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toxin antitoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326487/antitoxin-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-cyclea-peltata-root-against-naja-naja-venom
#1
Thulasi Sivaraman, N S Sreedevi, S Meenatchisundaram, R Vadivelan
OBJECTIVES: Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutralization assays was carried out...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319934/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-in-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans
#2
Blair Schneider, Whitney Weigel, Maryta Sztukowska, Donald R Demuth
Type II toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems contribute to the formation of persister cells and biofilm formation for many organisms. A. actinomycetemcomitans thrives in the complex oral microbial community subjected to continual environmental flux. Little is known regarding the presence and function of type II TA systems in this organism or their contribution to adaptation and persistence in the biofilm. We identified 11 TA systems that are conserved across all seven serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans and represent the RelBE, MazEF and HipAB families of type II TA systems...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317513/cyclic-amp-regulates-bacterial-persistence-through-repression-of-the-oxidative-stress-response-and-sos-dependent-dna-repair-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#3
Roberto C Molina-Quiroz, Cecilia Silva-Valenzuela, Jennifer Brewster, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Stuart B Levy, Andrew Camilli
Bacterial persistence is a transient, nonheritable physiological state that provides tolerance to bactericidal antibiotics. The stringent response, toxin-antitoxin modules, and stochastic processes, among other mechanisms, play roles in this phenomenon. How persistence is regulated is relatively ill defined. Here we show that cyclic AMP, a global regulator of carbon catabolism and other core processes, is a negative regulator of bacterial persistence in uropathogenic Escherichia coli, as measured by survival after exposure to a β-lactam antibiotic...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301587/foodborne-botulism-due-to-ingestion-of-home-canned-green-beans-two-case-reports
#4
Dorothea Hellmich, Katja E Wartenberg, Stephan Zierz, Tobias J Mueller
BACKGROUND: Foodborne botulism is a life-threatening, rapidly progressive disease. It has an incidence of less than 10 cases per year in Germany and mostly affects several previously healthy people at the same time. The only specific treatment is the administration of botulism antitoxin. According to the German guidelines administration of antitoxin is recommended only in the first 24 hours after oral ingestion of the toxin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old white woman and her 51-year-old white husband presented with paralysis of multiple cranial nerves and rapidly descending paralysis approximately 72 hours after ingestion of home-canned beans...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301344/computational-modeling-of-the-staphylococcal-enterotoxins-and-its-interaction-with-natural-antitoxin-compounds
#5
Mahantesh Kurjogi, Praveen Satapute, Sudisha Jogaiah, Mostafa Abdelrahman, Jayasimha Rayalu Daddam, Venkatesh Ramu, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic bacterium that produces various types of toxins, resulting in serious food poisoning. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are heat-stable and resistant to hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, representing a potential hazard for consumers worldwide. In the present study, we used amino-acid sequences encoding SEA and SEB-like to identify their respective template structure and build the three-dimensional (3-D) models using homology modeling method. Two natural compounds, Betulin and 28-Norolean-12-en-3-one, were selected for docking study on the basis of the criteria that they satisfied the Lipinski's Rule-of-Five...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290232/antibiotic-treatment-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#6
Y Gillet, M Lorrot, R Cohena, I Hau, E Grimprel, C Gras-Le Guen
Bacterial skin and soft tissues infections are common in children and frequently do not require systemic antibiotics, especially if lesions are superficial. Careful washing is always indicated in superficial lesions and is often sufficient. Careful evaluation of symptoms (which may be difficult despite the accessibility of the lesions) should be performed before prescription. Therefore, the need for drainage (spontaneous or surgical) should be assessed considering that antibiotics are mostly useless if purulent lesions are drained...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287988/rickettsial-genomics-and-the-paradigm-of-genome-reduction-associated-with-increased-virulence
#7
Awa Diop, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Rickettsia species are arthropod endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria that can infect mammalian hosts during their obligate intracellular lifecycle, and cause a range of mild to severe diseases in humans. Paradoxically, during their adaptation to a bottleneck lifestyle, rickettsial genomes have undergone an evolution marked by a progressive chromosomic and plasmidic degradation resulting in a genome reduction from 1.5 to 1.1 Mb, with a coding capacity of 69 to 84%. A striking finding of rickettsial genomics has been that the most virulent species had genomes that were drastically reduced and degraded when compared to closely related less virulent or non pathogenic species...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246841/immunization-with-a-nontoxic-naturally-occurring-clostridium-perfringens-alpha-toxin-induces-neutralizing-antibodies-in-rabbits
#8
Flávia de Faria Siqueira, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Anderson Oliveira do Carmo, Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro de Oliveira Mendes, Carolina Campolina Rebello Horta, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Evanguedes Kalapothakis
Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin, encoded by plc gene, has been implicated in gas gangrene, a life threatening infection. Vaccination is considered one of the best solutions against Clostridium infections. Although studies have identified many low quality clostridial vaccines, the use of recombinant proteins has been considered a promising alternative. Previously, a naturally occurring alpha toxin isoform (αAV1b) was identified with a mutation at residue 11 (His/Tyr), which can affect its enzymatic activity...
