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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449057/the-streptomyces-master-regulator-bldd-binds-c-di-gmp-sequentially-to-create-a-functional-bldd2-c-di-gmp-4-complex
#1
Maria A Schumacher, Wenjie Zeng, Kim C Findlay, Mark J Buttner, Richard G Brennan, Natalia Tschowri
Streptomyces are ubiquitous soil bacteria that undergo a complex developmental transition coinciding with their production of antibiotics. This transition is controlled by binding of a novel tetrameric form of the second messenger, 3΄-5΄ cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) to the master repressor, BldD. In all domains of life, nucleotide-based second messengers allow a rapid integration of external and internal signals into regulatory pathways that control cellular responses to changing conditions. c-di-GMP can assume alternative oligomeric states to effect different functions, binding to effector proteins as monomers, intercalated dimers or, uniquely in the case of BldD, as a tetramer...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438927/the-role-of-psl-genes-in-antibiotic-tolerance-of-adherent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Keiji Murakami, Tsuneko Ono, Darija Viducic, Yoko Somiya, Reiko Kariyama, Kenji Hori, Takashi Amoh, Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromi Kumon, Matthew R Parsek, Yoichiro Miyake
Bacteria attached to a surface are generally more tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts, even without the formation of a biofilm. The mechanism of antibiotic tolerance in biofilm communities is multifactorial, and the genetic backgound underlying this antibiotic tolerance has not yet been fully elucidated. Using transposon mutagenesis, we isolated a mutant with reduced tolerance to biapenem (relative to the wild-type) from adherent cells. Sequencing analysis revealed a mutation in the pslL gene, which is a part of the polysaccharide biosynthesis operon...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419759/regulation-of-burkholderia%C3%A2-cenocepacia-biofilm-formation-by-rpon-and-the-c-di-gmp-effector-berb
#3
Mustafa Fazli, Morten Rybtke, Elisabeth Steiner, Elisabeth Weidel, Jens Berthelsen, Julie Groizeleau, Wu Bin, Boo Zhao Zhi, Zhang Yaming, Volkhard Kaever, Michael Givskov, Rolf W Hartmann, Leo Eberl, Tim Tolker-Nielsen
Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of biofilm formation is essential for the development of biofilm-control measures. It is well established that the nucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a positive regulator of biofilm formation in many bacteria, but more knowledge about c-di-GMP effectors is needed. We provide evidence that c-di-GMP, the alternative sigma factor RpoN (σ54), and the enhancer-binding protein BerB play a role in biofilm formation of Burkholderia cenocepacia by regulating the production of a biofilm-stabilizing exopolysaccharide...
April 16, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403796/riboswitches-as-potential-targets-for-the-development-of-anti-biofilm-drugs
#4
José A Reyes-Darias, Tino Krell
In nature, bacteria can exist as single motile cells or as sessile cellular community, known as microbial biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix that makes them more resistant to antibiotic treatment and responses of the host immune system. Microbial biofilms are very important in medicine since they are associated with several human diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, otitis media, infective endocarditis, infectious kidney stones, osteomyelitis or prostatitis...
April 7, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387974/the-streptomyces-o-b-one-connection-a-force-within-layered-repression-of-a-key-developmental-decision
#5
Klas Flärdh, Joseph R McCormick
The study of Streptomyces development has made significant advances in the past few years and ongoing work is poised to add even more. One key to advancing the field has been the application of genome-wide approaches using S. venezuelae, which is capable of fairly synchronous sporulation in submerged growth conditions. WhiA and WhiB are well-known transcriptional regulators governing the pathway for spore formation in aerial hyphae. Recent ChIP-seq and RNA expression analyses indicated that WhiA and WhiB regulate the same set of genes, each being dependent on the presence of the other to exert control...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347177/new-mechanistic-insights-into-the-motile-to-sessile-switch-in-various-bacteria-with-particular-emphasis-on-bacillus-subtilis-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-review
#6
Faizan A Sadiq, Steve Flint, Yun Li, TongJie Liu, Yuan Lei, Hafiz Arbab Sakandar, GuoQing He
A biofilm is a complex assemblage of microbial communities adhered to a biotic or an abiotic surface which is embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Many transcriptional regulators play a role in triggering a motile-sessile switch and in consequently producing the biofilm matrix. This review is aimed at highlighting the role of two nucleotide signaling molecules (c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP), toxin antitoxin modules and a novel transcriptional regulator BolA in biofilm formation in various bacteria...
