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Jasmin Lohbeck, Aubry K Miller
The use of small molecules to regulate cellular levels of specific proteins is poised to become a powerful technique in the coming years. Critical to the success of any project utilizing such an approach will be the ability to synthesize libraries of candidate small molecules for testing in cellular systems. Herein, we describe a practical synthesis of a phthalimide-based scaffold, which can be easily diversified to make Cereblon-targeting PROTACs. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by synthesizing a 'PROTAC toolbox' of four amines which can be coupled to inhibitors in a straightforward manner...
September 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xin Wang, Shaozhen Feng, Jinjin Fan, Xiaoyan Li, Qiong Wen, Ning Luo
PURPOSE: Smad3 is a critical signaling protein in renal fibrosis. Proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules (PROTACs) are small molecules designed to degrade target proteins via ubiquitination. They have three components: (1) a recognition motif for E3 ligase; (2) a linker; and (3) a ligand for the target protein. We aimed to design a new PROTAC to prevent renal fibrosis by targeting Smad3 proteins and using hydroxylated pentapeptide of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α as the recognition motif for von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) ubiquitin ligase (E3)...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Kanak Raina, Jing Lu, Yimin Qian, Martha Altieri, Deborah Gordon, Ann Marie K Rossi, Jing Wang, Xin Chen, Hanqing Dong, Kam Siu, James D Winkler, Andrew P Crew, Craig M Crews, Kevin G Coleman
Prostate cancer has the second highest incidence among cancers in men worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths of men in the United States. Although androgen deprivation can initially lead to remission, the disease often progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which is still reliant on androgen receptor (AR) signaling and is associated with a poor prognosis. Some success against CRPC has been achieved by drugs that target AR signaling, but secondary resistance invariably emerges, and new therapies are urgently needed...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ryan K Henning, Joseph O Varghese, Samir Das, Arundhati Nag, Grace Tang, Kevin Tang, Alexander M Sutherland, James R Heath
Abnormal signaling of the protein kinase Akt has been shown to contribute to human diseases such as diabetes and cancer, but Akt has proven to be a challenging target for drugging. Using iterative in situ click chemistry, we recently developed multiple protein-catalyzed capture (PCC) agents that allosterically modulate Akt enzymatic activity in a protein-based assay. Here, we utilize similar PCCs to exploit endogenous protein degradation pathways. We use the modularity of the anti-Akt PCCs to prepare proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules that are shown to promote the rapid degradation of Akt in live cancer cells...
April 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Momar Toure, Craig M Crews
The current inhibitor-based approach to therapeutics has inherent limitations owing to its occupancy-based model: 1) there is a need to maintain high systemic exposure to ensure sufficient in vivo inhibition, 2) high in vivo concentrations bring potential for off-target side effects, and 3) there is a need to bind to an active site, thus limiting the drug target space. As an alternative, induced protein degradation lacks these limitations. Based on an event-driven model, this approach offers a novel catalytic mechanism to irreversibly inhibit protein function by targeting protein destruction through recruitment to the cellular quality control machinery...
February 5, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Ashton C Lai, Momar Toure, Doris Hellerschmied, Jemilat Salami, Saul Jaime-Figueroa, Eunhwa Ko, John Hines, Craig M Crews
Proteolysis Targeting Chimera (PROTAC) technology is a rapidly emerging alternative therapeutic strategy with the potential to address many of the challenges currently faced in modern drug development programs. PROTAC technology employs small molecules that recruit target proteins for ubiquitination and removal by the proteasome. The synthesis of PROTAC compounds that mediate the degradation of c-ABL and BCR-ABL by recruiting either Cereblon or Von Hippel Lindau E3 ligases is reported. During the course of their development, we discovered that the capacity of a PROTAC to induce degradation involves more than just target binding: the identity of the inhibitor warhead and the recruited E3 ligase largely determine the degradation profiles of the compounds; thus, as a starting point for PROTAC development, both the target ligand and the recruited E3 ligase should be varied to rapidly generate a PROTAC with the desired degradation profile...
