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toxin antitoxin

Dilruba Sharmin, Yong Guo, Tomoyasu Nishizawa, Shoko Ohshima, Yoshinori Sato, Yusuke Takashima, Kazuhiko Narisawa, Hiroyuki Ohta
Endohyphal bacteria (EHB), dwelling within fungal hyphae, markedly affect the growth and metabolic potential of their hosts. To date, two EHB belonging to the family Burkholderiaceae have been isolated and characterized as new taxa, Burkholderia rhizoxinica (HKI 454T ) and Mycoavidus cysteinexigens (B1-EBT ), in Japan. Metagenome sequencing was recently reported for Mortierella elongata AG77 together with its endosymbiont M. cysteinexigens (Mc-AG77) from a soil/litter sample in the USA. In the present study, we elucidated the complete genome sequence of B1-EBT and compared it with those of Mc-AG77 and HKI 454T ...
March 14, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Tomoya Maeda, Yuya Tanaka, Masayuki Inui
The Corynebacterium glutamicum R grtA (cgR_2936), grtB (cgR_2934), and grtC (cgR_2933) genes were identified as paralogs encoding glutamine-rich toxic proteins. We also identified a new antisense small RNA AsgR (antisense sRNA for grtA) that overlaps the 3' end of the grtA gene. Single over-expressions of grtA, grtB, and grtC resulted in complete inhibition of Escherichia coli cell growth. This growth was rescued by co-expression of AsgR. Similar effects were observed in C. glutamicum, although the toxicities of these proteins were moderate...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Anna Maikova, Johann Peltier, Pierre Boudry, Eliane Hajnsdorf, Nicolas Kint, Marc Monot, Isabelle Poquet, Isabelle Martin-Verstraete, Bruno Dupuy, Olga Soutourina
Clostridium difficile, a major human enteropathogen, must cope with foreign DNA invaders and multiple stress factors inside the host. We have recently provided an experimental evidence of defensive function of the C. difficile CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system important for its survival within phage-rich gut communities. Here, we describe the identification of type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems with the first functional antisense RNAs in this pathogen...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Sakshi Agarwal, Prabhakar Tiwari, Amar Deep, Saqib Kidwai, Shamba Gupta, Krishan Gopal Thakur, Ramandeep Singh
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are bicistronic genetic modules that are ubiquitously present in bacterial genomes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome encodes for 90 putative TA systems and these are considered to be associated with maintenance of bacterial genomic stability or its survival under unfavorable environment. Majority of these in Mtb have been annotated as belonging to the Virulence associated protein B and C (VapBC) family. However, their precise role in bacterial physiology has not been elucidated...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Inés Bado, Romina Papa Ezdra, Nicolás Cordeiro, Matilde Outeda, Leticia Caiata, Virginia García-Fulgueiras, Verónica Seija, Rafael Vignoli
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to characterise the mechanisms underlying quinolone and oxyimino-cephalosporin resistance in a Citrobacter freundii clinical isolate obtained from the ICU in Uruguay's University Hospital. METHODS: Citrobacter freundii strain CF638 was isolated from a urine culture. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the VITEK® 2 system, and MIC determination and disc diffusion assay, respectively. Resistance genes and mobile genetic elements were identified, by PCR and sequencing...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Hannah G Hampton, Simon A Jackson, Robert D Fagerlund, Anne I M Vogel, Ron L Dy, Tim R Blower, Peter C Fineran
Bacteria resist phage infection using multiple strategies, including CRISPR-Cas and abortive infection (Abi) systems. Abi systems provide population-level protection from phage predation, via "altruistic" cell suicide. It has recently been shown that some Abi systems function via a toxin-antitoxin (TA) mechanism, such as the widespread AbiE family. The Streptococcus agalactiae AbiE system consists of a bicistronic operon encoding the AbiEi antitoxin and AbiEii toxin, which function as a Type IV TA system...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Amar Bouam, Parvin Heidarieh, Abodolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Fazel Pourahmad, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Mohamad Hashemzadeh, Emeline Baptiste, Nicholas Armstrong, Anthony Levasseur, Catherine Robert, Michel Drancourt
