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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149731/purinergic-drug-targets-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Kenneth A Jacobson, Fievos L Christofi
Purinergic receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders and are being explored as potential therapeutic targets. Gut inflammation releases ATP that acts on neuronal, glial, epithelial and immune cells. Purinergic signalling in glia and neurons is implicated in enteric neuropathies. Inflammation activates glia to increase ATP release and alter purinergic signalling. ATP release causes neuron death and gut motor dysfunction in colitis via a P2X7-dependent neural-glial pathway and a glial purinergic-connexin-43 pathway...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108781/retinoic-acid-temporally-orchestrates-colonization-of-the-gut-by-vagal-neural-crest-cells
#2
Rosa A Uribe, Stephanie S Hong, Marianne E Bronner
The enteric nervous system arises from neural crest cells that migrate as chains into and along the primitive gut, subsequently differentiating into enteric neurons and glia. Little is known about the mechanisms governing neural crest migration en route to and along the gut in vivo. Here, we report that Retinoic Acid (RA) temporally controls zebrafish enteric neural crest cell chain migration. In vivo imaging reveals that RA loss severely compromises the integrity and migration of the chain of neural crest cells during the window of time window when they are moving along the foregut...
November 3, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100851/enteric-glia-the-origin-of-duodenal-gastrinomas
#3
EDITORIAL
Brian D Gulbransen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096241/unwrapping-the-unappreciated-recent-progress-in-remak-schwann-cell-biology
#4
REVIEW
Breanne L Harty, Kelly R Monk
Schwann cells (SCs) are specialized glial cells that myelinate and protect axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Although myelinating SCs are more commonly studied, the PNS also contains a variety of non-myelinating SCs, including but not limited to Remak SCs (RSCs), terminal SCs, enteric glia. Although the field currently lacks many robust tools for interrogating the functions of non-myelinating SCs, recent evidence suggests that, like their myelinating counterparts, non-myelinating SCs are critical for proper PNS function...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078884/enteric-glial-mediated-enhancement-of-intestinal-barrier-integrity-is-compromised-by-morphine
#5
Brent D Bauman, Jingjing Meng, Lei Zhang, Amanda Louiselle, Eugene Zheng, Santanu Banerjee, Sabita Roy, Bradley J Segura
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is a growing concern, and emerging evidence suggests that morphine use may be associated with sepsis. Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are the most numerous cell type in the enteric nervous system and regulate gastrointestinal function through the production of trophic factors, including glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We sought to determine the effect of morphine on enteric glia and hypothesized that morphine contributes to EGC dysfunction and increased gut permeability...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985842/increased-population-of-immature-enteric-glial-cells-in-the-resected-proximal-ganglionic-bowel-of-hirschsprung-s-disease-patients
#6
Gakuto Tani, Christian Tomuschat, Anne Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND: Enteric glial cells are essential for normal gastrointestinal function. Abnormalities in glial structure, development, or function lead to disturbances in gastrointestinal physiology. Fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) is a marker of immature enteric glial cells, whereas S100 is expressed only by mature glial cells. Patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) often suffer from dysmotility and enterocolitis despite proper surgery. We designed this study to determine the distribution and expression of glial cells in patients with HSCR compared to normal controls...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966629/live-cell-imaging-new-avenues-to-investigate-retinal-regeneration
#7
REVIEW
Manuela Lahne, David R Hyde
Sensing and responding to our environment requires functional neurons that act in concert. Neuronal cell loss resulting from degenerative diseases cannot be replaced in humans, causing a functional impairment to integrate and/or respond to sensory cues. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) possess an endogenous capacity to regenerate lost neurons. Here, we will focus on the processes that lead to neuronal regeneration in the zebrafish retina. Dying retinal neurons release a damage signal, tumor necrosis factor α, which induces the resident radial glia, the Müller glia, to reprogram and re-enter the cell cycle...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924010/microrna-1906-a-novel-regulator-of-toll-like-receptor-4-ameliorates-ischemic-injury-after-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#8
Xiaomeng Xu, Zhuoyu Wen, Nan Zhao, Xiaohui Xu, Fang Wang, Jie Gao, Yongjun Jiang, Xinfeng Liu
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a proinflammatory cascade initiator in poststroke inflammation. In this study, miR-1906, a novel regulator of TLR4, was identified via in silico analysis and microRNA profiling in male adult mice and its expression was then quantitated in the ischemic hemisphere. We found miR-1906 to be significantly brain enriched in the ischemic hemisphere and even more drastically enriched in the peri-infarct regions. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that, during oxygen-glucose deprivation, miR-1906 expression was increased in glial cells but decreased in neurons...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884943/xenotransplantation-of-human-intestine-into-mouse-abdomen-or-subcutaneous-tissue-novel-platforms-for-the-study-of-the-human-enteric-nervous-system
#9
N Nagy, N Marsiano, R S Bruckner, M Scharl, M J Gutnick, S Yagel, E Arciero, A M Goldstein, N Y Shpigel
BACKGROUND: Current efforts to develop stem cell therapy as a novel treatment for neurointestinal diseases are limited by the unavailability of a model system to study cell transplantation in the human intestine. We propose that xenograft models support enteric nervous system (ENS) development in the fetal human intestine when transplanted into mice subcutaneously or intra-abdominally. METHODS: Fetal human small and large intestine were grafted onto the small intestinal mesentery and into the subcutaneous tissue of immunodeficient mice for up to 4 months...
