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Enteric glia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798420/hiv-1-tat-induced-diarrhea-evokes-an-enteric-glia-dependent-neuroinflammatory-response-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Giuseppe Esposito, Elena Capoccia, Stefano Gigli, Marcella Pesce, Eugenia Bruzzese, Alessandra D'Alessandro, Carla Cirillo, Alessandro di Cerbo, Rosario Cuomo, Luisa Seguella, Luca Steardo, Giovanni Sarnelli
Despite the effectiveness of combined anti-retroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected-patients frequently report diarrhea and neuropsychological deficits. It is claimed that the viral HIV-1 Trans activating factor (HIV-1 Tat) protein is responsible for both diarrhea and neurotoxic effects, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We hypothesize that colonic application of HIV-1 Tat activates glial cells of the enteric nervous system (EGCs), leading to a neuroinflammatory response able to propagate to the central nervous system...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790893/brain-and-peripheral-atypical-inflammatory-mediators-potentiate-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#2
REVIEW
Duraisamy Kempuraj, Ramasamy Thangavel, Govindhasamy P Selvakumar, Smita Zaheer, Mohammad E Ahmed, Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Haris Zahoor, Daniyal Saeed, Prashant A Natteru, Shankar Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Neuroinflammatory response is primarily a protective mechanism in the brain. However, excessive and chronic inflammatory responses can lead to deleterious effects involving immune cells, brain cells and signaling molecules. Neuroinflammation induces and accelerates pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuroinflammatory pathways are indicated as novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. Mast cells are immune cells of hematopoietic origin that regulate inflammation and upon activation release many proinflammatory mediators in systemic and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711628/enteric-glia-regulate-gastrointestinal-motility-but-are-not-required-for-maintenance-of-the-epithelium-in-mice
#3
Meenakshi Rao, Daniella Rastelli, Lauren Dong, Sophia Chiu, Wanda Setlik, Michael D Gershon, Gabriel Corfas
BACKGROUND & AIMS: When the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter is used to express cellular toxins that eliminate glia in mice, intestinal epithelial permeability and proliferation increase; this led to the concept that glia are required for maintenance of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Many enteric glia, however, particularly in the mucosa, do not express GFAP. In contrast, virtually all enteric glia express proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1). We investigated whether elimination of PLP1-expressing cells compromises epithelial maintenance or gastrointestinal motility...
July 12, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642706/toll-like-receptor-4-modulates-small-intestine-neuromuscular-function-through-nitrergic-and-purinergic-pathways
#4
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Silvia Cerantola, Mona Roozfarakh, Isabella Lante, Francesca Galuppini, Massimo Rugge, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Genny Orso, Maria Cecilia Giron
Objective: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the homeostatic microflora-host crosstalk. TLR4-mediated modulation of both motility and enteric neuronal survival has been reported mainly for colon with limited information on the role of TLR4 in tuning structural and functional integrity of enteric nervous system (ENS) and in controlling small bowel motility. Methods: Male TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-), 9 ± 1 weeks old) and sex- and age-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620692/the-enteric-nervous-system-is-a-potential-autoimmune-target-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Marie Wunsch, Samir Jabari, Barbara Voussen, Michael Enders, Shanthi Srinivasan, François Cossais, Thilo Wedel, Martina Boettner, Anna Schwarz, Linda Weyer, Oktay Göcer, Michael Schroeter, Mathias Maeurer, Matthias Woenckhaus, Karolin Pollok, Helena Radbruch, Luisa Klotz, Claus-Jürgen Scholz, Joachim Nickel, Andreas Friebe, Klaus Addicks, Süleyman Ergün, Paul V Lehmann, Stefanie Kuerten
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults that has serious negative socioeconomic effects. In addition to symptoms caused by CNS pathology, the majority of MS patients frequently exhibit gastrointestinal dysfunction, which was previously either explained by the presence of spinal cord lesions or not directly linked to the autoimmune etiology of the disease. Here, we studied the enteric nervous system (ENS) in a B cell- and antibody-dependent mouse model of MS by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy at different stages of the disease...
