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Enteric glia

Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Stavros Taraviras, Vassilis Pachnis
BACKGROUND: In vertebrate organisms, the neural crest (NC) gives rise to multipotential and highly migratory progenitors which are distributed throughout the embryo and generate, among other structures, the peripheral nervous system, including the intrinsic neuroglial networks of the gut, i.e. the enteric nervous system (ENS). The majority of enteric neurons and glia originate from vagal NC-derived progenitors which invade the foregut mesenchyme and migrate rostro-caudally to colonise the entire length of the gut...
October 24, 2016: BMC Biology
M Asunción Barreda-Manso, Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro, Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez
Following a central nervous system (CNS) injury, restoration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is essential for recovering homeostasis. When this process is delayed or impeded, blood substances and cells enter the CNS parenchyma, initiating an additional inflammatory process that extends the initial injury and causes so-called secondary neuronal loss. Astrocytes and profibrotic mesenchymal cells react to the injury and migrate to the lesion site, creating a new glia limitans that restores the BBB. This process is beneficial for the resolution of the inflammation, neuronal survival and the initiation of the healing process...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Anne Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: The retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and development, and has been widely documented to be inactivated in human cancer. A recent study using RB1 knockout mice suggested a new role for RB1 in the normal regulation of the enteric nervous system (ENS), because of knockout mice showing ENS abnormalities and severe intestinal dysmotility. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of RB1 in the normal human colon and in Hirschsprung's disease (HD)...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Milena Bogunovic
Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and enteric glia, an essential structural component of gut innervation, are well-known regulators of intestinal homeostasis. Ibiza et al. (2016) uncover a new link between commensal bacteria, enteric glial cells, and ILC3s that is required for intestinal homeostasis and defense.
August 16, 2016: Immunity
Britta Engelhardt, Roxana O Carare, Ingo Bechmann, Alexander Flügel, Jon D Laman, Roy O Weller
Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system. Recent developments in high-resolution imaging techniques have prompted a reassessment of the relationships between the CNS and the immune system. This review will take these developments into account in describing our present understanding of the anatomical connections of the CNS fluid drainage pathways towards regional lymph nodes and our current concept of immune cell trafficking into the CNS during immunosurveillance and neuroinflammation...
September 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
David Grundmann, Franziska Markwart, Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff, Karl-Herbert Schäfer
The enteric nervous system has to adapt to altering dietary or environmental conditions and presents an enormous plasticity that is conserved over the whole lifespan. It harbours neural-crest-derived neurons, glial cells and their precursors. Based on a nestin-green fluorescent protein (NGFP) transgenic model, a histological inventory has been performed to deliver an overview of neuronal and glial markers for the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract in newborn (postnatal day 7) and adult mice under homeostatic conditions...
August 13, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Joy Guedia, Paola Brun, Sukhada Bhave, Sylvia Fitting, Minho Kang, William L Dewey, Kurt F Hauser, Hamid I Akbarali
The loss of gut epithelium integrity leads to translocation of microbes and microbial products resulting in immune activation and drives systemic inflammation in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Although viral loads in HIV patients are significantly reduced in the post-cART era, inflammation and immune activation persist and can lead to morbidity. Here, we determined the interactive effects of the viral protein HIV-1 Tat and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on enteric neurons and glia. Bacterial translocation was significantly enhanced in Tat-expressing (Tat+) mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Iván Mestres, Jen-Zen Chuang, Federico Calegari, Cecilia Conde, Ching-Hwa Sung
Emerging evidence suggests that endocytic trafficking of adhesion proteins plays a crucial role in neuronal migration during neocortical development. However, molecular insights into these processes remain elusive. Here, we study the early endosomal protein Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) in the developing mouse brain. SARA is enriched at the apical endfeet of radial glia of the neocortex. Although SARA knockdown did not lead to detectable neurogenic phenotypes, SARA-suppressed neurons exhibited impaired orientation and migration across the intermediate zone...