September 8, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882823/the-antioxidant-glutathione-protects-against-enteric-neuron-death-in-situ-but-its-depletion-is-protective-during-colitis
#10
Isola Am Brown, Brian D Gulbransen
Enteric glia play an important neuroprotective role in the enteric nervous system (ENS) by producing neuroprotective compounds such as the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH). The specific cellular pathways that regulate glial production of GSH, and how these pathways are altered during, or contribute to, neuroinflammation in situ and in vivo are not fully understood. We investigated this issue using immunohistochemistry to localize GSH synthesis enzymes within the myenteric plexus and tested how the inhibition of GSH synthesis with the selective inhibitor L-Buthionine Sulfoximine (BSO) impacts neuronal survival and inflammation...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838986/ammonia-modifies-enteric-neuromuscular-transmission-through-glial-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-signaling
#11
David E Fried, Ralph E Watson, Simon C Robson, Brian D Gulbransen
OBJECTIVE: Impaired gut motility may contribute, at least in part, to the development of systemic hyperammonemia and systemic neurological disorders in inherited metabolic disorders, or in severe liver and renal disease. It is not known whether enteric neurotransmission regulates intestinal luminal and hence systemic ammonia levels by induced changes in motility. DESIGN: Here, we propose and test the hypothesis that ammonia acts through specific enteric circuits to influence gut motility...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798420/hiv-1-tat-induced-diarrhea-evokes-an-enteric-glia-dependent-neuroinflammatory-response-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Giuseppe Esposito, Elena Capoccia, Stefano Gigli, Marcella Pesce, Eugenia Bruzzese, Alessandra D'Alessandro, Carla Cirillo, Alessandro di Cerbo, Rosario Cuomo, Luisa Seguella, Luca Steardo, Giovanni Sarnelli
Despite the effectiveness of combined anti-retroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected-patients frequently report diarrhea and neuropsychological deficits. It is claimed that the viral HIV-1 Trans activating factor (HIV-1 Tat) protein is responsible for both diarrhea and neurotoxic effects, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We hypothesize that colonic application of HIV-1 Tat activates glial cells of the enteric nervous system (EGCs), leading to a neuroinflammatory response able to propagate to the central nervous system...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790893/brain-and-peripheral-atypical-inflammatory-mediators-potentiate-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#13
REVIEW
Duraisamy Kempuraj, Ramasamy Thangavel, Govindhasamy P Selvakumar, Smita Zaheer, Mohammad E Ahmed, Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Haris Zahoor, Daniyal Saeed, Prashant A Natteru, Shankar Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Neuroinflammatory response is primarily a protective mechanism in the brain. However, excessive and chronic inflammatory responses can lead to deleterious effects involving immune cells, brain cells and signaling molecules. Neuroinflammation induces and accelerates pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuroinflammatory pathways are indicated as novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. Mast cells are immune cells of hematopoietic origin that regulate inflammation and upon activation release many proinflammatory mediators in systemic and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711628/enteric-glia-regulate-gastrointestinal-motility-but-are-not-required-for-maintenance-of-the-epithelium-in-mice
#14
Meenakshi Rao, Daniella Rastelli, Lauren Dong, Sophia Chiu, Wanda Setlik, Michael D Gershon, Gabriel Corfas
BACKGROUND & AIMS: When the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter is used to express cellular toxins that eliminate glia in mice, intestinal epithelial permeability and proliferation increase; this led to the concept that glia are required for maintenance of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Many enteric glia, however, particularly in the mucosa, do not express GFAP. In contrast, virtually all enteric glia express proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1). We investigated whether elimination of PLP1-expressing cells compromises epithelial maintenance or gastrointestinal motility...
