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Xiankun Lin, Tieyan Si, Zhiguang Wu, Qiang He
As artificial active colloids, micro-/nanomotors (MNMs) can convert energy from the environment into mechanical motion in different fluids, showing potential applications in diverse fields such as targeted drug delivery and photothermal therapy. However, chemical fuels for typical catalytic MNMs, e.g., hydrogen peroxide, are highly toxic to organisms, and thus fuel-free MNMs are required. Recently, we have developed near-infrared light (NIR) propelled MNMs through integrating plasmonic gold nanoshells into nanoparticles or layer-by-layer assemblies in an asymmetric manner...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shaocong Hou, Yuzheng Guo, Yuguo Tang, Qimin Quan
Lead halide perovskites have emerged as low-cost, high-performance optical and optoelectronic materials, however, their material stability has been a limiting factor for broad applications. Here, we demonstrate stable core-shell colloidal perovskite nanocrystals using a novel, facile and low-cost co-polymer templated synthesis approach. The block co-polymer serves as a confined nano-reactor during perovskite crystallization and passivates the perovskite surface by forming a multidentate capping shell, thus significantly improving its photo-stability in polar solvents...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Margaret M Billingsley, Rachel S Riley, Emily S Day
Accurate antigen detection is imperative for clinicians to diagnose disease, assess treatment success, and predict patient prognosis. The most common technique used for the detection of disease-associated biomarkers is the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In an ELISA, primary antibodies are incubated with biological samples containing the biomarker of interest. Then, detectible secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) bind the primary antibodies. Upon addition of a color-changing substrate, the samples provide a colorimetric signal that directly correlates to the targeted biomarker concentration...
2017: PloS One
Akram Abbasi, Keunhan Park, Arijit Bose, Geoffrey D Bothun
Anionic liposomes coated with the cationic polyelectrolyte poly-l-lysine (PLL), or layersomes, were used as soft, self-assembled templates for synthesizing gold nanoshells that absorb near infrared radiation. The gold-nanoshells were formed using two techniques (a) direct reduction of tetrachloroauric acid on the layersomes, and (b) reduction of a tetrachloroauric acid/potassium carbonate 'growth' solution on nanosized gold seeds bound to the surface of layersomes. The resulting structures were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and visible-near infrared spectroscopy...
May 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Faruq Mohammad, Hamad A Al-Lohedan
In this, we developed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to be appropriate for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer cells by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetically controlled hyperthermia/drug delivery (respectively). For the preparation of composite, we started with SPIONs, followed by its coating with gold to form SPIONs@Au, which further conjugated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) protein by making use of the cysteamine (Cyst) space linker and finally loaded with 5-Fluororacil (5-Fu) anticancer drug to form SPIONs@Au-Cyst-LHRH_5-Fu composite...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Wenjing Wang, Nitya Sai Reddy Satyavolu, Zhenkun Wu, Jian-Rong Zhang, Jun-Jie Zhu, Yi Lu
DNAzymes have enjoyed success as metal ion sensors outside cells. Their susceptibility to metal-dependent cleavage during delivery into cells has limited their intracellular applications. To overcome this limitation, a near-infrared (NIR) photothermal activation method is presented for controlling DNAzyme activity in living cells. The system consists of a three-stranded DNAzyme precursor (TSDP), the hybridization of which prevents the DNAzyme from being active. After conjugating the TSDP onto gold nanoshells and upon NIR illumination, the increased temperature dehybridizes the TSDP to release the active DNAzyme, which then carries out metal-ion-dependent cleavage, resulting in releasing the cleaved product containing a fluorophore...
