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Enteric neuron culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760072/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-controls-proliferation-of-enteric-glia-and-differentiation-of-neurons-in-the-myenteric-plexus-after-damage
#1
F D'Errico, G Goverse, Y Dai, W Wu, M Stakenborg, E Labeeuw, V De Simone, B Verstockt, P J Gomez-Pinilla, M Warner, A Di Leo, G Matteoli, J A Gustafsson
Injury to the enteric nervous system (ENS) can cause several gastrointestinal (GI) disorders including achalasia, irritable bowel syndrome, and gastroparesis. Recently, a subpopulation of enteric glial cells with neuronal stem/progenitor properties (ENSCs) has been identified in the adult ENS. ENSCs have the ability of reconstituting the enteric neuronal pool after damage of the myenteric plexus. Since the estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is expressed in enteric glial cells and neurons, we investigated whether a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, can influence neuronal and glial cell differentiation...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740907/enteric-glial-cell-activation-protects-enteric-neurons-from-damage-due-to-diabetes-in-part-via-the-promotion-of-neurotrophic-factor-release
#2
P Luo, D Liu, C Li, W-X He, C-L Zhang, M-J Chang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes can result in pathological changes to enteric nervous system. Our aim was to test the dynamic changes of enteric neurons and identify the role of enteric glial cells (EGCs) in regulating enteric neuron expression in diabetic rats. METHODS: A single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) was used to establish diabetic rats. Animals were randomly distributed into diabetic 1-, 4-, 8-, and 16-week groups, as well as age-matched control groups. The PGP9...
May 8, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718926/bioengineered-intestinal-muscularis-complexes-with-long-term-spontaneous-and-periodic-contractions
#3
Qianqian Wang, Ke Wang, R Sergio Solorzano-Vargas, Po-Yu Lin, Christopher M Walthers, Anne-Laure Thomas, Martín G Martín, James C Y Dunn
Although critical for studies of gut motility and intestinal regeneration, the in vitro culture of intestinal muscularis with peristaltic function remains a significant challenge. Periodic contractions of intestinal muscularis result from the coordinated activity of smooth muscle cells (SMC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Reproducing this activity requires the preservation of all these cells in one system. Here we report the first serum-free culture methodology that consistently maintains spontaneous and periodic contractions of murine and human intestinal muscularis cells for months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679034/enteric-nervous-system-regulation-of-intestinal-stem-cell-differentiation-and-epithelial-monolayer-function
#4
Marissa Puzan, Sanjin Hosic, Caroline Ghio, Abigail Koppes
The Enteric Nervous System (ENS) is a complex network of neurons and glia, which regulates sensorimotor function throughout the gastroinestinal tract (GI). Here we investigated the role of the ENS and intestinal myofibroblasts in the maintenance of a primary intestinal epithelial barrier through regulation of monolayer permeability, cytokine production, and differentiation of intestinal stem cells. Utilizing a novel, in vitro, transwell-based coculture system, murine small intestinal stem cells were isolated and cultured with ENS neurons and glia or subepithelial myofibroblasts...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542843/disruption-of-the-pacemaker-activity-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-via-nitric-oxide-contributes-to-postoperative-ileus
#5
N Kaji, S Nakayama, K Horiguchi, S Iino, H Ozaki, M Hori
BACKGROUND: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) serve as intestinal pacemakers. Postoperative ileus (POI) is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that occurs following abdominal surgery, which is caused by inflammation-induced dysfunction of smooth muscles and enteric neurons. However, the participation of ICC in POI is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the functional changes of ICC in a mouse model of POI. METHODS: Intestinal manipulation (IM) was performed to induce POI...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510587/the-coordinated-activities-of-nachr-and-wnt-signaling-regulate-intestinal-stem-cell-function-in-mice
#6
Toshio Takahashi, Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata
Cholinergic signaling, which modulates cell activities via nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (n- and mAChRs) in response to internal or external stimuli, has been demonstrated in mammalian non-neuronal cells that synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). One of the major pathways of excitatory transmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is mediated by cholinergic transmission, with the transmitter ACh producing excitatory potentials in postsynaptic effector cells. In addition to ACh-synthesizing and ACh-metabolizing elements in the ENS, the presence of non-neuronal ACh machinery has been reported in epithelial cells of the small and large intestines of rats and humans...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464946/uptake-of-tio-2-nanoparticles-into-c-elegans-neurons-negatively-affects-axonal-growth-and-worm-locomotion-behavior
#7
Chun-Chih Hu, Gong-Her Wu, Tzu-En Hua, Oliver I Wagner, Ta-Jen Yen
We employ model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to effectively study the toxicology of anatase and rutile phase titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles (NPs). The experimental results show that nematode C. elegans can take up fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled TiO2 NPs and that both anatase and rutile TiO2 NPs can be detected in the cytoplasm of cultured primary neurons imaged by transmission electron microscopy. After TiO2 NP exposure, these neurons also grow shorter axons, which may be related to the detected impeded worm locomotion behavior...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355498/zn-2-induced-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondrial-function-synergism-with-ca-2-critical-dependence-upon-cytosolic-zn-2-buffering-and-contributions-to-neuronal-injury
