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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150945/development-of-an-in-vivo-mouse-model-of-discogenic-low-back-pain
#1
Changgui Shi, Vaskar Das, Xin Li, Ranjan Kc, Sujun Qiu, InSug O-Sullivan, Richard L Ripper, Jeffrey S Kroin, Fackson Mwale, Atiyayein A Wallace, Bingqian Zhu, Lan Zhao, Andre J van Wijnen, Mingliang Ji, Jun Lu, Gina Votta-Velis, Wen Yuan, Hee-Jeong Im
Discogenic Low back pain (DLBP) is extremely common and costly. Effective treatments are lacking due to DLBP's unknown pathogenesis. Currently, there are no in vivo mouse models of DLBP, which restricts research in this field. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable DLBP model in mouse that captures the pathological changes in the disc and allows longitudinal pain testing. The model was generated by puncturing the mouse lumbar discs (L4/5, L5/6, and L6/S1) and removing the nucleus pulposus using a microscalpel under the microscope...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150767/cell-migration-in-1d-and-2d-nanofiber-microenvironments
#2
Horacio M Estabridis, Aniket Jana, Amrinder Nain, David J Odde
Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Specifically, U251 glioblastoma cells were seeded onto non-electrospinning Spinneret based tunable engineering parameters fiber substrates that consist of networks of suspended 400 nm diameter nanofibers...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150287/anastasis-and-the-er-stress-response-solving-the-paradox-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-cancer
#3
Rafael Vincent M Manalo
In recent years, studies have suggested a novel pathway for cell survival, which faces scientific skepticism and interest in its concept of cell 'resurrection' - that is, the anastasis of cells at late-stage apoptosis. While biomarkers have been discovered, many of these are related to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response - acting also to promote cell survival in the presence of perturbation. The promises of anastasis, if accepted, will greatly impact translational medicine especially in the treatment of cancer, since apoptosis is generally irreversible in the late stages, and chemotherapy is performed to maximize tumor death and minimize off-target effects...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150026/regulatory-t-cells-friends-or-foe-in-human-mycobacterium-leprae-infection
#4
Ana T Chaves, Atvaldo F Ribeiro-Junior, Sandra Lyon, Nayara I Medeiros, Fábio Cassirer-Costa, Karina S Paula, Edilamar S Alecrim, Cristiane A S Menezes, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Manoel O C Rocha, Juliana A S Gomes
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to control immune responses by suppressing the antigen-presenting and effector T cells. Some mechanisms adopted by Tregs in combating Mycobacterium infections have been proposed. Nevertheless, in M. leprae infection, also known as leprosy or Hansen's disease, the role of Tregs has not been completely elucidated. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of different cell surface and intracellular molecules present in Tregs from peripheral blood samples of leprosy patients...
November 13, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150004/dynamics-of-indel-profiles-induced-by-various-crispr-cas9-delivery-methods
#5
Michael Kosicki, Sandeep S Rajan, Flaminia C Lorenzetti, Hans H Wandall, Yoshiki Narimatsu, Emmanouil Metzakopian, Eric P Bennett
The introduction of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in mammalian cells is a scientific breakthrough, which has greatly affected basic research and gene therapy. The simplicity and general access to CRISPR/Cas9 reagents has in an unprecedented manner "democratized" gene targeting in biomedical research, enabling genetic engineering of any gene in any cell, tissue, organ, and organism. The ability for fast, precise, and efficient profiling of the double-stranded break induced insertions and deletions (indels), mediated by any of the available programmable nucleases, is paramount to any given gene targeting approach...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149443/migration-of-interneuron-precursors-in-the-nascent-cerebellar-cortex
#6
Annika K Wefers, Christian Haberlandt, Lachezar Surchev, Christian Steinhäuser, Ronald Jabs, Karl Schilling
The cerebellum arguably constitutes one of the best characterized central nervous circuits, and its structure, cellular function, and histogenesis have been described in exceptional quantitative detail. A notable exception to this is the development of its inhibitory interneurons, and in particular the extensive migrations of future basket and stellate cells. Here, we used acute slices from 8-day-old mice to assess the migration of Pax2-EGFP-tagged precursors of these cells en route to the molecular layer during their transit through the nascent cerebellar cortex...
November 17, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148542/prrt2-dependent-dyskinesia-cerebellar-paroxysmal-and-persistent
#7
Lieke Kros, Chris I De Zeeuw
In an elegant publication in Cell Research, Tan and colleagues showed that ablation of PRRT2 in cerebellar granule cells is sufficient to induce paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. PRRT2 turns out to downregulate the presynaptic SNARE complex in granule cell axons, which in turn controls the activity patterns of Purkinje cells, the sole output of the cerebellar cortex.
