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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743172/modelling-nutritional-mutualisms-challenges-and-opportunities-for-data-integration
#1
REVIEW
Teresa J Clark, Colleen A Friel, Emily Grman, Yair Shachar-Hill, Maren L Friesen
Nutritional mutualisms are ancient, widespread, and profoundly influential in biological communities and ecosystems. Although much is known about these interactions, comprehensive answers to fundamental questions, such as how resource availability and structured interactions influence mutualism persistence, are still lacking. Mathematical modelling of nutritional mutualisms has great potential to facilitate the search for comprehensive answers to these and other fundamental questions by connecting the physiological and genomic underpinnings of mutualisms with ecological and evolutionary processes...
July 25, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743155/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-prior-to-radical-cystectomy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-with-variant-histology
#2
Malte W Vetterlein, Stephanie A M Wankowicz, Thomas Seisen, Richard Lander, Björn Löppenberg, Felix K-H Chun, Mani Menon, Maxine Sun, Justine A Barletta, Toni K Choueiri, Joaquim Bellmunt, Quoc-Dien Trinh, Mark A Preston
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pure urothelial bladder cancer provides a significant survival benefit. However, to the authors' knowledge, it is unknown whether this benefit persists in histological variants. The objective of the current study was to assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the probability of non-organ-confined disease and overall survival after radical cystectomy (RC) in patients with histological variants. METHODS: Querying the National Cancer Data Base, the authors identified 2018 patients with histological variants who were undergoing RC for bladder cancer between 2003 and 2012...
July 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743081/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ppe44-rv2770c-is-involved-in-response-to-multiple-stresses-and-promotes-the-macrophage-expression-of-il-12-p40-and-il-6-via-the-p38-erk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-axis
#3
Zhaoxiao Yu, Chenhui Zhang, Mingliang Zhou, Qiming Li, Hui Li, Wei Duan, Xue Li, Yonghong Feng, Jianping Xie
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a formidable threat to global public health. The successful intracellular persistence of M. tuberculosis significantly contributes to the intractability of tuberculosis. Proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) are mycobacterial exclusive protein families that widely reported to be involved in the bacterial virulence, physiology and interaction with host. Rv2770c (PPE44), a predicted virulence factor, was up-regulated upon the infected guinea pig lungs...
July 22, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742070/growth-arrest-and-a-persister-state-enable-resistance-to-osmotic-shock-and-facilitate-dissemination-of-vibrio-cholerae
#4
Cecilia A Silva-Valenzuela, David W Lazinski, Shoshanna C Kahne, Y Nguyen, Roberto C Molina-Quiroz, Andrew Camilli
Vibrio cholerae is a water-borne bacterial pathogen and causative agent of cholera. Although V. cholerae is a halophile, it can survive in fresh water, and this has a major role in cholera epidemics through consumption of contaminated water and subsequent fecal-oral spread. After dissemination from humans back into fresh water, V. cholerae encounters limited nutrient availability and an abrupt drop in conductivity but little is known about how V. cholerae adapts to, and survives in this environment. In this work, by abolishing or altering the expression of V...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741960/retention-of-viability-of-salmonella-in-sucrose-as-affected-by-type-of-inoculum-water-activity-and-storage-temperature
#5
Larry R Beuchat, David A Mann, Christine A Kelly, Ynes R Ortega
Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with consumption of high-sugar, low-water activity (aw) foods. The study reported here was focused on determining the effect of storage temperature (5 and 25°C) on survival of initially high and low levels of Salmonella in dry-inoculated sucrose (aw 0.26 ± 0.01 to 0.54 ± 0.01) and wet-inoculated sucrose (aw 0.24 ± 0.01 to 0.44 ± 0.04) over a 52-week period. With the exception of dry-inoculated sucrose at aw 0.26, Salmonella survived for 52 weeks in dry- and wet-inoculated sucrose stored at 5 and 25°C...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741666/assessment-of-the-potential-of-the-multi-enzyme-producer-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-us573-as-alternative-feed-additive
#6
Ameny Farhat-Khemakhem, Monia Blibech, Ines Boukhris, Mohamed Makni, Hichem Chouayekh
BACKGROUND: Recently, probiotics have increasingly been used as feed additives in poultry diets as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters fostering resistance development. RESULTS: This study was aimed at assessing the potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573 as a direct-fed microbial. The US573 strain was found to be free of harmful enzymatic activities and sensitive to antibiotics. In addition, it showed a good acid and bovine bile tolerance, high adhesion efficacy to chicken enterocytes, and an ability to form biofilms, which may favor its survival and persistence in the animal gastrointestinal tract...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740491/nod-like-receptor-p3-inflammasome-controls-protective-th1-th17-immunity-against-pulmonary-paracoccidioidomycosis
#7
Claudia Feriotti, Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Flavio Vieira Loures, Tania Alves da Costa, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Dario Simões Zamboni, Vera Lucia Garcia Calich
The NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular multimeric complex that triggers the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, important cytokines for the innate immune response against pathogens. The functional NLRP3 inflammasome complex consists of NLRP3, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1. Various molecular mechanisms were associated with NLRP3 activation including the presence of extracellular ATP, recognized by the cell surface P2X7 receptor (P2X7R)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739828/mice-bone-marrow-sca-1-cd44-mesenchymal-stem-cells-kill-avirulent-mycobacteria-but-not-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-through-modulation-of-cathelicidin-expression-via-p38-mapk-dependent-pathway
#8
Sumanta Kumar Naik, Avinash Padhi, Geetanjali Ganguli, Srabasti Sengupta, Sanghamitra Pati, Dasarathi Das, Avinash Sonawane
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) primarily infects lung macrophages. However, recent study has shown that Mtb also infect and persist in dormant form inside the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) even after successful antibiotic therapy. However, the mechanism(s) by which Mtb survives in BM-MSCs is still not known. Like macrophages, BM-MSCs do not contain a well-defined endocytic pathway, which is known to play a central role in the clearance of internalized mycobacteria. Here, we studied the fate of virulent and avirulent mycobacteria in Sca-1(+)/CD44(+) BM-MSCs...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739183/can-crosstalk-between-dor-and-parp-reduce-oxidative-stress-mediated-neurodegeneration
#9
REVIEW
Rutika Raina, Dwaipayan Sen
The progressive loss of structure and function of neurons leads to neurodegenerative processes which become the causative reason for various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) etc. These diseases are multifactorial in nature but they have been seen to possess similar causative agents to a certain extent. Oxidative Stress (OS) has been identified as a major stressor and a mediator in most of these diseases. OS not only leads to the generation of free radical species but if persistent, can possibly lead to lipid peroxidation, protein damage, DNA damage, and cell death...
July 21, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739146/relative-toxicological-ranking-of-eight-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-congeners-using-cytotoxicity-chemical-properties-and-exposure-data
#10
Sabrina Tait, Monia Perugini, Cinzia La Rocca
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are widely used flame retardants which persist and diffuse in the environment thus entering the food chain. Eight congeners, most relevant for human exposure (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209), were analyzed in vitro and in silico to derive a relative toxicological ranking. Cytotoxicity was assessed on human liver (HepG2) and colon (DLD-1) cell lines, by three assays (MTS, ATP and DNA content) in a range of realistic concentration (1pM - 10 nM). Jejunum and Caco-2 passive absorptions were calculated in silico...
July 21, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738839/evolution-of-metabolic-alterations-5%C3%A2-years-after-early-puberty-in-a-cohort-of-girls-predisposed-to-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#11
Soren Harnois-Leblanc, Andréanne Trottier, Samuel Leblanc, Marie-Claude Battista, David H Geller, Jean-Patrice Baillargeon
BACKGROUND: We and others have observed that young girls predisposed to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display defective insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) suppressibility during early pubertal years, compared to controls. Our objective is to assess whether these differences in glucose and NEFA metabolisms persist after 5 years in late/post-puberty. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study between 2007 and 2015 with 4-6 years of follow-up in an academic institution research center...
July 24, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738336/innate-immune-memory-implications-for-microglial-function-and-neuroprogression
#12
Alex P Salam, Carmine M Pariante, Patricia Zunszain
Immunostimulatory insults such as stress and infection are risk factors for the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by neuroprogression. Inflammatory and neurotoxic molecules in the brain can cause disruptions in neurogenesis, neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival - changes that characterize neuroprogression. We draw on recent findings in the immunology literature that peripheral innate immune cells are capable of retaining long-term memory of infectious insults and displaying long-lasting upregulated proinflammatory function in response to repeated infectious insults - a concept known as "innate immune memory...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736974/topical-sevoflurane-for-chronic-venous-ulcers-infected-by-multi-drug-resistant-organisms
#13
Adrián Imbernón-Moya, Francisco Javier Ortiz-de Frutos, Mónica Sanjuan-Alvarez, Isabel Portero-Sanchez, Raúl Merinero-Palomares, Victoria Alcazar
Several anaesthetic drugs have demonstrated antibacterial properties in vitro. Anaesthetics can primarily affect the cell wall of both susceptible and multi-resistant bacteria. They may also have a synergistic effect with conventional antibiotics through an unknown mechanism. We present three cases of a chronic venous ulcer infected by multi-resistant bacteria refractory to conventional systemic antibiotics, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Treatment with topical sevoflurane was performed for 1 month without systemic antibiotics...