May 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
R G Sobral-Filho, A M Brito-Silva, M Isabelle, A Jirasek, J J Lum, A G Brolo
Fine-tuned gold and silver nanoshells were produced via an entirely reformulated synthesis. The new method yielded ultramonodisperse samples, with polydispersity indexes (PI) as low as 0.02 and narrow extinction bands suited for multiplex analysis. A library of nanoshell samples with localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) spanning across the visible range was synthesized. Hyperspectral analysis revealed that the average scattering spectrum of 100 nanoshells matched closely to the spectrum of a single nanoshell, indicating an unprecedented low level of nanoparticle-to-nanoparticle variation for this type of system...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Shih-Wen Chen, Jia-Han Li
Investigated in this paper is the interaction of light and the nanospheres composed by a dielectric core with a gold-shell cladding that causes the optical vortices inside the core and the whirlpools around the shell. Different radius ratios, dimensions and the dielectric functions of nanospheres were studied using the finite-difference time-domain method. It was found that optical vortices were most likely to occur in the regions of increased absorption cross section and reduced scattering cross section. Two optical vortices of the opposite polarity, each centered in one of the particles of a dimer are created by a nanoshell dimer...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Yugang Sun, Xiaobing Zuo, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Sheng Peng, Badri Narayanan, Ganesh Kamath
Real-time tracking of the three-dimensional (3D) evolution of colloidal nanoparticles in solution is essential for understanding complex mechanisms involved in nanoparticle growth and transformation. We used time-resolved small-angle and wide-angle x-ray scattering simultaneously to monitor oxidation of highly uniform colloidal iron nanoparticles, enabling the reconstruction of intermediate 3D morphologies of the nanoparticles with a spatial resolution of ~5 angstroms. The in situ observations, combined with large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations, reveal the details of the transformation from solid metal nanoparticles to hollow metal oxide nanoshells via a nanoscale Kirkendall process-for example, coalescence of voids as they grow and reversal of mass diffusion direction depending on crystallinity...
April 21, 2017: Science
M Irfan, C J Wang, U Khan, W J Li, X M Zhang, W J Kong, P Liu, C H Wan, Y W Liu, X F Han
Several nanotechnology applications are based on the promising scheme of highly anisotropic magnetic nanomaterials. Using this idea, we investigated the structure, magnetic properties, and interfacial exchange anisotropy effects of the Ni/Cr2O3 and Fe/Cr2O3 core-shell nanowires (NWs) geometry. A template-based strategy was developed to synthesize Ni (Fe)-Cr2O3 core-shell NWs, which combines a wet-chemical route and electrodeposition within the nanopores of the membranes. Structural determination in correlation with magnetic testing shows that the crystalline Cr2O3-nanoshells (NSs) cause an enhanced exchange bias, providing an extra source of anisotropy that leads to their magnetic stability...
May 4, 2017: Nanoscale
Li Ding, Ruonan Sun, Xinyue Zhang
Rap2b is a novel p53 target we have identified recently. Knockdown of Rap2b sensitizes HCT116 cells to adriamycin-induced apoptosis, indicating that Rap2b promotes adriamycin resistance in cancer cells. In the present study, we designed a nanostructure-based drug/gene delivery system to evaluate the potential of Rap2b siRNA as a therapeutic agent against human cancers. Specifically, after co-incubated with HCT116 cells, adriamycin- and Rap2b siRNA-loaded gold nanoshells were internalized. Subsequent laser irradiation promoted release of adriamycin and Rap2b siRNA from the nanoparticles...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
Yunfeng Liu, Jianliang Xie, Mei Luo, Bo Peng, Longjiang Deng
Traditional low infrared emissivity coatings based on aluminum flakes cannot own low IR emissivity and low lightness simultaneously. Herein, a new simple efficient method for the synthesis of brown Al/MnO2 composite pigments with low IR emissivity and low lightness is reported, through forming MnO2 layer on aluminum flakes by thermal cracking, then altering the shape and forming nanoshell by stirring in hot flowing liquid. The results indicate that the MnO2 particles, which have tetragonal structure with high crystallinity, are needlelike and forming a complete shell on the aluminum flakes...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Feifei Zhao, Jie Zhou, Xiangjie Su, Yuhui Wang, Xiaosa Yan, Shaona Jia, Bin Du
The absence of targeted, single treatment methods produces low therapeutic value for treating cancers. To increase the accumulation of drugs in tumors and improve the treatment effectiveness, near-infrared 808 nm photothermal responsive dual aptamers-targeted docetaxel (DTX)-containing nanoparticles is proposed. In this system, DTX and NH4 HCO3 are loaded in thermosensitive liposomes. The surface of liposomes is coated with gold nanoshells and connected with sulfydryl (SH) modified AS1411 and S2.2 aptamers...