June 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566702/colitis-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-of-sox2-and-plp1-enteric-cells
#6
Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Hannah K Graham, Justin Reynolds, Ryo Hotta, Nandor Nagy, Lily Cheng, Michal Kamionek, Hai Ning Shi, Carol M Aherne, Allan M Goldstein
Mechanisms mediating adult enteric neurogenesis are largely unknown. Using inflammation-associated neurogenesis models and a transgenic approach, we aimed to understand the cell-source for new neurons in infectious and inflammatory colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and Citrobacter rodentium colitis (CC) was induced in adult mice and colonic neurons were quantified. Sox2GFP and PLP1GFP mice confirmed the cell-type specificity of these markers. Sox2CreER:YFP and PLP1creER:tdT mice were used to determine the fate of these cells after colitis...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544390/phenotypic-plasticity-and-remodeling-in-the-stress-induced-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca J Androwski, Kristen M Flatt, Nathan E Schroeder
Organisms are often capable of modifying their development to better suit their environment. Under adverse conditions, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans develops into a stress-resistant alternative larval stage called dauer. The dauer stage is the primary survival stage for C. elegans in nature. Large-scale tissue remodeling during dauer conveys resistance to harsh environments. The environmental and genetic regulation of the decision to enter dauer has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mechanisms regulating tissue remodeling...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501138/submucosal-neurons-and-enteric-glial-cells-expressing-the-p2x7-receptor-in-rat-experimental-colitis
#8
Marcos Vinícius da Silva, Aline Rosa Marosti, Cristina Eusébio Mendes, Kelly Palombit, Patricia Castelucci
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ulcerative colitis on the submucosal neurons and glial cells of the submucosal ganglia of rats. 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS; colitis group) was administered in the colon to induce ulcerative colitis, and distal colons were collected after 24h. The colitis rats were compared with those in the sham and control groups. Double labelling of the P2X7 receptor with calbindin (marker for intrinsic primary afferent neurons, IPANs, submucosal plexus), calretinin (marker for secretory and vasodilator neurons of the submucosal plexus), HuC/D and S100β was performed in the submucosal plexus...
May 10, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487635/vpac-receptor-subtypes-tune-purinergic-neuron-to-glia-communication-in-the-murine-submucosal-plexus
#9
Candice Fung, Werend Boesmans, Carla Cirillo, Jaime P P Foong, Joel C Bornstein, Pieter Vanden Berghe
The enteric nervous system (ENS) situated within the gastrointestinal tract comprises an intricate network of neurons and glia which together regulate intestinal function. The exact neuro-glial circuitry and the signaling molecules involved are yet to be fully elucidated. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the main neurotransmitters in the gut, and is important for regulating intestinal secretion and motility. However, the role of VIP and its VPAC receptors within the enteric circuitry is not well understood...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416692/immunomodulation-accelerated-neuronal-regeneration-following-selective-rod-photoreceptor-cell-ablation-in-the-zebrafish-retina
#10
David T White, Sumitra Sengupta, Meera T Saxena, Qingguo Xu, Justin Hanes, Ding Ding, Hongkai Ji, Jeff S Mumm
Müller glia (MG) function as inducible retinal stem cells in zebrafish, completely repairing the eye after damage. The innate immune system has recently been shown to promote tissue regeneration in which classic wound-healing responses predominate. However, regulatory roles for leukocytes during cellular regeneration-i.e., selective cell-loss paradigms akin to degenerative disease-are less well defined. To investigate possible roles innate immune cells play during retinal cell regeneration, we used intravital microscopy to visualize neutrophil, macrophage, and retinal microglia responses to induced rod photoreceptor apoptosis...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379965/tnfa-tnfr2-signaling-is-required-for-glial-ensheathment-at-the-dorsal-root-entry-zone
#11
Cody J Smith, Michael A Wheeler, Lindsay Marjoram, Michel Bagnat, Christopher D Deppmann, Sarah Kucenas
Somatosensory information from the periphery is routed to the spinal cord through centrally-projecting sensory axons that cross into the central nervous system (CNS) via the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ). The glial cells that ensheath these axons ensure rapid propagation of this information. Despite the importance of this glial-axon arrangement, how this afferent nerve is assembled during development is unknown. Using in vivo, time-lapse imaging we show that as centrally-projecting pioneer axons from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) enter the spinal cord, they initiate expression of the cytokine TNFalpha...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363846/enteric-glia-regulate-gut-motility-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Vladimir Grubišić, Alexei Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec, Vladimir Parpura
The enteric nervous system, often referred to as the second brain, is the largest assembly of neurons and glia outside the central nervous system. The enteric nervous system resides within the wall of the digestive tract and regulates local gut reflexes involved in gastrointestinal motility, blood flow and fluid transport; all these functions can be accomplished in the absence of the extrinsic innervation from the central nervous system. It is neurons and their circuitry within the enteric nervous system that govern the gut reflexes...
