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Enteric neuron culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287581/culture-of-adult-transgenic-zebrafish-retinal-explants-for-live-cell-imaging-by-multiphoton-microscopy
#1
Manuela Lahne, Ryne A Gorsuch, Craig M Nelson, David R Hyde
An endogenous regeneration program is initiated by Müller glia in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina following neuronal damage and death. The Müller glia re-enter the cell cycle and produce neuronal progenitor cells that undergo subsequent rounds of cell divisions and differentiate into the lost neuronal cell types. Both Müller glia and neuronal progenitor cell nuclei replicate their DNA and undergo mitosis in distinct locations of the retina, i.e. they migrate between the basal Inner Nuclear Layer (INL) and the Outer Nuclear Layer (ONL), respectively, in a process described as Interkinetic Nuclear Migration (INM)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280459/arundic-acid-prevents-developmental-upregulation-of-s100b-expression-and-inhibits-enteric-glial-development
#2
Marlene M Hao, Elena Capoccia, Carla Cirillo, Werend Boesmans, Pieter Vanden Berghe
S100B is expressed in various types of glial cells and is involved in regulating many aspects of their function. However, little is known about its role during nervous system development. In this study, we investigated the effect of inhibiting the onset of S100B synthesis in the development of the enteric nervous system, a network of neurons and glia located in the wall of the gut that is vital for control of gastrointestinal function. Intact gut explants were taken from embryonic day (E)13.5 mice, the day before the first immunohistochemical detection of S100B, and cultured in the presence of arundic acid, an inhibitor of S100B synthesis, for 48 h...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262351/an-intestinal-organ-culture-system-uncovers-a-role-for-the-nervous-system-in-microbe-immune-crosstalk
#3
Nissan Yissachar, Yan Zhou, Lloyd Ung, Nicole Y Lai, James F Mohan, Allen Ehrlicher, David A Weitz, Dennis L Kasper, Isaac M Chiu, Diane Mathis, Christophe Benoist
Investigation of host-environment interactions in the gut would benefit from a culture system that maintained tissue architecture yet allowed tight experimental control. We devised a microfabricated organ culture system that viably preserves the normal multicellular composition of the mouse intestine, with luminal flow to control perturbations (e.g., microbes, drugs). It enables studying short-term responses of diverse gut components (immune, neuronal, etc.). We focused on the early response to bacteria that induce either Th17 or RORg(+) T-regulatory (Treg) cells in vivo...
February 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259395/short-communication-tryptic-%C3%AE-casein-hydrolysate-modulates-enteric-nervous-system-development-in-primary-culture
#4
F Cossais, I Clawin-Rädecker, P C Lorenzen, M Klempt
The intestinal tract of the newborn is particularly sensitive to gastrointestinal disorders, such as infantile diarrhea or necrotizing colitis. Perinatal development of the gut also encompasses the maturation of the enteric nervous system (ENS), a main regulator of intestinal motility and barrier functions. It was recently shown that ENS maturation can be enhanced by nutritional factors to improve intestinal maturation. Bioactivity of milk proteins is often latent, requiring the release of bioactive peptides from inactive native proteins...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096305/epithelial-expression-and-function-of-trypsin-3-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
Claire Rolland-Fourcade, Alexandre Denadai-Souza, Carla Cirillo, Cintya Lopez, Josue Obed Jaramillo, Cleo Desormeaux, Nicolas Cenac, Jean-Paul Motta, Muriel Larauche, Yvette Taché, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Michel Neunlist, Emmanuel Coron, Sylvain Kirzin, Guillaume Portier, Delphine Bonnet, Laurent Alric, Stephen Vanner, Celine Deraison, Nathalie Vergnolle
OBJECTIVES: Proteases are key mediators of pain and altered enteric neuronal signalling, although the types and sources of these important intestinal mediators are unknown. We hypothesised that intestinal epithelium is a major source of trypsin-like activity in patients with IBS and this activity signals to primary afferent and enteric nerves and induces visceral hypersensitivity. DESIGN: Trypsin-like activity was determined in tissues from patients with IBS and in supernatants of Caco-2 cells stimulated or not...
