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Diabetic retinopathy

Yoko Ishimoto, Yuki Hirota-Takahata, Emi Kurosawa, Jun Chiba, Yuko Iwadate, Yoshiko Onozawa, Toru Hasegawa, Akihiro Tamura, Masahiro Tanaka, Hideki Kobayashi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key molecule in the regulation of both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. However, it is known that overproduction of VEGF induces abnormal blood vessel formation and these vessels cause several disease pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to find novel vasoactive compounds which have different properties from VEGF. METHODS/RESULTS: We screened a natural product library using a co-culture angiogenic assay of endothelial cells and fibroblasts...
October 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Y H Cho, M E Craig, A S Januszewski, P Benitez-Aguirre, S Hing, A J Jenkins, K C Donaghue
AIM: To test the hypothesis that non-invasive skin autofluorescence, a measure of advanced glycation end products, would provide a surrogate measure of long-term glycaemia and be associated with early markers of microvascular complications in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Forearm skin autofluorescence (arbitrary units) was measured in a cross-sectional study of 135 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes [mean ± sd age 15.6 ± 2.1 years, diabetes duration 8...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Tatsuhiko Sato, Kotaro Tsuboi, Hiroshi Nakashima, Kazuyuki Emi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare ocular and systemic parameters between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) cases with postoperative vitreous hemorrhage (PVH) and those without PVH after 25-gauge vitrectomy, and to investigate the predictors of PVH. METHODS: The medical records of 106 eyes of 78 consecutive patients who underwent primary 25-gauge vitrectomy were reviewed. RESULTS: The incidences of early and late PVH were found to be 18...
October 21, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Chong Chen, Kun Liu, Yupeng Xu, Pengwei Zhang, Yan Suo, Yi Lu, Wenyuan Zhang, Li Su, Qing Gu, Huamao Wang, Jianren Gu, Zonghai Li, Xun Xu
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are widely used for the treatment of neovascular fundus diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. However, these agents need to be injected intravitreally, because their strong hydrophilicity and high molecular weight prevent them from penetrating cell membranes and complex tissue barriers. Moreover, the repeated injections that are required can cause infection and tissue injury. In this study, we used in vivo-directed evolution phage display technology to identify a novel dodecapeptide, named CC12, with the ability to penetrate the ocular barrier in a noninvasive (via conjunctival sac instillation) or minimally invasive (via retrobulbar injection) manner...
September 30, 2016: Biomaterials
Chloe Y Y Cheung, Elaine Y L Hui, Chi-Ho Lee, Kelvin H M Kwok, Rita A Gangwani, Kenneth K W Li, Jeffrey C W Chan, Yu-Cho Woo, Wing-Sun Chow, Michele M A Yuen, Rachel L C Wong, Carol H Y Fong, Aimin Xu, David S H Wong, Pak-Chung Sham, Karen S L Lam
Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) had identified novel DR-susceptibility genetic variants in various populations. We examined the associations of these DR-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with severe DR in a Chinese T2DM cohort. Methods: Cross-sectional case-control studies on sight-threatening DR (STDR) and proliferative DR (PDR) were performed...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Anthony E Felder, Justin Wanek, Norman P Blair, Charlotte E Joslin, Katherine C Brewer, Felix Y Chau, Jennifer I Lim, Yannek I Leiderman, Mahnaz Shahidi
Purpose: We determined the effects of light flicker and diabetic retinopathy (DR) stage on retinal vascular diameter (D), oxygen saturation (SO2), and inner retinal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Methods: Subjects were categorized as nondiabetic control (NC, n = 42), diabetic with no clinical DR (NDR; n = 32), nonproliferative DR (NPDR; n = 42), or proliferative DR (PDR; n = 14). Our customized optical imaging system simultaneously measured arterial and venous D (DA, DV) and SO2 (SO2A, SO2V) before and during light flicker...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Swarupa Kancherla, William J Kohler, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin C Chan
Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0...
2016: PloS One
Jae Seung Yun, Tae Seok Lim, Seon Ah Cha, Yu Bae Ahn, Ki Ho Song, Jin A Choi, Jinwoo Kwon, Donghyun Jee, Yang Kyung Cho, Yong Moon Park, Seung Hyun Ko
BACKGROUND: We investigated clinical course and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 759 patients with T2DM without DR were included from January 2001 to December 2004. Retinopathy evaluation was performed at least annually by ophthalmologists. The severity of the DR was classified into five categories according to the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scales. RESULTS: Of the 759 patients, 523 patients (68...
October 5, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Kyung Jin Yun, Hye Ji Kim, Mee Kyoung Kim, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Ki Hyun Baek, Young Jung Roh, Ki Ho Song
BACKGROUND: Some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not develop diabetic kidney disease (DKD) despite the presence of advanced diabetic retinopathy (DR). We aimed to investigate the presence of DKD and its risk factors in patients with T2DM and advanced DR. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 317 patients with T2DM and advanced DR. The phenotypes of DKD were divided into three groups according to the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (uACR, mg/g) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min/1...
