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Ruoyu Zhang, Xiaolei Cai, Guangxue Feng, Bin Liu
Toxins and bacteria in water or food pose a threat to human life and could potentially be exploited for bioterrorism. Real-time naked-eye detection of these contaminants is highly desirable to provide a direct and simple analytical method and address the challenges of the existing strategies. Using the detection of ricin and B. subtilis as an example, a naked-eye multiplex detection model is established. In this work, a green fluorogen with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics was encapsulated in silica nanoshells...
December 5, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Xiang Wei, Zhonghui Liu, Xiulong Jin, Lin Huang, Deepanjali Dattatray Gurav, Xuming Sun, Baohong Liu, Jian Ye, Kun Qian
Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS)-based small metabolites detection is fundamentally important for the clinic prognoses and diagnoses. Plasmonic materials have been applied as efficient substrates for LDI MS of these molecules. However, there is no clear understanding of the mechanism of using plasmonic materials for enhanced LDI MS of small metabolites, thus restricting their application for real case serum samples. In this work, we report the use of plasmonic nanoshells for enhanced LDI MS detection of small analytes...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Xiao Huang, Yifan Lai, Gary B Braun, Norbert O Reich
Targeted delivery of siRNA controlled by near-infrared light using hollow gold nanoshells has been demonstrated in cancer and stem cells models. Here, a universal surface module and several functionalization rules for the maximized delivery of short nucleic acids (here, siRNA) applicable for diverse gold nanocarriers are described. Streptavidin is devised as a handle to assemble biotinylated cell penetrating peptides (e.g., transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT)), as well as an insulator between the positive charge of TAT and the dense negative charge of RNA...
November 18, 2016: Small
Lei Fu, Heng-Te Ke
Nanotechnology provides various nanomaterials with tremendous functionalities for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Recently, theranostics has been developed as an alternative strategy for efficient cancer treatment through combination of imaging diagnosis and therapeutic interventions under the guidance of diagnostic results. Ultrasound (US) imaging shows unique advantages with excellent features of real-time imaging, low cost, high safety and portability, making US contrast agents (UCAs) an ideal platform for construction of cancer theranostic agents...
September 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Xiao Huang, Qirui Hu, Yifan Lai, Demosthenes P Morales, Dennis O Clegg, Norbert O Reich
A new method of spatially controlled gene regulation in 3D-cultured human embryonic stem cells is developed using hollow gold nanoshells (HGNs) and near-infrared (NIR) light. Targeted cell(s) are discriminated from neighboring cell(s) by focusing NIR light emitted from a two-photon microscope. Irradiation of cells that have internalized HGNs releases surface attached siRNAs and leads to concomitant gene downregulation.
October 27, 2016: Advanced Materials
Erin P Ward, James Wang, Natalie Mendez, Jian Yang, Chris Barback, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, William Trogler, Andrew C Kummel, Sarah Blair
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the potential for ultrasound (US) visible biodegradable nanoshells (NS) as an alternative to wire-guided localization for nonpalpable tumors in vivo. METHODS: VX2 tumor was injected in bilateral thighs of 22 New Zealand rabbits and after 5 to 10 days, 1 tumor was marked with a wire as a control and the contralateral tumor was injected with 1 mL of 500 nm gas-filled silica NS under Doppler US. Tumors were excised after 24 hours...
December 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Jing-Min Liu, Yao-Yao Liu, Dong-Dong Zhang, Guozhen Fang, Shuo Wang
The rise of multimodal nanoprobes has promoted the development of new methods to explore multiple molecular targets simultaneously, or to combine various bioimaging tools in one assay to more clearly delineate localization and expression of bio-markers. Persistent luminescence nanophosphors (PLNPs) have been qualified as the promising contrast agent for in vivo imaging. The easy surface modification and proper nanostructure design strategy would favor the fabrication of PLNPs based multi-functional nanoprobes for biological application...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christos Tserkezis, Nikolaos Stefanou, Martijn Wubs, N Asger Mortensen
Molecular spontaneous emission and fluorescence depend strongly on the emitter local environment. Plasmonic nanoparticles provide excellent templates for tailoring fluorophore emission, as they exhibit potential for both fluorescence enhancement and quenching, depending on emitter positioning in the nanoparticle vicinity. Here we explore the influence of hitherto disregarded nonclassical effects on the description of emitter-plasmon hybrids, focusing on the roles of the metal nonlocal response and especially size-dependent plasmon damping...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Farzaneh Ghorbani, Neda Attaran-Kakhki, Ameneh Sazgarnia
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) are two known optical remedies of cancer. PTT can be combined with other therapies. One of the limitations of optical therapies is the penetration of light into biological tissues, which reduces its effectiveness due to usage of photosensitizers and PTT agents, which are absorbed in the NIR region that provides the maximum penetration. For instance, Indocyanine green (ICG) serves as a photosensitizer and Gold nanostructures as agents for PTT...