October 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642706/toll-like-receptor-4-modulates-small-intestine-neuromuscular-function-through-nitrergic-and-purinergic-pathways
#15
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Silvia Cerantola, Mona Roozfarakh, Isabella Lante, Francesca Galuppini, Massimo Rugge, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Genny Orso, Maria Cecilia Giron
Objective: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the homeostatic microflora-host crosstalk. TLR4-mediated modulation of both motility and enteric neuronal survival has been reported mainly for colon with limited information on the role of TLR4 in tuning structural and functional integrity of enteric nervous system (ENS) and in controlling small bowel motility. Methods: Male TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-), 9 ± 1 weeks old) and sex- and age-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620692/the-enteric-nervous-system-is-a-potential-autoimmune-target-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Marie Wunsch, Samir Jabari, Barbara Voussen, Michael Enders, Shanthi Srinivasan, François Cossais, Thilo Wedel, Martina Boettner, Anna Schwarz, Linda Weyer, Oktay Göcer, Michael Schroeter, Mathias Maeurer, Matthias Woenckhaus, Karolin Pollok, Helena Radbruch, Luisa Klotz, Claus-Jürgen Scholz, Joachim Nickel, Andreas Friebe, Klaus Addicks, Süleyman Ergün, Paul V Lehmann, Stefanie Kuerten
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults that has serious negative socioeconomic effects. In addition to symptoms caused by CNS pathology, the majority of MS patients frequently exhibit gastrointestinal dysfunction, which was previously either explained by the presence of spinal cord lesions or not directly linked to the autoimmune etiology of the disease. Here, we studied the enteric nervous system (ENS) in a B cell- and antibody-dependent mouse model of MS by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy at different stages of the disease...
June 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566702/colitis-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-of-sox2-and-plp1-enteric-cells
#17
Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Hannah K Graham, Justin Reynolds, Ryo Hotta, Nandor Nagy, Lily Cheng, Michal Kamionek, Hai Ning Shi, Carol M Aherne, Allan M Goldstein
Mechanisms mediating adult enteric neurogenesis are largely unknown. Using inflammation-associated neurogenesis models and a transgenic approach, we aimed to understand the cell-source for new neurons in infectious and inflammatory colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and Citrobacter rodentium colitis (CC) was induced in adult mice and colonic neurons were quantified. Sox2GFP and PLP1GFP mice confirmed the cell-type specificity of these markers. Sox2CreER:YFP and PLP1creER:tdT mice were used to determine the fate of these cells after colitis...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544390/phenotypic-plasticity-and-remodeling-in-the-stress-induced-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer
#18
REVIEW
Rebecca J Androwski, Kristen M Flatt, Nathan E Schroeder
Organisms are often capable of modifying their development to better suit their environment. Under adverse conditions, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans develops into a stress-resistant alternative larval stage called dauer. The dauer stage is the primary survival stage for C. elegans in nature. Large-scale tissue remodeling during dauer conveys resistance to harsh environments. The environmental and genetic regulation of the decision to enter dauer has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mechanisms regulating tissue remodeling...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501138/submucosal-neurons-and-enteric-glial-cells-expressing-the-p2x7-receptor-in-rat-experimental-colitis
#19
Marcos Vinícius da Silva, Aline Rosa Marosti, Cristina Eusébio Mendes, Kelly Palombit, Patricia Castelucci
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ulcerative colitis on the submucosal neurons and glial cells of the submucosal ganglia of rats. 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS; colitis group) was administered in the colon to induce ulcerative colitis, and distal colons were collected after 24h. The colitis rats were compared with those in the sham and control groups. Double labelling of the P2X7 receptor with calbindin (marker for intrinsic primary afferent neurons, IPANs, submucosal plexus), calretinin (marker for secretory and vasodilator neurons of the submucosal plexus), HuC/D and S100β was performed in the submucosal plexus...
May 10, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487635/vpac-receptor-subtypes-tune-purinergic-neuron-to-glia-communication-in-the-murine-submucosal-plexus
#20
Candice Fung, Werend Boesmans, Carla Cirillo, Jaime P P Foong, Joel C Bornstein, Pieter Vanden Berghe
The enteric nervous system (ENS) situated within the gastrointestinal tract comprises an intricate network of neurons and glia which together regulate intestinal function. The exact neuro-glial circuitry and the signaling molecules involved are yet to be fully elucidated. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the main neurotransmitters in the gut, and is important for regulating intestinal secretion and motility. However, the role of VIP and its VPAC receptors within the enteric circuitry is not well understood...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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