#8
Sung G Ji, John H Weiss
Excitotoxic Zn2+ and Ca2+ accumulation contributes to neuronal injury after ischemia or prolonged seizures. Synaptically released Zn2+ can enter postsynaptic neurons via routes including voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels (VSCC), and, more rapidly, through Ca2+ permeable AMPA channels. There are also intracellular Zn2+ binding proteins which can either buffer neuronal Zn2+ influx or release bound Zn2+ into the cytosol during pathologic conditions. Studies in culture highlight mitochondria as possible targets of Zn2+ ; cytosolic Zn2+ can enter mitochondria and induce effects including loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ), mitochondrial swelling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
April 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317262/sensitivity-to-strain-and-shear-stress-of-isolated-mechanosensitive-enteric-neurons
#9
Eva Maria Kugler, Klaus Michel, David Kirchenbüchler, Georg Dreissen, Agnes Csiszár, Rudolf Merkel, Michael Schemann, Gemma Mazzuoli-Weber
Within the enteric nervous system, the neurons in charge to control motility of the gastrointestinal tract reside in a particular location nestled between two perpendicular muscle layers which contract and relax. We used primary cultured myenteric neurons of male guinea pigs to study mechanosensitivity of enteric neurons in isolation. Ultrafast Neuroimaging with a voltage-sensitive dye technique was used to record neuronal activity in response to shear stress and strain. Strain was induced by locally deforming the elastic cell culture substrate next to a neuron...
February 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283563/spatial-position-regulates-power-of-tryptophan-discovery-of-a-major-groove-specific-nuclear-localizing-cell-penetrating-tetrapeptide
#10
Debmalya Bhunia, Prasenjit Mondal, Gaurav Das, Abhijit Saha, Pallabi Sengupta, Jagannath Jana, Saswat Mohapatra, Subhrangsu Chatterjee, Surajit Ghosh
Identification of key amino acids is required for development of efficient cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and has tremendous implications in medicine. Extensive research work has enlightened us about the importance of two amino acids, arginine and tryptophan, in cell penetration. Here, we present a top-down approach to show how spatial positions of two tryptophans regulate the cellular entry and nuclear localization. This enables us to develop short, non-toxic tetrapeptides with excellent potential for cell penetration and nuclear localization...
February 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225307/millisecond-ca-2-dynamics-activate-multiple-protein-cascades-for-synaptic-vesicle-control
#11
Sumiko Mochida
For reliable transmission at chemical synapses, neurotransmitters must be released dynamically in response to neuronal activity in the form of action potentials. Stable synaptic transmission is dependent on the efficacy of transmitter release and the rate of resupplying synaptic vesicles to their release sites. Accurate regulation is conferred by proteins sensing Ca2+ entering through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels opened by an action potential. Presynaptic Ca2+ concentration changes are dynamic functions in space and time, with wide fluctuations associated with different rates of neuronal activity...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222777/culture-of-neurons-and-smooth-muscle-cells-from-the-myenteric-plexus-of-adult-mice
#12
Paola Brun, Hamid I Akbarali
In the enteric nervous system, neurons make contact with smooth muscle cells to regulate gastrointestinal functions. Since neuronal cell alterations and intestinal motor dysfunctions are strictly linked, in vitro models based on the culture of neurons or smooth muscle cells are of great advantage to elucidate the functions of the enteric nervous system under physiological and pathological conditions. In this chapter, we provide the protocol for isolation of neurons and smooth muscle cells from the myenteric plexus of adult mice...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212018/structure-and-function-of-an-actin-based-filter-in-the-proximal-axon
#13
Varuzhan Balasanyan, Kaori Watanabe, William P Dempsey, Tommy L Lewis, Le A Trinh, Don B Arnold
The essential organization of microtubules within neurons has been described; however, less is known about how neuronal actin is arranged and the functional implications of its arrangement. Here, we describe, in live cells, an actin-based structure in the proximal axon that selectively prevents some proteins from entering the axon while allowing the passage of others. Concentrated patches of actin in proximal axons are present shortly after axonal specification in rat and zebrafish neurons imaged live, and they mark positions where anterogradely traveling vesicles carrying dendritic proteins halt and reverse...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196262/collagen-vi-suppresses-fibronectin-induced-enteric-neural-crest-cell-migration-by-downregulation-of-focal-adhesion-proteins
#14
Shoichi Nishida, Hisayoshi Yoshizaki, Yoshitomo Yasui, Tsuyoshi Kuwahara, Etsuko Kiyokawa, Miyuki Kohno
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia that are derived from enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) and essential for regulating peristaltic activity of the colon. ENCCs migrate along the gastrointestinal tract to form the ENS, and disruption of ENCC motility leads to ENS disorders, such as Hirschsprung's disease. Previous ENCC-transplant experiments show that ENCCs can invade into isolated mouse intestines by age E13.5, but not after E15.5. We hypothesized that altered age-specific micro-environments in the intestine are responsible for ENCC invasion/migration...