March 28, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317132/chemogenetic-versus-recombination-driven-manipulation-of-enteric-glia
#13
Werend Boesmans, Pieter Vanden Berghe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287581/culture-of-adult-transgenic-zebrafish-retinal-explants-for-live-cell-imaging-by-multiphoton-microscopy
#14
Manuela Lahne, Ryne A Gorsuch, Craig M Nelson, David R Hyde
An endogenous regeneration program is initiated by Müller glia in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina following neuronal damage and death. The Müller glia re-enter the cell cycle and produce neuronal progenitor cells that undergo subsequent rounds of cell divisions and differentiate into the lost neuronal cell types. Both Müller glia and neuronal progenitor cell nuclei replicate their DNA and undergo mitosis in distinct locations of the retina, i.e. they migrate between the basal Inner Nuclear Layer (INL) and the Outer Nuclear Layer (ONL), respectively, in a process described as Interkinetic Nuclear Migration (INM)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280459/arundic-acid-prevents-developmental-upregulation-of-s100b-expression-and-inhibits-enteric-glial-development
#15
Marlene M Hao, Elena Capoccia, Carla Cirillo, Werend Boesmans, Pieter Vanden Berghe
S100B is expressed in various types of glial cells and is involved in regulating many aspects of their function. However, little is known about its role during nervous system development. In this study, we investigated the effect of inhibiting the onset of S100B synthesis in the development of the enteric nervous system, a network of neurons and glia located in the wall of the gut that is vital for control of gastrointestinal function. Intact gut explants were taken from embryonic day (E)13.5 mice, the day before the first immunohistochemical detection of S100B, and cultured in the presence of arundic acid, an inhibitor of S100B synthesis, for 48 h...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280004/connexin-purinergic-signaling-in-enteric-glia-mediates-the-prolonged-effect-of-morphine-on-constipation
#16
Sukhada Bhave, Aravind Gade, Minho Kang, Kurt F Hauser, William L Dewey, Hamid I Akbarali
Morphine is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of pain. However, side effects, including persistent constipation and antinociceptive tolerance, limit its clinical efficacy. Prolonged morphine treatment results in a "leaky" gut, predisposing to colonic inflammation that is facilitated by microbial dysbiosis and associated bacterial translocation. In this study, we examined the role of enteric glia in mediating this secondary inflammatory response to prolonged treatment with morphine. We found that purinergic P2X receptor activity was significantly enhanced in enteric glia that were isolated from mice with long-term morphine treatment (in vivo) but not upon direct exposure of glia to morphine (in vitro)...
March 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253350/sox10-contributes-to-the-balance-of-fate-choice-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-progenitors
#17
Mariana Delfino-Machín, Romain Madelaine, Giorgia Busolin, Masataka Nikaido, Sarah Colanesi, Karen Camargo-Sosa, Edward W P Law, Stefano Toppo, Patrick Blader, Natascia Tiso, Robert N Kelsh
The development of functional peripheral ganglia requires a balance of specification of both neuronal and glial components. In the developing dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), these components form from partially-restricted bipotent neuroglial precursors derived from the neural crest. Work in mouse and chick has identified several factors, including Delta/Notch signaling, required for specification of a balance of these components. We have previously shown in zebrafish that the Sry-related HMG domain transcription factor, Sox10, plays an unexpected, but crucial, role in sensory neuron fate specification in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229088/glutathione-induces-gaba-release-through-p2x7r-activation-on-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#18
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Ricardo A de Melo Reis
The retinal tissue of warm-blooded vertebrates performs surprisingly complex and accurate transduction of visual information. To achieve precision, a multilayered neuroglia structure is established throughout the embryonic development, and the presence of radial Müller (glial) cells ensure differentiation, growth and survival for the neuronal elements within retinal environment. It is assumed that Müller cells serve as a dynamic reservoir of progenitors, capable of expressing transcription factors, differentiating and proliferating as either neuronal or glial cells depending on extrinsic cues...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168732/two-modes-of-enteric-gliotransmission-differentially-affect-gut-physiology
#19
Vladimir Grubišić, Vladimir Parpura
Enteric glia (EG) in the enteric nervous system can modulate neuronally regulated gut functions. Using molecular genetics, we assessed the effects that molecular entities expressed in EG and otherwise mediating two distinct mechanisms of gliotransmitter release, connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannel vs. Ca(2+) -dependent exocytosis, have on gut function. The expression of mutated Cx43(G138R) (which favors hemichannel, as opposed to gap-junctional activity) in EG increased gut motility in vivo, while a knock-down of Cx43 in EG resulted in the reduction of gut motility...
May 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066889/enteric-glial-activity-regulates-secretomotor-function-in-the-mouse-colon-but-does-not-acutely-affect-gut-permeability
#20
Vladimir Grubišić, Brian D Gulbransen
KEY POINTS: The role of enteric glial cell activity in the acute regulation of epithelial barrier and secretomotor functions of the intestines under physiological conditions is not clear. We used transgenic mice to modify glial activity and found that enteric glia significantly contribute to the neurogenic ion transport while glial activity does not appear to play a major role in the acute regulation of barrier function. The selective activation of glial activity evoked electrogenic ion transport primarily through neural pathways and was sufficient to drive electrogenic ion transport to an extent equal to the direct activation of neurogenic ion transport...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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