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Enteric glia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760072/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-controls-proliferation-of-enteric-glia-and-differentiation-of-neurons-in-the-myenteric-plexus-after-damage
#1
F D'Errico, G Goverse, Y Dai, W Wu, M Stakenborg, E Labeeuw, V De Simone, B Verstockt, P J Gomez-Pinilla, M Warner, A Di Leo, G Matteoli, J A Gustafsson
Injury to the enteric nervous system (ENS) can cause several gastrointestinal (GI) disorders including achalasia, irritable bowel syndrome, and gastroparesis. Recently, a subpopulation of enteric glial cells with neuronal stem/progenitor properties (ENSCs) has been identified in the adult ENS. ENSCs have the ability of reconstituting the enteric neuronal pool after damage of the myenteric plexus. Since the estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is expressed in enteric glial cells and neurons, we investigated whether a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, can influence neuronal and glial cell differentiation...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740278/modeling-the-improved-visual-acuity-using-photodiode-based-retinal-implants-featuring-fractal-electrodes
#2
William J Watterson, Rick D Montgomery, Richard P Taylor
Electronically restoring vision to patients blinded by severe retinal degenerations is rapidly becoming a realizable feat through retinal implants. Upon receiving an implant, previously blind patients can now detect light, locate objects, and determine object motion direction. However, the restored visual acuity (VA) is still significantly below the legal blindness level (VA < 20/200). The goal of this research is to optimize the inner electrode geometry in photovoltaic subretinal implants in order to restore vision to a VA better than blindness level...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679034/enteric-nervous-system-regulation-of-intestinal-stem-cell-differentiation-and-epithelial-monolayer-function
#3
Marissa Puzan, Sanjin Hosic, Caroline Ghio, Abigail Koppes
The Enteric Nervous System (ENS) is a complex network of neurons and glia, which regulates sensorimotor function throughout the gastroinestinal tract (GI). Here we investigated the role of the ENS and intestinal myofibroblasts in the maintenance of a primary intestinal epithelial barrier through regulation of monolayer permeability, cytokine production, and differentiation of intestinal stem cells. Utilizing a novel, in vitro, transwell-based coculture system, murine small intestinal stem cells were isolated and cultured with ENS neurons and glia or subepithelial myofibroblasts...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678817/collagen-18-and-agrin-are-secreted-by-enteric-neural-crest-cells-to-remodel-their-microenvironment-and-regulate-their-migration-during-ens-development
#4
Nandor Nagy, Csilla Barad, Ryo Hotta, Sukhada Bhave, Emily Arciero, David Dora, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system arises from neural crest cells that migrate, proliferate, and differentiate into enteric neurons and glia within the intestinal wall. Many extracellular matrix (ECM) components are present in the embryonic gut, but their role in regulating ENS development is largely unknown. Here, we identify heparan sulfate proteoglycan proteins, including collagen 18 (Col18) and agrin, as important regulators of enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCDC) development. In developing avian hindgut, Col18 is expressed at the ENCDC wavefront, while agrin expression occurs later...
April 20, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659152/cranial-pair-i-the-olfactory-nerve
#5
Carlos Crespo, Teresa Liberia, José Miguel Blasco-Ibáñez, Juan Nácher, Emilio Varea
The olfactory nerve constitutes the first cranial pair. Compared with other cranial nerves, it depicts some atypical features. First, the olfactory nerve does not form a unique bundle. The olfactory axons join other axons and form several small bundles or fascicles: the fila olfactoria. These fascicles leave the nasal cavity, pass through the lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid bone and enter the brain. The whole of these fascicles is what is known as the olfactory nerve. Second, the olfactory sensory neurons, whose axons integrate the olfactory nerve, connect the nasal cavity and the brain without any relay...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651005/differential-effect-of-morphine-on-gastrointestinal-transit-colonic-contractions-and-nerve-evoked-relaxations-in-toll-like-receptor-deficient-mice
#6
Elizabeth A H Beckett, Vasiliki Staikopoulos, Mark R Hutchinson
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in enteric neurons, glia, gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle and mucosa, yet their functional roles in the GI tract are not fully understood. TLRs have been linked to many of the undesirable central effects of chronic opioid administration including hyperalgesia and dependence via activation of central microglia. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) remains a primary reason for the reduction or withdrawal of opioid analgesics. Morphine-induced inhibition of colonic motility was assessed in vivo by GI transit studies and in vitro using isolated colons from wildtype (WT) and TLR deficient mice...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644797/altered-gastrointestinal-motility-involving-autoantibodies-in-the-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
E T Spear, E A Holt, E J Joyce, M M Haag, S M Mawe, G W Hennig, B Lavoie, A M Applebee, C Teuscher, G M Mawe
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that, in addition to motor, sensory, and cognitive symptoms, also causes constipation, which is poorly understood. Here, we characterize gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS and evaluate whether autoantibodies target the enteric nervous system (ENS) and cause dysmotility. METHODS: EAE was induced in male SJL and B6 mice...