October 5, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Wonmo Sung, Seongmoon Jung, Sung-Joon Ye
The aim of this study is to investigate the dosimetric characteristics of nanoparticle-enhanced Auger therapy. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to assess electron energy spectra and dose enhancement distributions around a nanoparticle. In the simulations, two types of nanoparticle structures were considered: nanoshell and nanosphere, both of which were assumed to be made of one of five elements (Fe, Ag, Gd, Au, and Pt) in various sizes (2-100 nm). Auger-electron emitting radionuclides (I-125, In-111, and Tc-99m) were simulated within a nanoshell or on the surface of a nanosphere...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
M C Ortega-Liebana, J L Hueso, R Arenal, J Santamaria
Gold nanorods coated with a uniform titanium dioxide nanoshell have been prepared and used as glucose-oxidase surrogates. Remarkably, this core-shell photocatalytic nanostructure has been able to induce complete oxidation of glucose at near room temperature (32-34 °C) in a wide range of pH values with the aid of a near-infrared (NIR) irradiation source. In contrast, the uncoated gold nanorods exhibit negligible photo-oxidation response under identical experimental conditions thereby proving the photoactivity of the titania shell towards glucose oxidation...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Fernando Soto, Gregory L Wagner, Victor Garcia-Gradilla, Kyle T Gillespie, Deepak R Lakshmipathy, Emil Karshalev, Chava Angell, Yi Chen, Joseph Wang
Herein we report a new design for acoustic nanoswimmers, making use of a nanoshell geometry that was synthesized using a sphere template process. Such shell-shaped nanomotors display highly efficient acoustic propulsion on the nanoscale by converting energy from the ambient acoustic field into motion. The propulsion mechanism of the nanoshell motors relies on acoustic streaming stress over the asymmetric surface to produce the driving force for motion. The shell-shaped nanomotors offer a high surface area to volume ratio, allow for efficient scalability and provide higher cargo towing capacity (in comparison to acoustically propelled nanowires)...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
S B Rochal, O V Konevtsova, A E Myasnikova, V L Lorman
We propose the principles of structural organization in spherical nanoassemblies with icosahedral symmetry constituted by asymmetric protein molecules. The approach modifies the paradigmatic geometrical Caspar and Klug (CK) model of icosahedral viral capsids and demonstrates the common origin of both the "anomalous" and conventional capsid structures. In contrast to all previous models of "anomalous" viral capsids the proposed modified model conserves the basic structural principles of the CK approach and reveals the common hidden symmetry underlying all small viral shells...