April 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328921/versatile-modes-of-cellular-regulation-via-cyclic-dinucleotides
#7
REVIEW
Petya Violinova Krasteva, Holger Sondermann
Since the discovery of c-di-GMP almost three decades ago, cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) have emerged as widely used signaling molecules in most kingdoms of life. The family of second messengers now includes c-di-AMP and distinct versions of mixed cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) compounds. In addition to these nucleotides, a vast number of proteins for the production and turnover of these molecules have been described, as well as effectors that translate the signals into physiological responses. The latter include, but are not limited to, mechanisms for adaptation and survival in prokaryotes, persistence and virulence of bacterial pathogens, and immune responses to viral and bacterial invasion in eukaryotes...
March 22, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325767/cohesive-properties-of-the-caulobacter-crescentus-holdfast-adhesin-are-regulated-by-a-novel-c-di-gmp-effector-protein
#8
Kathrin S Sprecher, Isabelle Hug, Jutta Nesper, Eva Potthoff, Mohamed-Ali Mahi, Matteo Sangermani, Volkhard Kaever, Torsten Schwede, Julia Vorholt, Urs Jenal
When encountering surfaces, many bacteria produce adhesins to facilitate their initial attachment and to irreversibly glue themselves to the solid substrate. A central molecule regulating the processes of this motile-sessile transition is the second messenger c-di-GMP, which stimulates the production of a variety of exopolysaccharide adhesins in different bacterial model organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320886/optogenetic-module-for-dichromatic-control-of-c-di-gmp-signaling
#9
Min-Hyung Ryu, Anastasia Fomicheva, Oleg V Moskvin, Mark Gomelsky
Many aspects of bacterial physiology and behavior including motility, surface attachment, and cell cycle, are controlled by the c-di-GMP-dependent signaling pathways on the scale of seconds-to-minutes. Interrogation of such processes in real time requires tools for introducing rapid and reversible changes in intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Inducing expression of genes encoding c-di-GMP synthetic (diguanylate cyclases) and degrading (c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase) enzymes by chemicals may not provide adequate temporal control...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296273/cyclic-di-gmp-signalling-meets-extracellular-polysaccharide-synthesis-in-bacillus-subtilis
#10
Jan Kampf, Jörg Stülke
In order to resist harmful environmental conditions, many bacteria form multicellular aggregates called biofilms. In these biofilms, they protect themselves in a self-produced matrix consisting of extracellular polysaccharides, proteins and DNA. In many bacteria, biofilm formation is stimulated in the presence of the second messenger cyclic di-GMP. In this issue of Environmental Microbiology Reports, Bedrunka and Graumann have studied matrix production by the proteins encoded in the Bacillus subtilis ydaJKLMN operon...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271577/multi-layered-inhibition-of-streptomyces-development-bldo-is-a-dedicated-repressor-of-whib
#11
Matthew J Bush, Govind Chandra, Kim C Findlay, Mark J Buttner
BldD-(c-di-GMP) sits on top of the regulatory network that controls differentiation in Streptomyces, repressing a large regulon of developmental genes when the bacteria are growing vegetatively. In this way, BldD functions as an inhibitor that blocks the initiation of sporulation. Here we report the identification and characterization of BldO, an additional developmental repressor that acts to sustain vegetative growth and prevent entry into sporulation. However, unlike the pleiotropic regulator BldD, we show that BldO functions as the dedicated repressor of a single key target gene, whiB, and that deletion of bldO or constitutive expression of whiB is sufficient to induce precocious hypersporulation...
March 8, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265071/bioinformatic-analysis-of-riboswitch-structures-uncovers-variant-classes-with-altered-ligand-specificity
#12
Zasha Weinberg, James W Nelson, Christina E Lünse, Madeline E Sherlock, Ronald R Breaker
Riboswitches are RNAs that form complex, folded structures that selectively bind small molecules or ions. As with certain groups of protein enzymes and receptors, some riboswitch classes have evolved to change their ligand specificity. We developed a procedure to systematically analyze known riboswitch classes to find additional variants that have altered their ligand specificity. This approach uses multiple-sequence alignments, atomic-resolution structural information, and riboswitch gene associations. Among the discoveries are unique variants of the guanine riboswitch class that most tightly bind the nucleoside 2'-deoxyguanosine...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264994/optogenetic-manipulation-of-c-di-gmp-levels-reveals-the-role-of-c-di-gmp-in-regulating-aerotaxis-receptor-activity-in-azospirillum-brasilense
#13
Lindsey O'Neal, Min-Hyung Ryu, Mark Gomelsky, Gladys Alexandre
Bacterial chemotaxis receptors provide the sensory inputs that inform the direction of navigation in changing environments. Recently, we described the bacterial second messenger, c-di-GMP, as a novel regulator of a subclass of chemotaxis receptors. In Azospirillum brasilense, c-di-GMP binds to a chemotaxis receptor, Tlp1, and modulates its signaling function during aerotaxis. Here, we further characterize the role of c-di-GMP in aerotaxis using a novel dichromatic optogenetic system engineered for manipulating intracellular c-di-GMP levels in real time...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263038/divide-and-conquer-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-two-component-hybrid-sags-enables-biofilm-formation-and-recalcitrance-of-biofilm-cells-to-antimicrobial-agents-via-distinct-regulatory-circuits
