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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918418/new-aspects-in-the-pathomechanism-of-diseases-of-civilization-particularly-psychosomatic-disorders-part-1-theoretical-background-of-a-hypothesis
#1
Andras Sikter, Zoltan Rihmer, Roberto de Guevara
The stress defence-cascade is mostly not biphasic as Cannon thought, the sympathicotonic stress response is preceded by a vagotonic phase called freeze response. Alteration of the carbon dioxide level plays an important role during defence-cascade as its changes interfere with stress hormones, e.g. with catecholamines, thus affecting the degree of arousal. In case of humans, learned behaviour dominates instead of instinctive, so the fight-or-flight often lags; the consequence can be persistent hypocapnia or hypercapnia...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918264/past-matrix-stiffness-primes-epithelial-cells-and-regulates-their-future-collective-migration-through-a-mechanical-memory
#2
Samila Nasrollahi, Christopher Walter, Andrew J Loza, Gregory V Schimizzi, Gregory D Longmore, Amit Pathak
During morphogenesis and cancer metastasis, grouped cells migrate through tissues of dissimilar stiffness. Although the influence of matrix stiffness on cellular mechanosensitivity and motility are well-recognized, it remains unknown whether these matrix-dependent cellular features persist after cells move to a new microenvironment. Here, we interrogate whether priming of epithelial cells by a given matrix stiffness influences their future collective migration on a different matrix - a property we refer to as the 'mechanical memory' of migratory cells...
September 8, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916923/single-cell-analysis-reveals-the-relevance-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-persistence-to-emopamil-binding-protein-gene-expression-in-host-cells
#3
Hui Fang, Bing Yuan, Lingling Han, Xiu Xin, Hailong Wang, Fangyan Yu, Congyi Zheng, Chao Shen
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects host cells in either an acute or persistent manner. In this study, we examined the relevance of the establishment of FMDV persistence to the expression of the emopamil-binding protein (EBP) gene in 231 individual persistently infected baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells after passages 28, 38, and 68 (PI28, PI38, and PI68). At PI28, the stage at which persistent infection of FDMV becomes unstable, the percentage of cells carrying FMDV was 66.7%, while 80.2% of cells were EBP positive...
September 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916774/the-mechano-sensing-role-of-the-unique-sh3-insertion-in-plakin-domains-revealed-by-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#4
Csaba Daday, Katra Kolšek, Frauke Gräter
The plakin family of proteins, important actors in cross-linking force-bearing structures in the cell, contain a curious SH3 domain insertion in their chain of spectrin repeats (SRs). While SH3 domains are known to mediate protein-protein interactions, here, its canonical binding site is autoinhibited by the preceding SR. Under force, however, this SH3 domain could be released, and possibly launch a signaling cascade. We performed large-scale force-probe molecular dynamics simulations, across two orders of magnitude of loading rates, to test this hypothesis, on two prominent members of the plakin family: desmoplakin and plectin, obligate proteins at desmosomes and hemidesmosomes, respectively...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916658/t-cells-deficient-in-diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE-are-resistant-to-pd-1-inhibition-and-help-create-persistent-host-immunity-to-leukemia
#5
Weiqing Jing, Jill Alane Gershan, Sandra Holzhauer, James Weber, Katie Palen, Laura McOlash, Kirthi Pulakanti, Erin Wesley, Sridhar Rao, Bryon D Johnson, Matthew J Riese
Efforts to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapies and immune checkpoint therapies in myelogenous leukemia are desired. In this study, we evaluated the anti-leukemia activity of adoptively transferred polyclonal cancer antigen-reactive T cells deficient in the regulator diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGKζ) with or without PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. In the C1498 mouse model of myeloid leukemia, we showed that leukemia was eradicated more effectively in DGKζ-deficient (DGKζ-/-) mice than wild-type mice. T cells transferred from DGKζ-deficient mice to wild-type tumor-bearing recipients conferred this benefit...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916600/white-blood-cell-count-and-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-the-contemporary-era-insights-from-the-paris-study-patterns-of-non-adherence-to-anti-platelet-regimens-in-stented-patients-registry
#6
Binita Shah, Usman Baber, Stuart J Pocock, Mitchell W Krucoff, Cono Ariti, C Michael Gibson, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Giora Weisz, Bernhard Witzenbichler, Timothy D Henry, Annapoorna S Kini, Thomas Stuckey, David J Cohen, Ioannis Iakovou, George Dangas, Melissa B Aquino, Samantha Sartori, Alaide Chieffo, David J Moliterno, Antonio Colombo, Roxana Mehran
BACKGROUND: Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with increased major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in the setting of acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether similar associations persist in an all-comers population of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the contemporary era. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the multicenter, prospective, observational PARIS study (Patterns of Non-Adherence to Anti-Platelet Regimens in Stented Patients Registry), 4222 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in the United States and Europe between July 1, 2009, and December 2, 2010, were evaluated...