September 1, 2016: Development
Cynthia Priscilla do Nascimento Bonato Panizzon, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni, Catchia Hermes-Uliana, Aline Rosa Trevizan, Camila Caviquioli Sehaber, Renata Virginia Fernandes Pereira, David Robert Linden, Marcílio Hubner de Miranda Neto
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Enteric neuropathy associated with Diabetes Mellitus causes dysfunction in the digestive system, such as: nausea, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, among others. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of supplementation with 2% l-glutamine and 1% l-glutathione on neurons and enteric glial cells of ileum of diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats have been used according to these group distributions: Normoglycemic (N), Normoglycemic supplemented with l-glutamine (NG), Normoglycemic supplemented with l-glutathione (NGO), Diabetic (D), Diabetic supplemented with l-glutamine (DG) and Diabetic supplemented with l-glutathione (DGO)...
July 2016: Acta Histochemica
Catherine Le Berre-Scoul, Julien Chevalier, Elena Oleynikova, François Cossais, Sophie Talon, Michel Neunlist, Hélène Boudin
In the nervous system, the formation of neuronal circuitry results from a complex and coordinated action of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the CNS, extrinsic mediators derived from astrocytes have been shown to play a key role in neuronal maturation, including dendritic shaping, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. In the enteric nervous system (ENS), the potential role of enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the maturation of developing enteric neuronal circuit is currently unknown. A major obstacle in addressing this question is the difficulty to obtain a valuable experimental model in which enteric neurons could be isolated and maintained without EGCs...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Marlene M Hao
All the neurons and glia of the enteric nervous system (ENS) arise from neural crest-derived cells that migrate into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during development (Yntema and Hammond 1954; Le Douarin and Teillet 1973). Most of the ENS originates from vagal neural crest cells (NCCs), which arise from the caudal hindbrain region of the neural tube, adjacent to somites 1-7. In the developing mouse, vagal NCCs migrate into the developing oesophagus and stomach at embryonic day (E)9.5, enter the small intestine at E10...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sophie R Miller, Surangi N Perera, Cristina Benito, Simon R W Stott, Clare V H Baker
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique glial population found in both the peripheral and central nervous system: they ensheath bundles of unmyelinated olfactory axons from their peripheral origin in the olfactory epithelium to their central synaptic targets in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. Like all other peripheral glia (Schwann cells, satellite glia, enteric glia), OECs are derived from the embryonic neural crest. However, in contrast to Schwann cells, whose development has been extensively characterised, relatively little is known about their normal development in vivo...
September 2016: Journal of Anatomy
M M Hao, J P P Foong, J C Bornstein, Z L Li, P Vanden Berghe, W Boesmans
Co-ordinated gastrointestinal function is the result of integrated communication between the enteric nervous system (ENS) and "effector" cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike smooth muscle cells, interstitial cells, and the vast majority of cell types residing in the mucosa, enteric neurons and glia are not generated within the gut. Instead, they arise from neural crest cells that migrate into and colonise the developing gastrointestinal tract. Although they are "later" arrivals into the developing gut, enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) respond to many of the same secreted signalling molecules as the "resident" epithelial and mesenchymal cells, and several factors that control the development of smooth muscle cells, interstitial cells and epithelial cells also regulate ENCCs...
September 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Anindya Bhattacharya, Knut Biber
Based on promising preclinical evidence, microglial P2X7 has increasingly being recognized as a target for therapeutic intervention in neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, despite this knowledge no P2X7-related drug has yet entered clinical trials with respect to CNS diseases. We here discuss the current literature on P2X7 being a drug target and identify unsolved issues and still open questions that have hampered the development of P2X7 dependent therapeutic approaches for CNS diseases. It is concluded here that the lack of brain penetrating P2X7 antagonists is a major obstacle in the field and that central P2X7 is a yet untested clinical drug target...