July 23, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736523/sub-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-rhubarb-water-extracts-inhibit-streptococcus-suis-biofilm-formation
#14
Wen-Ya Ding, Yan-Hua Li, He Lian, Xiao-Yu Ai, Yu-Lin Zhao, Yan-Bei Yang, Qiang Han, Xin Liu, Xue-Ying Chen, Zhonggui He
Streptococcus suis is one of the most important swine pathogens, which can cause persistent infection by forming biofilms. In this study, sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of rhubarb water extracts were found to inhibit biofilm formation. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), transcriptional regulators, and DNA binding proteins were compared under two conditions: (1) cells treated with sub-MIC rhubarb water extracts and (2) untreated cells. Using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) strategy, we found that TCSs constituent proteins of histidine kinase and response regulator were significantly down-regulated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736246/in-vitro-osteoclastogenesis-from-gaucher-patients-cells-correlates-with-bone-mineral-density-but-not-with-chitotriosidase
#15
C Bondar, J Mucci, A Crivaro, M Ormazabal, R Ceci, B Oliveri, D González, P Rozenfeld
Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by mutations on the gene encoding for the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Type I GD (GD1) patients present anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and bone alterations. In spite of treatment, bone alterations in GD patients persist, including poor bone mineral density (BMD). Mechanisms leading to bone damage are not completely understood, but previous reports suggest that osteoclasts are involved. Chitotriosidase (CHIT) is the most reliable biomarker used in the follow up of patients, although its correlation with bone status is unknown...
July 20, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736161/-immortalization-of-erythroid-progenitors-for-in-vitro-large-scale-red-cell-production
#16
A Caulier, L Guyonneau Harmand, L Garçon
Population ageing and increase in cancer incidence may lead to a decreased availability of red blood cell units. Thus, finding an alternative source of red blood cells is a highly relevant challenge. The possibility to reproduce in vitro the human erythropoiesis opens a new era, particularly since the improvement in the culture systems allows to produce erythrocytes from induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), or CD34(+) Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs). iPSCs have the advantage of in vitro self-renewal, but lead to poor amplification and maturation defects (high persistence of nucleated erythroid precursors)...
July 20, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735740/dna-damage-and-the-bystander-response-in-tumor-and-normal-cells-exposed-to-x-rays
#17
M Subhashree, R Venkateswarlu, K Karthik, V Shangamithra, P Venkatachalam
Monolayer and suspension cultures of tumor (BMG-1, CCRF-CEM), normal (AG1522, HADF, lymphocytes) and ATM-mutant (GM4405) human cells were exposed to X-rays at doses used in radiotherapy (high dose and high dose-rate) or radiological imaging (low dose and low dose-rate). Radiation-induced DNA damage, its persistence, and possible bystander effects were evaluated, based on DNA damage markers (γ-H2AX, p53(ser15)) and cell-cycle-specific cyclins (cyclin B1 and cyclin D1). Dose-dependent DNA damage and a dose-independent bystander response were seen after exposure to high dose and high dose-rate radiation...
September 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734787/selenium-deficiency-induced-thioredoxin-suppression-and-thioredoxin-knock-down-disbalanced-insulin-responsiveness-in-chicken-cardiomyocytes-through-pi3k-akt-pathway-inhibition
#18
Jie Yang, Sattar Hamid, Jingzeng Cai, Qi Liu, Shiwen Xu, Ziwei Zhang
Thioredoxin (Txn) system is the most crucial antioxidant defense mechanism in cell consisting of Txn, thioredoxin reductase (TR) and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH). Perturbations in Txn system may compromise cell survival through oxidative stress induction. Metabolic activity of insulin plays important roles in fulfilling the stable and persistent demands of heart through glucose metabolism. However, the roles of Txn and Txn system in insulin modulated cardiac energy metabolism have been less reported...
July 19, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734599/short-communication-survival-of-vaccinia-virus-in-inoculated-cheeses-during-60-day-ripening
#19
Izabelle S Rehfeld, Ana Luiza S Fraiha, Ana Carolina D Matos, Maria Isabel M C Guedes, Erica A Costa, Marcelo R de Souza, Luigi F L Cavalcante, Zélia I P Lobato
Bovine vaccinia is a neglected zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV) and has a major economic and public health effect in Brazil. Previous studies showed infectious VACV particles in milk from either experimentally or naturally infected cows and in fresh cheeses prepared with experimentally contaminated milk. Ripening is a process that leads to major changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of cheese, reducing contamination by spoilage, pathogenic microorganisms, or both. However, it is not known if VACV infectious particles persist after the ripening process...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733832/seasonal-reorganization-of-hypothalamic-neurogenic-niche-in-adult-sheep
#20
Lucile Butruille, Martine Batailler, Danièle Mazur, Vincent Prévot, Martine Migaud
Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated. This process, well established during development, persists in adulthood owing to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) localized in specific brain areas called neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis has recently been shown to occur in the hypothalamus, a structure involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction and metabolism, among others. In the adult sheep-a long-lived mammalian model-we have previously reported the existence of such a neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the median eminence...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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