September 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916331/depressive-like-phenotype-induced-by-prenatal-dexamethasone-in-mice-is-reversed-by-desipramine
#7
Mirko Conti, Stefan Spulber, Marilena Raciti, Sandra Ceccatelli
Exposure to prenatal insults has been associated with an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, but the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Persistent alterations of the HPA axis feedback mechanism as well as adult impaired neurogenesis are believed to play a relevant role in the etiology of depression. In addition, growing evidence points at epigenetic reprogramming as a key factor. We have previously shown that prenatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) impairs neurogenesis and leads to late onset of depression-like behavior that does not respond to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX)...
September 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916027/oral-leukoplakia-and-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Arnaud F Bewley, D Gregory Farwell
Oral leukoplakia is defined as a white oral lesion not related to another disease process. These lesions are largely asymptomatic, and the clinical relevance of oral leukoplakia is primarily tied to its association with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Timely workup and effective management of these lesions can reduce the risk of malignant transformation and promote early diagnosis of invasive tumors. A biopsy should be performed promptly of any persistent or suspicious leukoplakia with subsequent management dictated by histologic findings...
September 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915910/colonization-of-the-bovine-uterus-by-candida-kefyr
#9
Cecilia Christensen Karstrup, Bent Aalbæk, Kirstine Klitgaard, Tim Kåre Jensen, Hanne Gervi Pedersen, Jørgen Steen Agerholm
BACKGROUND: While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported, but little attention has been paid to this as most studies of the bovine pp uterus have focused on bacteria. CASE PRESENTATION: Microscopy of uterine lavage cytology slides of three cows from one herd revealed the presence of numerous yeast-like organisms, which were located either free in the fluid or within macrophages...
September 16, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915705/promising-landscape-for-regulating-macrophage-polarization-epigenetic-viewpoint
#10
REVIEW
Dexi Zhou, Kui Yang, Lu Chen, Wen Zhang, Zhenyu Xu, Jian Zuo, Hui Jiang, Jiajie Luan
Macrophages are critical myeloid cells with the hallmark of phenotypic heterogeneity and functional plasticity. Macrophages phenotypes are commonly described as classically-activated M1 and alternatively-activated M2 macrophages which play an essential role in the tissues homeostasis and diseases pathogenesis. Alternations of macrophage polarization and function states require precise regulation of target-gene expression. Emerging data demonstrate that epigenetic mechanisms and transcriptional factors are becoming increasingly appreciated in the orchestration of macrophage polarization in response to local environmental signals...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915585/time-dependent-modulation-of-tumor-radiosensitivity-by-a-pan-hdac-inhibitor-abexinostat
#11
Sofia Rivera, Céline Leteur, Frédérique Mégnin, Frédéric Law, Isabelle Martins, Ioana Kloos, Stéphane Depil, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Jean Luc Perfettini, Christophe Hennequin, Eric Deutsch
Despite prominent role of radiotherapy in lung cancer management, there is an urgent need for strategies increasing therapeutic efficacy. Reversible epigenetic changes are promising targets for combination strategies using HDAC inhibitors (HDACi). Here we evaluated on two NSCLC cell lines, the antitumor effect of abexinostat, a novel pan HDACi combined with irradiation in vitro in normoxia and hypoxia, by clonogenic assays, demonstrating that abexinostat enhances radiosensitivity in a time dependent way with mean SER10 between 1...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915564/classical-swine-fever-virus-shimen-infection-increases-p53-signaling-to-promote-cell-cycle-arrest-in-porcine-alveolar-macrophages
#12
Pengbo Ning, Congxia Hu, Xuepeng Li, Yulu Zhou, Aoxue Hu, Ya Zhang, Lifang Gao, Cunmei Gong, Kangkang Guo, Xianghan Zhang, Yanming Zhang
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) replicates in macrophages and causes persistent infection. Despite its role in disastrous economic losses in swine industries, the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are poorly understood. The virus evades the neutralizing immune response, subverting the immune system to ensure its own survival and persistence. Our genome-wide analysis of porcine alveolar macrophage transcriptional responses to CSFV Shimen infection using the Solexa/Illumina digital gene expression system revealed that p53 pathway components and cell cycle molecules were differentially regulated during infection compared to controls...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#13
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915264/inhibition-of-infection-spread-by-co-transmitted-defective-interfering-particles
#14
Ashley Baltes, Fulya Akpinar, Bahar Inankur, John Yin
Although virus release from host cells and tissues propels the spread of many infectious diseases, most virus particles are not infectious; many are defective, lacking essential genetic information needed for replication. When defective and viable particles enter the same cell, the defective particles can multiply while interfering with viable particle production. Defective interfering particles (DIPs) occur in nature, but their role in disease pathogenesis and spread is not known. Here, we engineered an RNA virus and its DIPs to express different fluorescent reporters, and we observed how DIPs impact viral gene expression and infection spread...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915016/cell-free-protein-synthesis-enhancement-from-real-time-nmr-metabolite-kinetics-redirecting-energy-fluxes-in-hybrid-rrl-systems
#15
Baptiste Panthu, Théophile Ohlmann, Johan Perrier, Uwe Schlattner, Pierre Jalinot, Bénédicte Elena-Herrmann, Gilles J P Rautureau
A counter-intuitive cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) strategy, based on reducing the ribosomal fraction in rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), triggers the development of hybrid systems composed of RRL ribosome-free supernatant complemented with ribosomes from different mammalian cell-types. Hybrid RRL systems maintain translational properties of the original ribosome cell types, and deliver protein expression levels similar to RRL. Here, we show that persistent ribosome-associated metabolic activity consuming ATP is a major obstacle for maximal protein yield...