December 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246581/combined-therapy-with-gas-gangrene-antitoxin-and-recombinant-human-soluble-thrombomodulin-for-clostridium-perfringens-sepsis-in-a-rat-model
#9
Toru Hifumi, Daisuke Nakano, Joe Chiba, Motohide Takahashi, Akihiko Yamamoto, Yoshihide Fujisawa, Kenya Kawakita, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Akira Nishiyama
Cases of Clostridium perfringens septicemia, such as liver abscess, often develop a rapidly progressive intravascular hemolysis and coagulation; the mortality rate with current standard care including antibiotics and surgery is high. Herein, we firstly investigated the effects of gas gangrene antitoxin (GGA) (antitoxin against C. perfringens) and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) on the hemolysis, coagulation status, inflammatory process, and mortality in α-toxin-treated rats. Male 11-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, α-toxin group, GGA group, rTM group, and combined GGA and rTM (combination group)...
December 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237374/maze-antitoxin-of-toxin-antitoxin-system-and-fbpa-as-reliable-targets-to-eradication-of-neisseria-meningitidis
#10
Abbas Maleki, Sobhan Ghafourian, Iraj Pakzad, Behzad Badakhsh, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is ‎considered as a dangerous pathogen ‎threaten human health. Now a day, the new drug target is focused. Toxin antitoxin (TA) system recently identified as an antimicrobial drug target. Also, in N. meningitidis iron-uptake system could be an interesting target for drug discovery. METHODS: Therefore, in this study fbpA and mazE genes were chosen as new antimicrobial targets and treated with antisense peptide nucleic ‎acid (PNA)...
December 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236773/first-insights-into-a-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-system-from-the-clinical-isolate-mycobacterium-sp-mhsd3-similar-to-epsilon-zeta-systems
#11
Daniel Jaén-Luchoro, Francisco Aliaga-Lozano, Rosa Maria Gomila, Margarita Gomila, Francisco Salvà-Serra, Jorge Lalucat, Antoni Bennasar-Figueras
A putative type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system was found in the clinical isolate Mycobacterium sp. MHSD3, a strain closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Further analyses of the protein sequences of the two genes revealed the presence of domains related to a TA system. BLAST analyses indicated the presence of closely related proteins in the genomes of other recently published M. chelonae strains. The functionality of both elements of the TA system was demonstrated when expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the predicted structure of the toxin is very similar to those of well-known zeta-toxins, leading to the definition of a type II TA system similar to epsilon/zeta TA systems in strains that are closely related to M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233898/prophages-and-growth-dynamics-confound-experimental-results-with-antibiotic-tolerant-persister-cells
#12
Alexander Harms, Cinzia Fino, Michael A Sørensen, Szabolcs Semsey, Kenn Gerdes
Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants that survive antibiotic treatment in a dormant state and can be formed by multiple pathways. We recently proposed that the second messenger (p)ppGpp drives Escherichia coli persister formation through protease Lon and activation of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules. This model found considerable support among researchers studying persisters but also generated controversy as part of recent debates in the field. In this study, we therefore used our previous work as a model to critically examine common experimental procedures to understand and overcome the inconsistencies often observed between results of different laboratories...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225431/insights-from-the-protein-protein-interaction-network-analysis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#13
Zoozeal Thakur, Renu Dharra, Vandana Saini, Ajit Kumar, Promod K Mehta
Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis is a powerful strategy to understand M. tuberculosis (Mtb) system level physiology in the identification of hub proteins. In the present study, the PPI network of 79 Mtb toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems comprising of 167 nodes and 234 edges was investigated. The topological properties of PPI network were examined by 'Network analyzer' a cytoscape plugin app and STRING database. The key enriched biological processes and the molecular functions of Mtb TA systems were analyzed by STRING...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218035/characterization-of-two-cryptic-plasmids-isolated-in-haiti-from-clinical-vibrio-cholerae-non-o1-non-o139
#14
Daniela Ceccarelli, Geneviève Garriss, Seon Y Choi, Nur A Hasan, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Mihai Pop, Anwar Huq, Rita R Colwell
We report the complete sequence of two novel plasmids, pSDH-1 and pSDH-2, isolated from clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 during the early phase of the 2010 Haitian cholera epidemic. Plasmids were revealed by employing single-cell genomics and their genome content suggests self-mobilization and, for pSDH-2, a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system for plasmid stabilization was identified. The putative origin of replication of pSDH-2 was mapped suggesting it replicates following the ColE1 model of plasmid replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216246/draft-genome-sequence-of-actinotignum-schaalii-dsm-15541t-genetic-insights-into-the-lifestyle-cell-fitness-and-virulence