January 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075461/resistance-of-interleukin-6-to-the-extracellular-inhibitory-environment-promotes-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-following-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Gang Yang, Wen-Yuan Tang
Interleukin-6 (IL)-6 was originally discovered as a factor that contributes to the secondary pathological and inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS) following injury. However, accumulating evidence suggests that IL-6 is also involved in functional and structural recovery following CNS injury by promoting axonal sprou-ting. This suggests a potential dual role of IL-6 in CNS injury. However, the definitive function of IL-6 in neural injury and the corresponding underlying mechanisms are still topics of controversy...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069923/map7-regulates-axon-collateral-branch-development-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#7
Stephen R Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Aditi Falnikar, Angelo C Lepore, Le Ma
Collateral branches from axons are key components of functional neural circuits that allow neurons to connect with multiple synaptic targets. Like axon growth and guidance, formation of collateral branches depends on the regulation of microtubules, but how such regulation is coordinated to ensure proper circuit development is not known. Based on microarray analysis, we have identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) during collateral branch development of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063956/differentiation-of-mouse-enteric-nervous-system-progenitor-cells-is-controlled-by-endothelin-3-and-requires-regulation-of-ednrb-by-sry-box-10-and-zinc-finger-e-box-binding-homeobox-2
#8
Yuli Watanabe, Laure Stanchina, Laure Lecerf, Nadjet Gacem, Andrea Conidi, Viviane Baral, Veronique Pingault, Danny Huylebroeck, Nadege Bondurand
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maintenance and differentiation of progenitor cells in the developing enteric nervous system are controlled by molecules such as the signaling protein endothelin 3 (EDN3), its receptor (the endothelin receptor type B [EDNRB]), and the transcription factors SRY-box 10 (SOX10) and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2). We used enteric progenitor cell (EPC) cultures and mice to study the roles of these proteins in enteric neurogenesis and their cross regulation. METHODS: We performed studies in mice with a Zeb2 loss-of-function mutation (Zeb2(Δ)) and mice carrying a spontaneous recessive mutation that prevents conversion EDN3 to its active form (Edn3(ls))...
January 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063934/morphine-administration-induces-change-in-anxiety-related-behavior-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#9
Jiancai Wang, Gang Zhu, Lu Huang, Tiejian Nie, Kai Tao, Yuqian Li, Guodong Gao
Chronic morphine administration is known to decrease anxiety-related behavior, which may lead to morphine-seeking and other social problems. Recent studies have revealed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in anxiety-related behavior. We used HT22 cells, which were derived from primary mouse hippocampal neuronal cultures, to explore the relationship between Wnt signaling and morphine exposure. Many techniques, such as western blot analysis, immunofluorescence and luciferase assays, were utilized...
February 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997067/rotenone-and-elevated-extracellular-potassium-concentration-induce-cell-specific-fibrillation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-axons-of-cholinergic-enteric-neurons-in-the-guinea-pig-ileum
#10
D F Sharrad, B N Chen, W P Gai, N Vaikath, O M El-Agnaf, S J H Brookes
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in the widespread loss of select classes of neurons throughout the nervous system. The pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease are Lewy bodies and neurites, of which α-synuclein fibrils are the major component. α-Synuclein aggregation has been reported in the gut of Parkinson's disease patients, even up to a decade before motor symptoms, and similar observations have been made in animal models of disease...
November 7, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965913/blood-plasma-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-increases-alpha-synuclein-aggregation-and-neurotoxicity
#11
Peng Wang, Xin Li, Xuran Li, Weiwei Yang, Shun Yu
A pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is formation of Lewy bodies in neurons of the brain. This has been attributed to the spread of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates, which involves release of α-syn from a neuron and its reuptake by a neighboring neuron. We found that treatment with plasma from PD patients induced more α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization than plasma from normal subjects (NS). Compared with NS plasma, PD plasma added to primary neuron cultures caused more cell death in the presence of extracellular α-syn...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884342/optimizing-neurogenic-potential-of-enteric-neurospheres-for-treatment-of-neurointestinal-diseases
#12
Lily S Cheng, Hannah K Graham, Wei Hua Pan, Nandor Nagy, Alfonso Carreon-Rodriguez, Allan M Goldstein, Ryo Hotta
BACKGROUND: Enteric neurospheres derived from postnatal intestine represent a promising avenue for cell replacement therapy to treat Hirschsprung disease and other neurointestinal diseases. We describe a simple method to improve the neuronal yield of spontaneously formed gut-derived neurospheres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enteric neurospheres were formed from the small and large intestines of mouse and human subjects. Neurosphere size, neural crest cell content, cell migration, neuronal differentiation, and neuronal proliferation in culture were analyzed...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818300/multicolor-electron-microscopy-for-simultaneous-visualization-of-multiple-molecular-species
#13
Stephen R Adams, Mason R Mackey, Ranjan Ramachandra, Sakina F Palida Lemieux, Paul Steinbach, Eric A Bushong, Margaret T Butko, Ben N G Giepmans, Mark H Ellisman, Roger Y Tsien
Electron microscopy (EM) remains the primary method for imaging cellular and tissue ultrastructure, although simultaneous localization of multiple specific molecules continues to be a challenge for EM. We present a method for obtaining multicolor EM views of multiple subcellular components. The method uses sequential, localized deposition of different lanthanides by photosensitizers, small-molecule probes, or peroxidases. Detailed view of biological structures is created by overlaying conventional electron micrographs with pseudocolor lanthanide elemental maps derived from distinctive electron energy-loss spectra of each lanthanide deposit via energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy...