Four slowly growing mycobacteria isolates were isolated from the respiratory tract and soft tissue biopsies collected in four unrelated patients in Iran. Conventional phenotypic tests indicated that these four isolates were identical to Mycobacterium lentiflavum while 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded a unique sequence separated from that of M. lentiflavum. One representative strain AFP-003T was characterized as comprising a 6,121,237-bp chromosome (66.24% guanosine-cytosine content) encoding for 5,758 protein-coding genes, 50 tRNA and one complete rRNA operon...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brandon Sy, Julia Wong, Sander Granneman, David Tollervey, David Gally, Jai J Tree
Small regulatory nonprotein-coding RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as ubiquitous and abundant regulators of gene expression in a diverse cross section of bacteria. They play key roles in most aspects of bacterial physiology, including central metabolism, nutrient acquisition, virulence, biofilm formation, and outer membrane composition. RNA sequencing technologies have accelerated the identification of bacterial regulatory RNAs and are now being employed to understand their functions. Many regulatory RNAs require protein partners for activity, or modulate the activity of interacting proteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Etienne Maisonneuve, Manuela Castro-Camargo, Kenn Gerdes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Cell
Sadeghi Kalani Behrooz, Lotfollahi Lida, Shivaee Ali, Moghadampour Mehdi, Mirzaei Rasoul, Ohadi Elnaz, Biderouni Tahvildar Farid, Irajian Gholamreza
Today, to replace the antibacterial targets to overcome antibiotic resistance, toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is noticeable, where the unstable antitoxin neutralizes the stable toxin and protects the bacteria against the toxic effects. The presence and expression of TA genes in clinical and non-clinical strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were investigated in this study. After identification of three TA pairs (mazEF, sam, and phd-doc) via existing databases (earlier, there has been no information in the case of S...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Jun-Seob Kim, Allen B Schantz, Sooyeon Song, Manish Kumar, Thomas K Wood
GhoT is a bacterial toxin of the type V toxin/antitoxin system that allows Escherichia coli to reduce its metabolism in response to oxidative and bile stress. GhoT functions by increasing membrane permeability and reducing both ATP levels and the proton motive force. However, how GhoT damages the inner membrane has not been elucidated. Here we investigated how GhoT damages membranes by studying its interaction with lipid bilayers and determined that GhoT does not cause macroscopic disruption of the lipid bilayer to increase membrane permeability to the dye carboxyfluorescein...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Laura Fernández-García, Felipe Fernandez-Cuenca, Lucía Blasco, Rafael López-Rojas, Anton Ambroa, María Lopez, Álvaro Pascual, Germán Bou, María Tomás
Unknown are the mechanisms of tolerance and persistence associated to several compounds in A.baumannii clinical isolates. Using transcriptomic and microbiological studies, we found a link between bacterial tolerance mechanisms to clorhexidine as well as the development of persistence in presence of imipenem in A.baumannii strain belonging to ST-2 clinical clone (OXA-24 ß-lactamase and AbkAB TA system by plasmid). Interestingly, A.baumannii ATCC17978 strain (AbkAB TA system by plasmid) showed persistence in presence of imipenem and chlorhexidine...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Melina Ruggiero, Delphine Girlich, Laura Dabos, Pablo Power, Thierry Naas, Gabriel Gutkind
The bla PER-2 harboring plasmid pCf587 (191,541 bp) belongs to lineage IncA/C1 and is closely related to pRA1. It contains a large resistance island including the bla PER-2 gene between two copies of IS Kox2 -like elements, the toxin-antitoxin module pemK-pemI, several other resistance genes inserted within a Tn 2 transposon, a Tn 21 -like structure, and a class 1 integron. pCf587 belongs into ST 13, a new pMLST.