September 20, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Brian J Song, Lloyd Paul Aiello, Louis R Pasquale
Diabetes mellitus represents a growing international public health issue with a near quadrupling in its worldwide prevalence since 1980. Though it has many known microvascular complications, vision loss from diabetic retinopathy is one of the most devastating for affected individuals. In addition, there is increasing evidence to suggest that diabetic patients have a greater risk for glaucoma as well. Though the pathophysiology of glaucoma is not completely understood, both diabetes and glaucoma appear to share some common risk factors and pathophysiologic similarities with studies also reporting that the presence of diabetes and elevated fasting glucose levels are associated with elevated intraocular pressure-the primary risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Jessica Lee, Richard Rosen
Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive microvascular disease that leads to increased vessel permeability, retinal ischemia, and retinal neovascularization. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel angiography technique that has the capability to advance our understanding of diabetic eye disease by providing high-resolution images of retinal and choroidal microvasculature blood flow and structure. Using OCTA, the vascular changes of diabetic retinopathy including microaneurysms, retinal non-perfusion, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and neovascularization can be clearly visualized...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Dilsher S Dhoot, Robert L Avery
The prevalence of diabetes is growing at epidemic rates in the USA. Diabetic retinopathy develops in a large proportion of patients and is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Systemic management of diabetic retinopathy has included glycemic, hypertension, and lipid control. Local ophthalmic treatment in the form of focal/grid or panretinal laser photocoagulation has been shown to prevent vision loss in diabetic edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, respectively. The introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema and retinopathy has provided clinicians with improved clinical outcomes with potentially less damaging effects than laser...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Wesley T O'Neal, Kristine E Lee, Elsayed Z Soliman, Ronald Klein, Barbara E K Klein
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and determinants of developing abnormalities on the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) in persons with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We evaluated the distribution of ECG abnormalities and risk factors for developing new abnormalities in 266 (mean age = 44 years ± 9.0; 50 % female) people with type 1 diabetes from the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. This analysis included participants with complete ECG data from study visit 5 (2000-2001) and follow-up ECGs from study visit 7 (2012-2014)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Dora M Gorman, Carel W le Roux, Neil G Docherty
Bariatric surgery, initially intended as a weight-loss procedure, is superior to standard lifestyle intervention and pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Intensive medical management of hyperglycemia is associated with improved microvascular outcomes. Whether or not the reduction in hyperglycemia observed after bariatric surgery translates to improved microvascular outcomes is yet to be determined. There is substantial heterogeneity in the data relating to the impact of bariatric surgery on diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication of diabetes...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Wilson Kc Leung, L Gao, Parco M Siu, Christopher Wk Lai
An explosion in global epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus poses major rise in cases with vascular endothelial dysfunction ranging from micro- (retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) to macro-vascular (atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy) conditions. Functional destruction of endothelium is regarded as an early event that lays the groundwork for the development of renal microangiopathy and subsequent clinical manifestation of nephropathic symptoms. Recent research has shed some light on the molecular mechanisms of type 2 diabetes-associated comorbidity of endothelial dysfunction and nephropathy...
October 17, 2016: Life Sciences
Pedro Romero-Aroca, Marc Baget-Bernaldiz, Alicia Pareja-Rios, Maribel Lopez-Galvez, Raul Navarro-Gil, Raquel Verges
Diabetic macular edema (DME) can cause blindness in diabetic patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR). DM parameters controls (glycemia, arterial tension, and lipids) are the gold standard for preventing DR and DME. Although the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play a role in the development of DME, the pathological processes leading to the onset of this disease are highly complex and the exact sequence in which they occur is still not completely understood. Angiogenesis and inflammation have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Mei-Rong Du, Gui-Xia Ju, Nian-Sheng Li, Jun-Lin Jiang
Microvascular complications are the leading causes of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, and varieties of neuropathy associated with diabetes. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, is involved in endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation associated with the progression of diabetic microvascular complications. Elevated ADMA has been detected in experimental animals and patients with diabetic microangiopathy like retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy...
October 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
John J Wroblewski, Allen Y Hu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of squalamine (OHR-102; Ohr Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY) and ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) on macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive, treatment-naïve patients with RVO-related ME received topical squalamine and intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg for 10 weeks, followed by randomization to continue or discontinue squalamine...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
E G Deryabina, G V Yakornova, L A Pestryaeva, N D Sandyreva
Preterm birth is defined as all births before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Preterm birth can be further sub-divided based on gestational age: extremely preterm (<28 weeks), very preterm (28 to <32 weeks) and moderate preterm (32 to <37 weeks). Retrospective observational case-control study review (1 year i.e., 2015) is to assess pregnancy outcome among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) delivering very preterm (28 + 0/7 to 31 + 6/7 weeks of gestation). The study group included all women diagnosed with GDM and were compared to a control group of women delivering at the same gestational age period but without GDM...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
A Pareja-Ríos, S Bonaque-González, M Serrano-García, F Cabrera-López, P Abreu-Reyes, M D Marrero-Saavedra
PURPOSE: To describe the results of a diabetic retinopathy screening program implemented in a primary care area. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using data automatically collected since the program began on 1 January 2007 until 31 December 2015. RESULTS: The number of screened diabetic patients has progressively increased, from 7,173 patients in 2007 to 42,339 diabetic patients in 2015. Furthermore, the ability of family doctors to correctly interpret retinographies has improved, with the proportion of retinal images classified as normal having increased from 55% in 2007 to 68% at the end of the study period...
October 15, 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
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