September 29, 2016: Nanoscale
Akshay Phadnis, Sumit Kumar, Atul Srivastava
The work presented in this paper focuses on numerically investigating the thermal response of gold nanoshells-embedded biological tissue phantoms with potential applications into photo-thermal therapy wherein the interest is in destroying the cancerous cells with minimum damage to the surrounding healthy cells. The tissue phantom has been irradiated with a pico-second laser. Radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been employed to model the light-tissue interaction using discrete ordinate method (DOM). For determining the temperature distribution inside the tissue phantom, the RTE has been solved in combination with a generalized non-Fourier heat conduction model namely the dual phase lag bio-heat transfer model...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Xinghua Liu, Chunhui Gao, Junheng Gu, Yunfang Jiang, Xinlin Yang, Shaoyong Li, Wei Gao, Tong An, Hongquan Duan, Jingwei Fu, Yinsong Wang, Xiaoying Yang
In recent years, considerable efforts have been made for the development of multifunctional nanoparticles with diagnosis and therapy functions. To achieve enhanced CT imaging and photothermal therapy on the tumor, we employed iodinated nanoparticles as template to construct Au nanoshell structure and demonstrated a facile but effective approach to synthesize biocompatible and well-dispersed multifunctional nanoparticles by coating iodinated nanoparticles with Au nanoshell and subsequent surface modification by hyaluronic acid...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jibin Song, Hao Hu, Chao Jian, Kaichun Wu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Esophageal cancer is one of the six most common cancers in the world, constituting ∼7% of the gastrointestinal cancers. Esophageal stents can be inserted into the esophagus to open the pathway as a palliative treatment for advanced esophageal cancer. For the treatment of esophageal cancer, a series of anticancer drug-loaded stents such as paclitaxel or 5-fluorouracil/esophageal stent combinations have been prepared by covering a nitinol stent with a polymer or hydrogel shell. For the first time, we developed a gold nanoshell (AuNS)-coated stent with high photothermal efficiency and used in the repetitive photothermal therapy of esophageal cancer...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Le Yu, Zhongying Yan, Zhonghou Cai, Dongtang Zhang, Ping Han, Xuemei Cheng, Yugang Sun
We report the in situ investigation of the morphological evolution of silver nanowires to hollow silver oxide nanotubes using transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM). Complex silver diffusion kinetics and hollowing process via the Kirkendall effect have been captured in real time. Further quantitative X-ray absorption analysis reveals the difference between the longitudinal and radial diffusions. The diffusion coefficient of silver in its oxide nanoshell is, for the first time, calculated to be 1.2 × 10(-13) cm(2)/s from the geometrical parameters extracted from the TXM images...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
Kristine M Mayle, Kathryn R Dern, Vincent K Wong, Kevin Y Chen, Shijun Sung, Ke Ding, April R Rodriguez, Scott Knowles, Zachary Taylor, Z Hong Zhou, Warren S Grundfest, Anna M Wu, Timothy J Deming, Daniel T Kamei
Currently, there is no curative treatment for advanced metastatic prostate cancer, and options, such as chemotherapy, are often nonspecific, harming healthy cells and resulting in severe side effects. Attaching targeting ligands to agents used in anticancer therapies has been shown to improve efficacy and reduce nonspecific toxicity. Furthermore, the use of triggered therapies can enable spatial and temporal control over the treatment. Here, we combined an engineered prostate cancer-specific targeting ligand, the A11 minibody, with a novel photothermal therapy agent, polypeptide-based gold nanoshells, which generate heat in response to near-infrared light...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
Chunrong Gu, Hengfang Wu, Gaoyuan Ge, Xiongzhi Li, Zhirui Guo, Zhiping Bian, Jindan Xu, Hua Lu, Xiangjian Chen, Di Yang
Gold nanoparticles are emerging as promising biomedical tools due to their unique nanoscale characteristics. Our purpose was to synthesize a hollow-shaped gold nanoparticle and to investigate its effect on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) in vitro. Hollow gold nanoshells with average 35-nm diameters and 10-nm shell thickness were obtained by galvanic replacement using quasi-spherical nanosilver as sacrifice-template. Our results showed that hollow gold nanoshells in the culture medium could be internalized into the cytoplasm of HAECs...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Samantha Soulé, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Stéphane Faucher, Bernard Haye, Carole Aimé, Joachim Allouche, Jean-Charles Dupin, Gaëtane Lespes, Thibaud Coradin, Hervé Martinez
Silica-coated gold-silver alloy nanoshells were obtained via a bioinspired approach using gelatin and poly-l-lysine (PLL) as biotemplates for the interfacial condensation of sodium silicate solutions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used as an efficient tool for the in-depth and complete characterization of the chemical features of nanoparticles during the whole synthetic process. Cytotoxicity assays using HaCaT cells evidenced the detrimental effect of the gelatin nanocoating and significant induction of late apoptosis after silicification...
October 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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