November 17, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795365/entry-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-subtypes-a1-and-a2-into-neurons
#14
Abby R Kroken, Faith C Blum, Madison Zuverink, Joseph T Barbieri
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins for humans but also are common therapies for neurological diseases. BoNTs are dichain toxins, comprising an N-terminal catalytic domain (LC) disulfide bond linked to a C-terminal heavy chain (HC) which includes a translocation domain (HN) and a receptor binding domain (HC). Recently, the BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) subtypes A1 and A2 were reported to possess similar potencies but different rates of cellular intoxication and pathology in a mouse model of botulism...
January 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777423/characterization-and-transplantation-of-enteric-neural-crest-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725917/human-somatic-cells-acquire-the-plasticity-to-generate-embryoid-like-metamorphosis-via-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-injured-tissues
#16
Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Jhonan A Mendoza, Ana M Barreto, Lina S Poveda, Lina K Sanchez, Laura C Poveda, Katherine T Mora
Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722927/modest-static-pressure-can-cause-enteric-nerve-degeneration-through-ectodomain-shedding-of-cell-adhesion-molecule-1
#17
Azusa Yoneshige, Man Hagiyama, Takao Inoue, Tomonori Tanaka, Aritoshi Ri, Akihiko Ito
Internal pressure is often involved in neurodegeneration; intraocular and intraventricular pressure elevations over 20-30 cmH2O cause glaucoma and hydrocephalus, respectively. Here, we investigated enteric nerve degeneration in colon segments having tumor-induced stenosis and dilation and examined the mechanism of intraluminal pressure involvement. Histological examination revealed that the enteric ganglion neurons and neurites decreased in density in the dilated colons proportionate to the degree of dilation...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662292/aberrant-co-localization-of-synaptic-proteins-promoted-by-alzheimer-s-disease-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-protective-effect-of%C3%A2-human-serum-albumin
#18
Marta Domínguez-Prieto, Ana Velasco, Lourdes Vega, Arantxa Tabernero, José M Medina
Amyloid-β (Aβ), Aβ40, Aβ42, and, recently, Aβ25-35 have been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We have studied the effects of Aβ on neuronal death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and synaptic assembling in neurons in primary culture. Aβ25-35, Aβ40, and Aβ42 significantly decreased neuronal viability, although Aβ25-35 showed a higher effect. Aβ25-35 showed a more penetrating ability to reach mitochondria while Aβ40 did not enter the neuronal cytosol and Aβ42 was scarcely internalized...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642615/analysis-of-enteric-neural-crest-cell-migration-using-heterotopic-grafts-of-embryonic-guts
#19
Rodolphe Soret, Nicolas Pilon
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), also named aganglionic megacolon, is a severe congenital malformation characterized by a lack of enteric nervous system (ENS) in the terminal regions of the bowel (Bergeron et al., 2013). As the ENS notably regulates motility in the whole gastrointestinal track, the segment without neurons remains tonically contracted, resulting in functional intestinal obstruction and accumulation of fecal material (megacolon). HSCR occurs when enteric neural progenitors of vagal neural crest origin fail to fully colonize the developing intestines...
September 5, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637918/cross-linking-for-the-analysis-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-the-enteric-nervous-system
#20
Anne-Gaëlle Corbillé, Michel Neunlist, Pascal Derkinderen
Since the observation that aggregated α-synuclein, the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), is found in the gut in almost all patients, it has been suggested that the enteric nervous system (ENS) could be a starting point for α-synuclein pathology. α-synuclein has long been thought to occur as a monomer in living cells, but recent studies reported that it instead exists as a tetramer in non-neuronal cells and in neurons. Given the possible key role of the ENS in PD pathophysiology, we undertook the current research to characterize the native state of α-synuclein in rat primary culture of ENS and in adult human healthy ENS...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
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