January 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188232/colorectal-cancer-cells-adhere-to-and-migrate-along-the-neurons-of-the-enteric-nervous-system
#15
Emilie Duchalais, Christophe Guilluy, Steven Nedellec, Melissa Touvron, Anne Bessard, Yann Touchefeu, Céline Bossard, Hélène Boudin, Guy Louarn, Michel Neunlist, Laurianne Van Landeghem
Background & Aims: In several types of cancers, tumor cells invade adjacent tissues by migrating along the resident nerves of the tumor microenvironment. This process, called perineural invasion , typically occurs along extrinsic nerves, with Schwann cells providing physical guidance for the tumor cells. However, in the colorectal cancer microenvironment, the most abundant nervous structures belong to the nonmyelinated intrinsic enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we investigated whether colon cancer cells interact with the ENS...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167405/the-microtubule-associated-protein-tau-mediates-the-organization-of-microtubules-and-their-dynamic-exploration-of-actin-rich-lamellipodia-and-filopodia-of-cortical-growth-cones
#16
Sayantanee Biswas, Katherine Kalil
Proper organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton are essential for growth cone behaviors during axon growth and guidance. The MT-associated protein tau is known to mediate actin/MT interactions in cell-free systems but the role of tau in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics in living neurons is unknown. We used cultures of cortical neurons from postnatal day (P)0-P2 golden Syrian hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus ) of either sex to study the role of tau in the organization and dynamics of the axonal growth cone cytoskeleton...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111118/hsp90-and-thioredoxin-thioredoxin-reductase-enable-the-catalytic-activity-of-clostridial-neurotoxins-inside-nerve-terminals
#17
Marco Pirazzini, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Giulia Zanetti, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
Botulinum (BoNTs) and tetanus (TeNT) neurotoxins are the most toxic substances known and form the growing family of Clostridial neurotoxins (CNT), the etiologic agents of botulism and tetanus. CNT are composed of a metalloprotease light chain (L), linked via a disulfide bond to a heavy chain (H). H mediates the binding to nerve terminals and the membrane translocation of L into the cytosol, where its substrates, the three SNARE proteins, are localized. L translocation is accompanied by unfolding and, once delivered on the cytosolic side of the endosome membrane, it has to be reduced and reacquire the native fold to be active...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966629/live-cell-imaging-new-avenues-to-investigate-retinal-regeneration
#18
REVIEW
Manuela Lahne, David R Hyde
Sensing and responding to our environment requires functional neurons that act in concert. Neuronal cell loss resulting from degenerative diseases cannot be replaced in humans, causing a functional impairment to integrate and/or respond to sensory cues. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) possess an endogenous capacity to regenerate lost neurons. Here, we will focus on the processes that lead to neuronal regeneration in the zebrafish retina. Dying retinal neurons release a damage signal, tumor necrosis factor α, which induces the resident radial glia, the Müller glia, to reprogram and re-enter the cell cycle...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957659/stem-cell-differentiation-as-a-non-markov-stochastic-process
#19
Patrick S Stumpf, Rosanna C G Smith, Michael Lenz, Andreas Schuppert, Franz-Josef Müller, Ann Babtie, Thalia E Chan, Michael P H Stumpf, Colin P Please, Sam D Howison, Fumio Arai, Ben D MacArthur
Pluripotent stem cells can self-renew in culture and differentiate along all somatic lineages in vivo. While much is known about the molecular basis of pluripotency, the mechanisms of differentiation remain unclear. Here, we profile individual mouse embryonic stem cells as they progress along the neuronal lineage. We observe that cells pass from the pluripotent state to the neuronal state via an intermediate epiblast-like state. However, analysis of the rate at which cells enter and exit these observed cell states using a hidden Markov model indicates the presence of a chain of unobserved molecular states that each cell transits through stochastically in sequence...
September 27, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924010/microrna-1906-a-novel-regulator-of-toll-like-receptor-4-ameliorates-ischemic-injury-after-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#20
Xiaomeng Xu, Zhuoyu Wen, Nan Zhao, Xiaohui Xu, Fang Wang, Jie Gao, Yongjun Jiang, Xinfeng Liu
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a proinflammatory cascade initiator in poststroke inflammation. In this study, miR-1906, a novel regulator of TLR4, was identified via in silico analysis and microRNA profiling in male adult mice and its expression was then quantitated in the ischemic hemisphere. We found miR-1906 to be significantly brain enriched in the ischemic hemisphere and even more drastically enriched in the peri-infarct regions. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that, during oxygen-glucose deprivation, miR-1906 expression was increased in glial cells but decreased in neurons...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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