January 11, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Nobumichi Ohoka, Norihito Shibata, Takayuki Hattori, Mikihiko Naito
Selective degradation of pathogenic proteins by small molecules in cells is a novel approach for development of therapeutic agents against various diseases, including cancer. We and others have developed a protein knockdown technology with a series of hybrid small compounds, called SNIPERs (Specific and Nongenetic IAP-dependent Protein ERasers); and peptidic chimeric molecules, called PROTACs (proteolysis-targeting chimeric molecules), which induce selective degradation of target proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway...
2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Raymond J Deshaies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Nature Chemical Biology
Raymond J Deshaies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Nature Chemical Biology
Daniel P Bondeson, Alina Mares, Ian E D Smith, Eunhwa Ko, Sebastien Campos, Afjal H Miah, Katie E Mulholland, Natasha Routly, Dennis L Buckley, Jeffrey L Gustafson, Nico Zinn, Paola Grandi, Satoko Shimamura, Giovanna Bergamini, Maria Faelth-Savitski, Marcus Bantscheff, Carly Cox, Deborah A Gordon, Ryan R Willard, John J Flanagan, Linda N Casillas, Bartholomew J Votta, Willem den Besten, Kristoffer Famm, Laurens Kruidenier, Paul S Carter, John D Harling, Ian Churcher, Craig M Crews
The current predominant therapeutic paradigm is based on maximizing drug-receptor occupancy to achieve clinical benefit. This strategy, however, generally requires excessive drug concentrations to ensure sufficient occupancy, often leading to adverse side effects. Here, we describe major improvements to the proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) method, a chemical knockdown strategy in which a heterobifunctional molecule recruits a specific protein target to an E3 ubiquitin ligase, resulting in the target's ubiquitination and degradation...
August 2015: Nature Chemical Biology
Dennis L Buckley, Kanak Raina, Nicole Darricarrere, John Hines, Jeffrey L Gustafson, Ian E Smith, Afjal H Miah, John D Harling, Craig M Crews
Small molecule-induced protein degradation is an attractive strategy for the development of chemical probes. One method for inducing targeted protein degradation involves the use of PROTACs, heterobifunctional molecules that can recruit specific E3 ligases to a desired protein of interest. PROTACs have been successfully used to degrade numerous proteins in cells, but the peptidic E3 ligase ligands used in previous PROTACs have hindered their development into more mature chemical probes or therapeutics. We report the design of a novel class of PROTACs that incorporate small molecule VHL ligands to successfully degrade HaloTag7 fusion proteins...
August 21, 2015: ACS Chemical Biology
Jing Lu, Yimin Qian, Martha Altieri, Hanqing Dong, Jing Wang, Kanak Raina, John Hines, James D Winkler, Andrew P Crew, Kevin Coleman, Craig M Crews
BRD4, a bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family member, is an attractive target in multiple pathological settings, particularly cancer. While BRD4 inhibitors have shown some promise in MYC-driven malignancies such as Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), we show that BRD4 inhibitors lead to robust BRD4 protein accumulation, which may account for their limited suppression of MYC expression, modest antiproliferative activity, and lack of apoptotic induction. To address these limitations we designed ARV-825, a hetero-bifunctional PROTAC (Proteolysis Targeting Chimera) that recruits BRD4 to the E3 ubiquitin ligase cereblon, leading to fast, efficient, and prolonged degradation of BRD4 in all BL cell lines tested...
June 18, 2015: Chemistry & Biology
Michael Zengerle, Kwok-Ho Chan, Alessio Ciulli
The Bromo- and Extra-Terminal (BET) proteins BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4 play important roles in transcriptional regulation, epigenetics, and cancer and are the targets of pan-BET selective bromodomain inhibitor JQ1. However, the lack of intra-BET selectivity limits the scope of current inhibitors as probes for target validation and could lead to unwanted side effects or toxicity in a therapeutic setting. We designed Proteolysis Targeted Chimeras (PROTACs) that tether JQ1 to a ligand for the E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL, aimed at triggering the intracellular destruction of BET proteins...
