel metal-free catalyst for the AOP-based degradation of phenols in aqueous solution, which does not require additional steps for salt removal nor external energy to activate the process...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Sara Guerri, Daniele Mercatelli, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Alessandro Napoli, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alberto Bazzocchi
Bone and muscle are two deeply interconnected organs and a strong relationship between them exists in their development and maintenance. The peak of both bone and muscle mass is achieved in early adulthood, followed by a progressive decline after the age of 40. The increase in life expectancy in developed countries resulted in an increase of degenerative diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population and are associated with a significant increase in healthcare costs...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Daniel Girma Mulat, Janka Dibdiakova, Svein Jarle Horn
Background: The emerging cellulosic bioethanol industry will generate huge amounts of lignin-rich residues that may be converted into biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) to increase the output of energy carriers from the biorefinery plants. The carbohydrates fraction of lignocellulosic biomass is degradable, whereas the lignin fraction is generally considered difficult to degrade during AD. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of biogas production by AD from hydrolysis lignin (HL), prepared by steam explosion (SE) and enzymatic saccharification of birch...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xu Zou, Qing Sun, Yuxin Zhang, Guo-Dong Li, Yipu Liu, Yuanyuan Wu, Lan Yang, Xiaoxin Zou
Amorphous Ni-Mn bimetallic hydroxide film on the three-dimensional nickle foam (NF)-supported conductive Ni3 S2 nanosheets (denoted as Ni-Mn-OH@Ni3 S2 /NF) is successfully synthesized by an ultrafast process (5 s). The fascinating structural characteristic endows Ni-Mn-OH@Ni3 S2 /NF electrodes better electrochemical performance. The specific capacitance of 2233.3 F g-1 at a current density of 15 A g-1 can achieve high current density charge and discharge at 20/30 A g-1 that the corresponding capacitance is 1529...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pepita Barlow, Paulo Serôdio, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Alfonso González-Briones, Pablo Chamoso, Hyun Yoe, Juan M Corchado
The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants...
March 14, 2018: Sensors
Bo You, Yujie Sun
Electrocatalytic water splitting driven by renewable energy input to produce clean H2 has been widely viewed as a promising strategy of the future energy portfolio. Currently, the state-of-the-art electrocatalysts for water splitting in acidic solutions are IrO2 or RuO2 for the O2 evolution reaction (OER) and Pt for the H2 evolution reaction (HER). Realization of large-scale H2 production from water splitting requires competent nonprecious electrocatalysts. Despite the advances of decades in this field, several challenges still exist and need to be overcome: (1) Most efforts in the design of nonprecious electrocatalysts have focused on developing HER catalysts for acidic conditions but OER catalysts for alkaline conditions owing to their thermodynamic convenience, potentially resulting in incompatible integration of the two types of catalysts and thus inferior overall performance...
March 14, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Lars Borchardt, Mirian Elizabeth Casco, Joaquin Silvestre-Albero
Methane hydrate inheres the great potential to be a nature-inspired alternative for chemical energy storage, since it allows to store large amounts of methane in a dense solid phase. The embedment of methane hydrate in the confined environment of porous materials can be capitalized for potential applications as its physico-chemical properties such as the formation kinetics or pressure and temperature stability are significantly changed as compared to the bulk system. We review this topic from a materials scientific perspective by considering porous carbons, silica, clays, zeolites, and polymers as host structure for methane hydrate formation...
March 14, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Congcong Liu, Xiaojun Yan, Fei Hu, Guohua Gao, Guangming Wu, Xiaowei Yang
With the rapid development of mobile electronics and electric vehicles, future electrochemical capacitors (ECs) need to store as much energy as possible in a rather limited space. As the core component of ECs, dense electrodes that have a high volumetric energy density and superior rate capability are the key to achieving improved energy storage. Here, the significance of and recent progress in the high volumetric performance of dense electrodes are presented. Furthermore, dense yet porous electrodes, as the critical precondition for realizing superior electrochemical capacitive energy, have become a scientific challenge and an attractive research focus...
March 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
T A C Gordon, H R Harding, F K Clever, I K Davidson, W Davison, D W Montgomery, R C Weatherhead, F M Windsor, J D Armstrong, A Bardonnet, E Bergman, J R Britton, I M Côté, D D'agostino, L A Greenberg, A R Harborne, K K Kahilainen, N B Metcalfe, S C Mills, N J Milner, F H Mittermayer, L Montorio, S L Nedelec, J M Prokkola, L A Rutterford, A G V Salvanes, S D Simpson, A Vainikka, J K Pinnegar, E M Santos
Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
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