April 11, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604355/gintonin-a-ginseng-derived-exogenous-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-ligand-enhances-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-brain-delivery
#8
Do-Geun Kim, Minhee Jang, Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Hyunjhung Jhun, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Seung-Yeol Nah
Gintonin is a ginseng-derived G-protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand. Gintonin induces [Ca2+ ]i transient and biological effects through LPA receptor and increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, little is known about its mechanisms on the BBB. We examined the in vitro effects of gintonin using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) and the in vivo effects of gintonin on brain delivery. Fluorescent-labeled gintonin bound to HBMECs and co-localized with the LPA1 receptor...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573741/hiv-1-tat-induced-diarrhea-is-improved-by-the-pparalpha-agonist-palmitoylethanolamide-by-suppressing-the-activation-of-enteric-glia
#9
Giovanni Sarnelli, Luisa Seguella, Marcella Pesce, Jie Lu, Stefano Gigli, Eugenia Bruzzese, Roberta Lattanzi, Alessandra D'Alessandro, Rosario Cuomo, Luca Steardo, Giuseppe Esposito
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a severe complication in HIV-1-infected patients with Trans-activator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) protein being recognized as a major underlying cause. Beside its direct enterotoxic effects, Tat protein has been recently shown to affect enteric glial cell (EGC) activity. EGCs regulate intestinal inflammatory responses by secreting pro-inflammatory molecules; nonetheless, they might also release immune-regulatory factors, as palmytoilethanolamide (PEA), which exerts anti-inflammatory effects by activating PPARα receptors...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557362/contributions-of-neurotropic-human-herpesviruses-herpes-simplex-virus-1-and-human-herpesvirus-6-to-neurodegenerative-disease-pathology
#10
REVIEW
Jessica M Hogestyn, David J Mock, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Human herpesviruses (HVs) have developed ingenious mechanisms that enable them to traverse the defenses of the central nervous system (CNS). The ability of HVs to enter a state of latency, a defining characteristic of this viral family, allows them to persist in the human host indefinitely. As such, HVs represent the most frequently detected pathogens in the brain. Under constant immune pressure, these infections are largely asymptomatic in healthy hosts. However, many neurotropic HVs have been directly connected with CNS pathology in the context of other stressors and genetic risk factors...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525572/endogenous-mobilization-of-bone-marrow-cells-into-the-murine-retina-induces-fusion-mediated-reprogramming-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-cells
#11
Martina Pesaresi, Sergi A Bonilla-Pons, Giacoma Simonte, Daniela Sanges, Umberto Di Vicino, Maria Pia Cosma
Müller glial cells (MGCs) represent the most plastic cell type found in the retina. Following injury, zebrafish and avian MGCs can efficiently re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and generate new functional neurons. The regenerative potential of mammalian MGCs, however, is very limited. Here, we showed that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) damage stimulates murine MGCs to re-enter the cell cycle and de-differentiate back to a progenitor-like stage. These events are dependent on the recruitment of endogenous bone marrow cells (BMCs), which, in turn, is regulated by the stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1)-C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) pathway...
April 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487540/neurally-released-gaba-acts-via-gaba-c-receptors-to-modulate-ca-2-transients-evoked-by-trains-of-synaptic-inputs-but-not-responses-evoked-by-single-stimuli-in-myenteric-neurons-of-mouse-ileum
#12
Katerina Koussoulas, Mathusi Swaminathan, Candice Fung, Joel C Bornstein, Jaime P P Foong
γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and its receptors, GABAA,B,C , are expressed in several locations along the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, a role for GABA in enteric synaptic transmission remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the expression and function of GABA in the myenteric plexus of the mouse ileum. About 8% of all myenteric neurons were found to be GABA-immunoreactive (GABA+) including some Calretinin+ and some neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS+) neurons. We used Wnt1-Cre;R26R-GCaMP3 mice, which express a genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator in all enteric neurons and glia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428972/the-role-of-brain-barriers-in-fluid-movement-in-the-cns-is-there-a-glymphatic-system
#13
REVIEW
N Joan Abbott, Michelle E Pizzo, Jane E Preston, Damir Janigro, Robert G Thorne
Brain fluids are rigidly regulated to provide stable environments for neuronal function, e.g., low K+ , Ca2+ , and protein to optimise signalling and minimise neurotoxicity. At the same time, neuronal and astroglial waste must be promptly removed. The interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathing the CNS are integral to this homeostasis and the idea of a glia-lymph or 'glymphatic' system for waste clearance from brain has developed over the last 5 years. This links bulk (convective) flow of CSF into brain along the outside of penetrating arteries, glia-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes through the brain extracellular space (ECS) involving the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, and finally delivery of fluid to venules for clearance along peri-venous spaces...