#15
Atteyet F Yassin, Stefan Langenberg, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Supratim Mukherjee, T B K Reddy, Chris Daum, Nicole Shapiro, Natalia Ivanova, Tanja Woyke, Nikos C Kyrpides
The permanent draft genome sequence of Actinotignum schaalii DSM 15541T is presented. The annotated genome includes 2,130,987 bp, with 1777 protein-coding and 58 rRNA-coding genes. Genome sequence analysis revealed absence of genes encoding for: components of the PTS systems, enzymes of the TCA cycle, glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogensis. Genomic data revealed that A. schaalii is able to oxidize carbohydrates via glycolysis, the nonoxidative pentose phosphate and the Entner-Doudoroff pathways. Besides, the genome harbors genes encoding for enzymes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, acetate and ethanol, which are found to be the end products of carbohydrate fermentation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214346/comparative-genomics-reveals-the-presence-of-putative-toxin-antitoxin-system-in-wolbachia-genomes
#16
Kopal Singhal, Sujata Mohanty
Multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are housed in different locations within the bacterial genome and are known to be associated with various cellular processes and stress-related adaptation. In endosymbionts, although, the TA system has scarce occurrence but studies have highlighted its presence in enhancing host-symbiont interactions. Wolbachia, an obligate endosymbiont, has recently been proposed as a biocontrol agent which may be helpful in controlling vector-borne diseases. There are reports suggesting the role of TA system in inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility in case of Wolbachia, however, the underlying mechanism is still not known...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212001/mechanism-of-kin-discriminatory-demarcation-line-formation-between-colonies-of-swarming-bacteria
#17
Pintu Patra, Christopher N Vassallo, Daniel Wall, Oleg A Igoshin
Swarming bacteria use kin discrimination to preferentially associate with their clonemates for certain cooperative behaviors. Kin discrimination can manifest as an apparent demarcation line (a region lacking cells or with much lower cell density) between antagonist strains swarming toward each other. In contrast, two identical strains merge with no demarcation. Experimental studies suggest contact-dependent killing between different strains as a mechanism of kin discrimination, but it is not clear whether this killing is sufficient to explain the observed patterns...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205228/repression-of-ydas-toxin-is-mediated-by-transcriptional-repressor-racr-in-the-cryptic-rac-prophage-of-escherichia-coli-k-12
#18
Revathy Krishnamurthi, Swagatha Ghosh, Supriya Khedkar, Aswin Sai Narain Seshasayee
Horizontal gene transfer is a major driving force behind the genomic diversity seen in prokaryotes. The cryptic rac prophage in Escherichia coli K-12 carries the gene for a putative transcription factor RacR, whose deletion is lethal. We have shown that the essentiality of racR in E. coli K-12 is attributed to its role in transcriptionally repressing toxin gene(s) called ydaS and ydaT, which are adjacent to and coded divergently to racR. IMPORTANCE Transcription factors in the bacterium E. coli are rarely essential, and when they are essential, they are largely toxin-antitoxin systems...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201017/characterization-of-metagenomes-in-urban-aquatic-compartments-reveals-high-prevalence-of-clinically-relevant-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-wastewaters
#19
Charmaine Ng, Martin Tay, Boonfei Tan, Thai-Hoang Le, Laurence Haller, Hongjie Chen, Tse H Koh, Timothy M S Barkham, Karina Y-H Gin
The dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an escalating problem and a threat to public health. Comparative metagenomics was used to investigate the occurrence of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in wastewater and urban surface water environments in Singapore. Hospital and municipal wastewater (n = 6) were found to have higher diversity and average abundance of ARGs (303 ARG subtypes, 197,816 x/Gb) compared to treated wastewater effluent (n = 2, 58 ARG subtypes, 2,692 x/Gb) and surface water (n = 5, 35 subtypes, 7,985 x/Gb)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182512/global-mapping-of-mtra-binding-sites-links-mtra-to-regulation-of-its-targets-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Ayan Chatterjee, Arun Kumar Sharma, Amar Chandra Mahatha, Srijon Kaushik Banerjee, Manish Kumar, Sudipto Saha, Joyoti Basu, Manikuntala Kundu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis employs two-component systems (TCSs) for survival within its host. The TCS MtrAB is conserved among mycobacteria. The response regulator MtrA is essential in M. tuberculosis. The genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing performed in this study suggested that MtrA binds upstream of at least 45 genes of M. tuberculosis, including those involved in cell wall remodelling, stress responses, persistence and regulation of transcription. It binds to the promoter regions and regulates the peptidoglycan hydrolases rpfA and rpfC, which are required for resuscitation from dormancy...
November 28, 2017: Microbiology
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