August 21, 2015: ACS Chemical Biology
Wen Tang, Yu Wang, Xinyan Zhao, Xiaoming Wang, Tao Zhang, Xiaojuan Ou, Weiling Shou, Hong You, Jidong Jia
OBJECTIVES: Hypercoagulability, hemodynamic changes, and endothelial injury are the three major contributors to the development of thrombosis. However, the role of hypercoagulability in portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in liver cirrhosis is still controversial. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between procoagulant imbalance and PVT in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: This study included 151 patients with cirrhosis with (n=20) or without PVT (n=131)...
June 2015: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
P Cookson, A Lawrie, L Green, E Dent, S Proffitt, S Bashir, S Thomas, R Cardigan
BACKGROUND: We assessed the haemostatic capacity of thawed plasma produced after ambient storage of whole blood for 24 h (RTFP24), and the supernatant of buffy-coat derived platelet concentrates (PC). METHODS: Platelet concentrates (n = 20) were tested on days 1, 5 and 7 of storage at 22°C and RTFP24 (n = 10) immediately following thawing and after 4 and 6 days storage at 4°C. Coagulation factor activity, thrombin generation ± an activator of protein C (PROTAC) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) were assessed...
February 2015: Vox Sanguinis
Motoyasu Satou, Yoshihiro Nishi, Akira Hishinuma, Hiroshi Hosoda, Kenji Kangawa, Hiroyuki Sugimoto
Ghrelin is a natural GH secretagogue first identified in the stomach. The ghrelin peptide is 28 amino acids long with an octanoic acid attached to Ser(3) near the N-terminus. This lipid modification is essential for the interaction between ghrelin and the ghrelin-specific receptor GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR1a), whereas the five or more residues of the N-terminus seem to be sufficient to activate GHSR1a to the same level as those of full-length ghrelin. In this study, we found that ghrelin was converted into smaller fragments during incubation with animal plasma in vitro and in a mouse model...
January 2015: Journal of Endocrinology
Valerie M Wong, Dorothee Bienzle, M Anthony Hayes, Paul Taylor, R Darren Wood
BACKGROUND: In order to characterize the functional properties of canine protein C (CnPC), the zymogen needs to be purified from plasma. The goals of this study were (1) to purify protein C from fresh frozen canine plasma by barium chloride and ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal mouse antibody against human protein C (HPC4) and (2) to characterize this protein's structure. RESULTS: The purified protein contained three glycosylated forms of a heavy chain (~49 kDa) and a glycosylated light chain (~ 25 kDa)...
2014: BMC Veterinary Research
Kristopher Montrose, Geoffrey W Krissansen
The X-protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is essential for virus infection and contributes to the development of HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a disease which causes more than one million deaths each year. Here we describe the design of a novel PROTAC (proteolysis targeting chimeric molecule) capable of simultaneously inducing the degradation of the X-protein, and antagonizing its function. The PROTAC was constructed by fusing the N-terminal oligomerization and C-terminal instability domains of the X-protein to each other, and rendering them cell-permeable by the inclusion of a polyarginine cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)...
October 31, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mohamed A El Bokl, Amal Shawky, George S Riad, Hisham S Abdel Fattah, Hassan Shalaby, Ahmed Nady, Dina Khattab
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Liver cirrhosis leads to decreased production of clotting factors that are generally all produced in the liver except factor VIII and von Willebrand factor. However, cirrhotic patients are not protected from thrombosis. The present study aimed to assess the procoagulant and anticoagulant factors in cirrhotic patients with and without bleeding and/or thrombotic events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 102 adult subjects were enroled: 51 cirrhotic patients and 51 healthy controls...
September 2014: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
D R J Arachchillage, M Efthymiou, I J Mackie, A S Lawrie, S J Machin, H Cohen
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid antibodies may interfere with the anticoagulant activity of activated protein C (APC) to induce acquired APC resistance (APCr). AIMS: To investigate the frequency and characteristics of APCr by using recombinant human APC (rhAPC) and endogenous protein C activation in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: APCr was assessed in APS and non-APS venous thromboembolism (VTE) patients on warfarin and normal controls with rhAPC or Protac by thrombin generation...
November 2014: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
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