September 15, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914588/interstitial-telomeric-repeats-associated-dna-breaks
#16
Olga Shubernetskaya, Dmitry Skvortsov, Sergey Evfratov, Maria Rubtsova, Elena Belova, Olga Strelkova, Varvara Cherepaninets, Oxana Zhironkina, Alexey Olovnikov, Maria Zvereva, Olga Dontsova, Igor Kireev
During a cell's lifespan, DNA break formation is a common event, associated with many processes, from replication to apoptosis. Most of DNA breaks are readily repaired, but some are meant to persist in time, such as the chromosome ends, protected by telomeres. Besides them, eukaryotic genomes comprise shorter stretches of interstitial telomeric repeats. We assumed that the latter may also be associated with the formation of DNA breaks meant to persist in time. In zebrafish and mouse embryos, cells containing numerous breakage foci were identified...
September 15, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914348/immunogenicity-and-antimicrobial-effectiveness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-specific-bacteriophage-in-a-human-lung-in-vitro-model
#17
Joseph R Shiley, Kristen K Comfort, Jayne B Robinson
The rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria is posing a serious threat to human health. For example, resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have resulted in untreatable and potentially lethal infections in both cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. Due to the growing need for alternative treatment options, bacteriophage, or phage, therapy is gaining considerable attention. While previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of phage in combating persistent bacterial infections, there is currently a lack of knowledge regarding the host immunological response following phage exposure...
September 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913662/effects-of-short-term-exposure-to-sevoflurane-on-the-survival-proliferation-apoptosis-and-differentiation-of-neural-precursor-cells-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Jin-Woo Park, Mi-Sun Lim, So Yeon Ji, Myung Soo Cho, Seong-Joo Park, Sung-Hee Han, Jin-Hee Kim
PURPOSE: Data from animal experiments suggest that exposure to general anesthetics in early life inhibits neurogenesis and causes long-term memory deficit. Considering short operating times and the popularity of sevoflurane in pediatric anesthesia, it is important to verify the effects of short-period exposure to sevoflurane on the developing brain. METHODS: We measured the effects of short-term exposure (2 h) to 3%, 6%, or 8% sevoflurane, the most commonly used anesthetic, on neural precursor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, SNUhES32...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913504/a-review-and-meta-analysis-of-corneal-cross-linking-for-post-laser-vision-correction-ectasia
#19
REVIEW
Qi Wan, Dan Wang, HongQuan Ye, Jing Tang, Yu Han
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to review the safety and stability of cornea cross-linking (CXL) for the treatment of keratectasia after Excimer Laser Refractive Surgery. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by systematically searching PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and reference lists. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 12.1 software. The primary outcome parameters included the changes of corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), the maximum keratometry value (Kmax) and minimum keratometry value (Kmin), the surface regularity index (SRI), the surface asymmetry index (SAI), the keratoconus prediction index (KPI), corneal thickness, and endothelial cell count...
September 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913162/endobronchial-hamartoma-a-rare-structural-cause-of-chronic-cough
#20
Saman Ahmed, Ayesha Arshad, M Jeffery Mador
Pulmonary hamartomas are rare benign tumors consisting of multiple mesenchymal cell lines like cartilage, bone and fat. We discuss an interesting case of a 53-year-old male patient, who was referred to our clinic for persistent cough. Chest X-ray revealed a left suprahilar density associated with plate like atelectasis, which on chest CT was found to be a densely calcified nodule, causing narrowing of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus with calcified bilateral hilar lymph nodes. A bronchoscopy revealed a smooth endobronchial mass with calcification, which was removed...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
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