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jianlong Lou, Weihua Wen, Fraser Conrad, Qi Meng, Jianbo Dong, Zhengda Sun, Consuelo Garcia-Rodriguez, Shauna Farr-Jones, Luisa W Cheng, Thomas D Henderson, Jennifer L Brown, Theresa J Smith, Leonard A Smith, Anthony Cormier, James D Marks
The standard of treatment for botulism, equine antitoxin, is a foreign protein with associated safety issues and a short serum half-life which excludes its use as a prophylactic antitoxin and makes it a less-than-optimal therapeutic. Due to these limitations, a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) product is preferable. It has been shown that combining three mAbs that bind non-overlapping epitopes leads to highly potent botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) neutralization. Recently, a triple human antibody combination for BoNT/A has demonstrated potent toxin neutralization in mouse models with no serious adverse events when tested in a Phase I clinical trial...
February 15, 2018: Toxins
Hongliang Qian, Qingqing Yao, Cui Tai, Zixin Deng, Jianhua Gan, Hong-Yu Ou
A type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system, in which the toxin contains a Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain, has been characterized recently. GNAT toxin acetylates aminoacyl-tRNA and blocks protein translation. It is abolished by the cognate antitoxin that contains the ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) domain. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of the interaction of the GNAT-RHH complex with TA promoter DNA. First, the GNAT-RHH TA locus kacAT was found in Klebsiella pneumoniae HS11286, a strain resistant to multiple antibiotics...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Eddie Garcia, Abdul H Zaid, Diane P Calello, Lisa McHugh, Grant Arzumanov, Najaf Asrar, Ari Sapin, Kristin G Fless
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with diplopia, dysphagia, and progressive weakness 10 days after sustaining a gunshot wound to his right lower leg...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Neha Rajpara, Mrinalini Nair, Ashima Kushwaha Bhardwaj
In an earlier study from this laboratory, Vibrio fluvialis BD146, a clinical isolate from Kolkata, India, 2002, was found to be resistant to all the fourteen antibiotics tested. It harboured a high copy number plasmid pBD146 and a low copy number plasmid. In the present study, a more detailed analysis was carried out to unravel different resistance mechanisms in this isolate. Sequencing showed that variable region of class 1 integron located on low copy number plasmid harbored arr3-cmlA-blaOXA10-aadA1 gene cassettes...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Nela Nikolic, Tobias Bergmiller, Alexandra Vandervelde, Tanino G Albanese, Lendert Gelens, Isabella Moll
The MazF toxin sequence-specifically cleaves single-stranded RNA upon various stressful conditions, and it is activated as a part of the mazEF toxin-antitoxin module in Escherichia coli. Although autoregulation of mazEF expression through the MazE antitoxin-dependent transcriptional repression has been biochemically characterized, less is known about post-transcriptional autoregulation, as well as how both of these autoregulatory features affect growth of single cells during conditions that promote MazF production...
February 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Johannes F Imhoff, Tanja Rahn, Sven Künzel, Sven C Neulinger
Rhodopila globiformis: is the most acidophilic anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium and was isolated from a warm acidic sulfur spring in Yellowstone Park. Its genome is larger than genomes of other phototrophic purple bacteria, containing 7248 Mb with a G + C content of 67.1% and 6749 protein coding and 53 RNA genes. The genome revealed some previously unknown properties such as the presence of two sets of structural genes pufLMC for the photosynthetic reaction center genes and two types of nitrogenases (Mo-Fe and V-Fe nitrogenase), capabilities of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation and denitrification using nitrite...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Celine Reif, Charlotte Löser, Sabine Brantl
yonT/SR6 is the second type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) system encoded on prophage SPβ in the B. subtilis chromosome. The yonT ORF specifying a 58 aa toxin is transcribed on a polycistronic mRNA under control of the yonT promoter. The antitoxin SR6 is a 100 nt antisense RNA that overlaps yonT at its 3' end and the downstream gene yoyJ encoding a second, much weaker, toxin at its 5' end. SR6 displays a half-life of >60 min, whereas yonT mRNA is less stable with a half-life of ≈8 min. SR6 is in significant excess over yonT mRNA except in minimal medium with glucose...
February 7, 2018: Toxins
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