October 2016: Glia
Vladimir Grubišić, Brian D Gulbransen
Glia (from Greek γλοία meaning "glue") pertains to non-neuronal cells in the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) that nourish neurons and maintain homeostasis. In addition, glia are now increasingly appreciated as active regulators of numerous physiological processes initially considered exclusively under neuronal regulation. For instance, enteric glia, a collection of glial cells residing within the walls of the intestinal tract, regulate intestinal motility; a well-characterized reflex controlled by enteric neurons...
April 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Fatima Memic, Viktoria Knoflach, Rebecca Sadler, Gunilla Tegerstedt, Erik Sundström, Francois Guillemot, Vassilis Pachnis, Ulrika Marklund
UNLABELLED: The enteric nervous system (ENS) is organized into neural circuits within the gastrointestinal wall where it controls the peristaltic movements, secretion, and blood flow. Although proper gut function relies on the complex neuronal composition of the ENS, little is known about the transcriptional networks that regulate the diversification into different classes of enteric neurons and glia during development. Here we redefine the role of Ascl1 (Mash1), one of the few regulatory transcription factors described during ENS development...
April 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vincenzo Villanacci, Rachele Del Sordo, Marianna Salemme, Moris Cadei, Angelo Sidoni, Gabrio Bassotti
BACKGROUND: It is generally thought that gallbladder motility plays a more or less important role in the pathogenesis of gallstones. Some studies have shown that some abnormalities of its intrinsic innervations, but these studies were usually limited to one cell component. AIMS: We investigated the main cell components of gallbladder intrinsic innervation in patients with and without gallstones. METHODS: Archival gallbladder specimens from 39 patients, 27 with gallstones (age range 45-69 yrs) and 12 patients without gallstones (age range 39-71 yrs) were obtained...
July 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Katharina Lust, Rebecca Sinn, Alicia Pérez Saturnino, Lázaro Centanin, Joachim Wittbrodt
Regenerative responses in the vertebrate CNS depend on quiescent radial glia stem cells, which re-enter the cell cycle and eventually differentiate into neurons. The entry into the cell cycle and the differentiation into neurons are events of opposite nature, and therefore efforts to force quiescent radial glia into neurons require different factors. Here, we use fish to show that a single neurogenic factor, Atoh7, directs retinal radial glia (Müller glia, MG) into proliferation. The resulting neurogenic clusters differentiate in vivo into various retinal neurons...
June 1, 2016: Development
Alan J Burns, Allan M Goldstein, Donald F Newgreen, Lincon Stamp, Karl-Herbert Schäfer, Marco Metzger, Ryo Hotta, Heather M Young, Peter W Andrews, Nikhil Thapar, Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Nadege Bondurand, Joel C Bornstein, Wood Yee Chan, Kathryn Cheah, Michael D Gershon, Robert O Heuckeroth, Robert M W Hofstra, Lothar Just, Raj P Kapur, Sebastian K King, Conor J McCann, Nandor Nagy, Elly Ngan, Florian Obermayr, Vassilis Pachnis, Pankaj J Pasricha, Mai Har Sham, Paul Tam, Pieter Vanden Berghe
Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing focus on the development of novel stem cell based therapies for the treatment of disorders and diseases affecting the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract (so-called enteric neuropathies). Here, the idea is that ENS progenitor/stem cells could be transplanted into the gut wall to replace the damaged or absent neurons and glia of the ENS. This White Paper sets out experts' views on the commonly used methods and approaches to identify, isolate, purify, expand and optimize ENS stem cells, transplant them into the bowel, and assess transplant success, including restoration of gut function...
September 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Cody J Smith, Kimberly Johnson, Taylor G Welsh, Michael J F Barresi, Sarah Kucenas
In the mature vertebrate nervous system, central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS, respectively) GLIA myelinate distinct motor axon domains at the motor exit point transition zone (MEP TZ). How these cells preferentially associate with and myelinate discrete, non-overlapping CNS versus PNS axonal segments, is unknown. Using in vivo imaging and genetic cell ablation in zebrafish, we demonstrate that radial glia restrict migration of PNS glia into the spinal cord during development. Prior to development of radial glial endfeet, peripheral cells freely migrate back and forth across the MEP TZ...
July 2016: Glia
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