March 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425908/enteric-glia-diversity-or-plasticity
#14
Simon Valès, Melissa Touvron, Laurianne Van Landeghem
Glial cells of the enteric nervous system correspond to a unique glial lineage distinct from other central and peripheral glia, and form a vast and abundant network spreading throughout all the layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Research over the last two decades has demonstrated that enteric glia regulates all major gastrointestinal functions via multiple bi-directional crosstalk with enteric neurons and other neighboring cell types. Recent studies propose that enteric glia represents a heterogeneous population associated with distinct localization within the gut wall, phenotype and activity...
February 7, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367513/gadolinium-based-contrast-media-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-the-glymphatic-system-possible-mechanisms-for-the-deposition-of-gadolinium-in-the-brain
#15
Toshiaki Taoka, Shinji Naganawa
After Kanda's first report in 2014 on gadolinium (Gd) deposition in brain tissue, a considerable number of studies have investigated the explanation for the observation. Gd deposition in brain tissue after repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM) has been histologically proven, and chelate stability has been shown to affect the deposition. However, the mechanism for this deposition has not been fully elucidated. Recently, a hypothesis was introduced that involves the 'glymphatic system', which is a coined word that combines 'gl' for glia cell and 'lymphatic' system...
January 25, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367250/interaction-of-human-enterochromaffin-cells-with-human-enteric-adenovirus-41-leads-to-serotonin-release-and-subsequent-activation-of-enteric-glia-cells
#16
Sonja Westerberg, Marie Hagbom, Anandi Rajan, Vesa Loitto, B David Persson, Annika Allard, Johan Nordgren, Sumit Sharma, Karl-Eric Magnusson, Niklas Arnberg, Lennart Svensson
Human adenovirus (HAdV) 41 causes acute gastroenteritis in young children. The main characteristics of HAdV-41 infection are diarrhea and vomiting. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of HAdV-41--induced diarrhea is unknown, as a suitable small-animal model has not been described. In this study, we used the human midgut carcinoid cell line GOT1 to investigate the effect of HAdV-41 infection and the individual HAdV-41 capsid proteins on serotonin release by enterochromaffin cells and on enteric glial cell (EGC) activation...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360466/enteric-nervous-system-manifestations-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#17
Alcmène Chalazonitis, Meenakshi Rao
Neurological disorders cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that are debilitating and markedly diminish quality of life in patients. The enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic nervous system of the GI tract that is often referred to as "the second brain", shares many features with the central nervous system. The ENS plays an essential role in regulating many GI functions including motility and fluid secretion. Enteric neuronal degeneration could therefore be responsible for the GI symptoms commonly observed in neurological conditions...
January 31, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344871/laser-capture-microdissection-for-layer-specific-analysis-of-enteric-ganglia
#18
Corinna Rosenbaum, Martina Böttner, Thilo Wedel, Marco Metzger
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the division of the autonomic nervous system that innervates the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and controls central intestinal functions such as peristalsis and fluid movement. Enteric nerve cell bodies (neurons and glia) are predominantly organized in ganglionated networks that are present along the entire length of the GI tract in multiple tissue layers. Most cell bodies are organized in the myenteric plexus allocated between the longitudinal and the circular muscle layers or in the submucosal plexus between muscle tissue and mucosa...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279310/proliferating-ng2-cell-dependent-angiogenesis-and-scar-formation-alter-axon-growth-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#19
Zoe C Hesp, Rim Y Yoseph, Ryusuke Suzuki, Peter Jukkola, Claire Wilson, Akiko Nishiyama, Dana M McTigue
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a centralized fibrotic scar surrounded by a reactive glial scar at the lesion site. The origin of these scars is thought to be perivascular cells entering lesions on ingrowing blood vessels and reactive astrocytes, respectively. However, two NG2-expressing cell populations, pericytes and glia, may also influence scar formation. In the periphery, new blood vessel growth requires proliferating NG2+ pericytes; if this were also true in the CNS, then the fibrotic scar would depend on dividing NG2+ pericytes...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196262/collagen-vi-suppresses-fibronectin-induced-enteric-neural-crest-cell-migration-by-downregulation-of-focal-adhesion-proteins
#20
Shoichi Nishida, Hisayoshi Yoshizaki, Yoshitomo Yasui, Tsuyoshi Kuwahara, Etsuko Kiyokawa, Miyuki Kohno
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia that are derived from enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) and essential for regulating peristaltic activity of the colon. ENCCs migrate along the gastrointestinal tract to form the ENS, and disruption of ENCC motility leads to ENS disorders, such as Hirschsprung's disease. Previous ENCC-transplant experiments show that ENCCs can invade into isolated mouse intestines by age E13.5, but not after E15.5. We hypothesized that altered age-specific micro-environments in the intestine are responsible for ENCC invasion/migration...
January 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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