November 17, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147958/ginsenoside-rg1-decreases-oxidative-stress-and-down-regulates-akt-mtor-signalling-to-attenuate-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-and-senescence-of-neural-stem-cells-induced-by-d-galactose
#8
Linbo Chen, Hui Yao, Xiongbin Chen, Ziling Wang, Yue Xiang, Jieyu Xia, Ying Liu, Yaping Wang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a pivotal role in learning and memory. The suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by an increase of oxidative stress is closely related to cognitive impairment. Neural stem cells which persist in the adult vertebrate brain keep up the production of neurons over the lifespan. The balance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants is important for function and surviving of neural stem cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most active components of Panax ginseng, and many studies suggest that ginsenosides have antioxidant properties...
November 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147629/trial-watch-immune-checkpoint-blockers-for-cancer-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Claire Lhuillier, Lucillia Bezu, Fernando Aranda, Takahiro Yamazaki, Oliver Kepp, Jitka Fucikova, Radek Spisek, Sandra Demaria, Silvia C Formenti, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) are literally revolutionizing the clinical management of an ever more diversified panel of oncological indications. Although considerable attention persists around the inhibition of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1) signaling, several other co-inhibitory T-cell receptors are being evaluated as potential targets for the development of novel ICBs. Moreover, substantial efforts are being devoted to the identification of biomarkers that reliably predict the likelihood of each patient to obtain clinical benefits from ICBs in the absence of severe toxicity...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147628/trial-watch-adoptively-transferred-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Carole Fournier, François Martin, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Lionel Apetoh
Immunotherapies aimed at strengthening immune effector responses against malignant cells are growing at exponential rates. Alongside, the impressive benefits obtained by patients with advanced melanoma who received adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have encouraged the scientific community to pursue adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy. ACT involves autologous or allogenic effector lymphocytes that are generally obtained from the peripheral blood or resected tumors, expanded and activated ex vivo, and administered to lymphodepleted patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147609/tumor-immunology-meets%C3%A2-immunology-modified-cancer-cells-as-professional-apc-for-priming-na%C3%A3-ve-tumor-specific-cd4-t-cells
#11
REVIEW
Farah Bou Nasser Eddine, Elise Ramia, Giovanna Tosi, Greta Forlani, Roberto S Accolla
Although recent therapeutic approaches have revitalized the enthusiasm of the immunological way to combat cancer, still the comprehension of immunity against tumors is largely incomplete. Due to their specific function, CD8+ T cells with cytolytic activity (CTL) have attracted the attention of most investigators because CTL are considered the main effectors against tumor cells. Nevertheless, CTL activity and persistence is largely dependent on the action of CD4+ T helper cells (TH). Thus establishment of tumor-specific TH cell response is key to the optimal response against cancer...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147589/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-lymphoma-discussion-of-two-pediatric-cases-and-its-distinction-from-other-mature-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-malignancies
#12
Eric X Wei, Vasiliki Leventaki, John K Choi, Susana C Raimondi, Elizabeth M Azzato, Sheila A Shurtleff, Menchu G Ong, Diana M Veillon, James D Cotelingam, Rodney E Shackelford
Gamma delta (γδ) T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression and its related T-cell differentiation are not commonly reported in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL). Here we report two pediatric T-ALL cases and present their clinical features, histology, immunophenotypes, cytogenetics, and molecular diagnostic findings. The first patient is a two-year-old girl with leukocytosis, circulating lymphoblasts, and a cryptic insertion of a short-arm segment at 10p12 into the long-arm segment of 11q23 resulting in an MLL and AF10 fusion transcript, which may be the first reported in γδ T-ALL...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146500/motility-biofilm-formation-apoptotic-effect-and-virulence-gene-expression-of-atypical-salmonella-typhimurium-outside-and-inside-caco-2-cells
#13
Ibtissem Chakroun, Abdelkarim Mahdhi, Patricia Morcillo, Hector Cordero, Alberto Cuesta, Amina Bakhrouf, Kacem Mahdouani, M Ángeles Esteban
Disease outbreaks related to waterborne pathogen contamination throughout the world as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing persistent infection are of renewed interest. In this research, we studied the effects of prolonged exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to the cues encountered in the extracellular environment particularly in seawater microcosm on bacterial virulence and subsequent infection in Caco-2 cells. Our data show a significant difference in biofilm formation, swimming and swarming motilities between normal and stressed cells of S...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146308/-molecular-habituation-as-a-potential-mechanism-of-gradual-homeostatic-loss-with-age
#14
Alvaro Martinez Guimera, Ciaran M Welsh, Carole J Proctor, Anne McArdle, Daryl P Shanley
The ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to cause molecular damage has meant that chronic oxidative stress has been mostly studied from the point of view of being a source of toxicity to the cell. However, the known duality of ROS molecules as both damaging agents and cellular redox signals implies another perspective in the study of sustained oxidative stress. This is a perspective of studying oxidative stress as a constitutive signal within the cell. In this work, we adopt a theoretical perspective as an exploratory and explanatory approach to examine how chronic oxidative stress can interfere with signal processing by redox signalling pathways in the cell...