March 30, 2017: Small
Yanping Liu, Xuwu Zhang, Zhiwei Liu, Longgang Wang, Liyao Luo, Meili Wang, Qianqian Wang, Dawei Gao
A novel synthesis approach is first developed to fabricate a multifunctional smart nanodrug delivery system: gold nanoshell-coated betulinic acid liposomes (AuNS-BA-Lips) mediated by a glutathione. The AuNS-BA-Lips exhibited good size distribution (149.4±2.4nm), preferable photothermal conversion ability and synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy. Additionally, the absorption wavelength of AuNS-BA-Lips showed a significantly red-shifted to near infrared (NIR) region, which can strongly absorbed NIR laser and efficiently convert it into localized heat, thus providing controlled drug release and antitumor thermotherapy...
March 29, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Linling Qin, Cheng Zhang, Runfeng Li, Xiaofeng Li
This work reports the plasmonically enhanced refractive index sensor consisting of silicon nanowire array (Si-NWA) coated by a conformal gold (Au) nanoshell. Compared to the pure Si or Au NWA system, the Si-Au core-shell setup leads to substantially enhanced optical in-coupling to excite strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for highly sensitive sensors. Results indicate that the SPR wavelength can be subtly tuned by manipulating the nanowire radius, and it shows a strong shift with very small variation of the refractive index of the analyte...
April 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Jiayang Li, Jing Liu, Chunying Chen
Compared to traditional hyperthermia methods, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) successfully achieve site-specific incremental temperature in deep tissues. By virtue of near-infrared (NIR) laser-mediated photothermal treatment, Au NPs have been widely explored in clinical and preclinical applications, including cancer therapy and tissue engineering. In this issue of ACS Nano, Suzuki, Ciofani, and colleagues demonstrate how gold nanoshells can remotely activate striated muscle cells via inducing myotube contraction and modulating related gene expression by mild heat stimulation under NIR irradiation...
March 28, 2017: ACS Nano
Zhaohui Wang, Siwen Li, Min Zhang, Yi Ma, Yuxi Liu, Weidong Gao, Jiaqi Zhang, Yueqing Gu
The resistance of cancer cells to photothermal therapy is closely related to the overexpression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are abnormally upregulated when cells are under lethal stresses. Common strategies that use small molecule inhibitors against HSPs to enhance hyperthermia effect lack spatial and temporal control of drug release, leading to unavoidable systemic toxicity. Herein, a versatile photothermal platform is developed which is composed of a hollow gold nanoshell core densely packed with small interfering RNAs against heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)...
February 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Qi Liang, Yi-Xiang Wang, Jin-Song Ding, Wei He, Ling-Ling Deng, Na Li, Yun-Jie Liao, Zhen Li, Bin Ye, Wei Wang
A superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoshell and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based chemoembolization system for anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) delivery has previously been presented. We have also previously confirmed the feasibility and safety of this multifunctional system for carrying both DOX and SPIO nanoparticles in vitro. However, the pharmacokinetic and the therapeutic efficacy of this novel drug-delivery system in vivo is not yet clear, and as such was the subject of this study. A rabbit liver tumor model was utilized, whereby the tumors were targeted by SPIO/DOX/PVA composite infused via a catheter into the hepatic arteries which supplying blood to the tumor...
January 2017: Discovery Medicine
Licheng Bai, Shumeng Zhang, Qiang Chen, Chuanbo Gao
It is highly desirable for the synthesis and stabilization of noble metal nanoparticles of uniform, precisely tunable sizes, especially in the range of angstroms to a few nanometers, for many catalytic applications in pursuit of optimal activity and selectivity. Herein, we report a novel strategy for the synthesis of uniform platinum (Pt) nanoparticles of ultrasmall sizes (average size: 0.9-2.3 nm), which are stabilized on hollow polymer nanoshells formed by polymerization of sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) at the interface of an ethanol/water emulsion...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ming Yang, Henry Chan, Gongpu Zhao, Joong Hwan Bahng, Peijun Zhang, Petr Král, Nicholas A Kotov
Nanoscale compartments are one of the foundational elements of living systems. Capsids, carboxysomes, exosomes, vacuoles and other nanoshells easily self-assemble from biomolecules such as lipids or proteins, but not from inorganic nanomaterials because of difficulties with the replication of spherical tiling. Here we show that stabilizer-free polydispersed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) can spontaneously organize into porous nanoshells. The association of water-soluble CdS NPs into self-limited spherical capsules is the result of scale-modified electrostatic, dispersion and other colloidal forces...
March 2017: Nature Chemistry
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