November 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145816/renal-failure-during-chemotherapy-renal-biopsy-for-assessing-subacute-nephrotoxicity-of-pemetrexed
#15
Maureen Assayag, Philippe Rouvier, Marion Gauthier, Ghania Costel, Philippe Cluzel, Lucile Mercadal, Gilbert Deray, Corinne Isnard Bagnis
BACKGROUND: Pemetrexed, a multitargeted antifolate cytotoxic agent, is currently used primarily in combination with cisplatin for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and for malignant mesothelioma. Acute renal toxicity of pemetrexed has been recently described with polychemotherapy, in which the individual responsibility of each drug is difficult to establish. Only one recent report documents renal involvement in long-term exposed patients. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a case of rapidly progressive nephropathy leading to the cessation of platinum salts and the secondary interruption of pemetrexed and bevacizumab...
November 16, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145789/helicobacter-pylori-controls-nlrp3-expression-by-regulating-hsa-mir-223-3p-and-il-10-in-cultured-and-primary-human-immune-cells
#16
Suneesh Kumar Pachathundikandi, Steffen Backert
Inflammasome-mediated production of mature IL-1β and IL-18 cytokines represents an important innate immune response against infecting pathogens. Helicobacter pylori, one of the most successful and persistent human pathogens, induces severe inflammation leading to gastritis and more serious gastric diseases. H. pylori modulates different immune responses for its survival and inflammasome signaling is manipulated by the cag pathogenicity island ( cagPAI), urease and VacA cytotoxin. Here we report that H. pylori regulates NLRP3 expression, an inflammasome forming regulator, in infected THP-1 monocytes...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145655/paternal-exposure-to-environmental-chemical-stress-affectsmale-offspring-s-hepatic-mitochondria
#17
Roger Godschalk, Alex Remels, Camiel Hoogendoorn, Jan van Benthem, Mirjam Luijten, Nur Duale, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann-Karin Olsen, Freek G Bouwman, Armelle Munnia, Marco Peluso, Edwin Mariman, Frederik Jan van Schooten
Pre-conceptional paternal exposures may affect offspring's health, which cannot be explained by mutations in germ cells, but by persistent changes in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether pre-conceptional paternal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could alter the offspring's phenotype. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to B[a]P by gavage for 6 weeks, 3x per week, and were crossed with unexposed BALB-c females 6 weeks after the final exposure. The offspring was kept under normal feeding conditions and was sacrificed at 3 weeks of age...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145524/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-signaling-in-trigeminal-ganglion-contributes-to-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-masseter-muscle-during-temporomandibular-joint-inflammation
#18
Reio Ito, Masamichi Shinoda, Kuniya Honda, Kentaro Urata, Jun Lee, Mitsuru Maruno, Kumi Soma, Shinji Okada, Nobuhito Gionhaku, Koichi Iwata
AIMS: To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle during temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. METHODS: A total of 55 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Following injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into the TMJ, the mechanical sensitivities of the masseter muscle and the overlying facial skin were measured. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation and TNFα expression in the TG were investigated immunohistochemically, and the effects of their inhibition on the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle were also examined...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145277/tricho-hepato-enteric-syndrome-with-novel-skiv2l-gene-mutations-a-case-report
#19
Eitaro Hiejima, Takahiro Yasumi, Hiroshi Nakase, Minoru Matsuura, Yusuke Honzawa, Hirokazu Higuchi, Ikuo Okafuji, Tohru Yorifuji, Takayuki Tanaka, Kazushi Izawa, Tomoki Kawai, Ryuta Nishikomori, Toshio Heike
RATIONALE: Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THES) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the TTC37 or SKIV2L genes and characterized by chronic diarrhea, liver disease, hair abnormalities, and high mortality in early childhood due to severe infection or liver cirrhosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient is the second child of three siblings born to non-consanguineous healthy Japanese parents. She had intrauterine growth retardation and was delivered at 33 weeks of gestation due to placental abruption...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144838/human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-persistence-and-pathogenesis
#20
Charles R M Bangham
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), also known as human T lymphotropic virus type 1, was the first exogenous human retrovirus discovered. Unlike the distantly related lentivirus HIV-1, HTLV-1 causes disease in only 5-10% of infected people, depending on their ethnic origin. But whereas HIV-1 infection and the consequent diseases can be efficiently contained in most cases by antiretroviral drug treatment, there is no satisfactory treatment for the malignant or inflammatory diseases caused by HTLV-1...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
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