#14
Olga E Petrova, Kajal Gupta, Julie Liao, James S Goodwine, Karin Sauer
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms antimicrobial resistant biofilms through sequential steps requiring several two-component regulatory systems. The sensor-regulator hybrid SagS plays a central role in biofilm development by enabling the switch from the planktonic to the biofilm mode of growth, and by facilitating the transition of biofilm cells to a highly tolerant state. However, the mechanism by which SagS accomplishes both functions is unknown. SagS harbours a periplasmic sensory HmsP, and phosphorelay HisKA and Rec domains...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259672/the-staphylococcus-epidermidis-gdps-regulates-biofilm-formation-independently-of-its-protein-coding-function
#15
Tao Zhu, Yanfeng Zhao, Yang Wu, Di Qu
The second messenger cyclic di-guanylate (c-di-GMP) plays an important role in controlling the switch between planktonic and biofilm lifestyles. The synthesis of c-di-GMP is catalyzed by di-guanylate cyclases (DGCs) and the enzymes are characterized by the presence of a conserved GGDEF domain. In the sequenced staphylococcal genomes, gdpS is the only gene encoding a GGDEF domain-containing protein. Previous studies have shown that gdpS contributes to staphylococcal biofilm formation, but its effect remains under debate...
March 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258142/activation-mechanism-and-cellular-localization-of-membrane-anchored-alginate-polymerase-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
M Fata Moradali, Shirin Ghods, Bernd H A Rehm
The exopolysaccharide alginate, produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, confers a survival advantage to the bacterium by contributing to the formation of characteristic biofilms during infection. Membrane-anchored proteins Alg8 (catalytic subunit) and Alg44 (copolymerase) constitute the alginate polymerase that is being activated by the second messenger molecule bis-(3', 5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), but the mechanism of activation remains elusive. To shed light on the c-di-GMP-mediated activation of alginate polymerization in vivo, an in silico structural model of Alg8 fused to the c-di-GMP binding PilZ domain informed by the structure of cellulose synthase, BcsA, was developed...
May 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243692/intratumoral-administration-of-cgamp-transiently-accumulates-potent-macrophages-for-anti-tumor-immunity-at-a-mouse-tumor-site
#17
Takayuki Ohkuri, Akemi Kosaka, Kei Ishibashi, Takumi Kumai, Yui Hirata, Kenzo Ohara, Toshihiro Nagato, Kensuke Oikawa, Naoko Aoki, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Esteban Celis, Hiroya Kobayashi
Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) spontaneously contributes to anti-tumor immunity by inducing type I interferons (IFNs) following sensing of tumor-derived genomic DNAs in the tumor-bearing host. Although direct injection of STING ligands such as cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and cyclic [G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] (cGAMP) into the tumor microenvironment exerts anti-tumor effects through strong induction of type I IFNs and activation of innate and adaptive immunity, the precise events caused by STING in the tumor microenvironment remain to be elucidated...
February 27, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242722/cyclic-di-gmp-binding-by-an-assembly-atpase-pilb2-and-control-of-type-iv-pilin-polymerization-in-the-gram-positive-pathogen-clostridium-perfringens
#18
William A Hendrick, Mona W Orr, Samantha R Murray, Vincent T Lee, Stephen B Melville
The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses Type IV pili (TFP), which are extracellular fibers that are polymerized from a pool of pilin monomers in the cytoplasmic membrane. Two proteins that are essential for pilus functions are an assembly ATPase (PilB) and an inner membrane core protein (PilC). Two homologues each of PilB and PilC are present in C. perfringens, called PilB1/PilB2 and PilC1/PilC2, respectively, along with four pilin proteins, PilA1-PilA4. The gene encoding PilA2, which is considered the major pilin based on previous studies, is immediately downstream of the pilB2 and pilC2 genes...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214775/role-of-c-di-gmp-in-anammox-aggregation-and-systematic-analysis-of-its-turnover-protein-in-candidatus-jettenia-caeni
#19
Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu, Xi Tang, Fenglin Yang
The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process has been recognized as a promising sewage treatment approach. Considering the susceptibility, it is meaningful to study the behaviors of anammox bacteria under the unfavorable conditions. Here, we found that anammox bacteria more probably tended to aggregation by the regulation of c-di-GMP against the unfavorable environmental stresses (low temperature, aerobic condition and low pH). Further using multiple protein sequence alignment, we systematically examined the functionality of thirteen genes encoding putative c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes in anammox organism Candidatus Jettenia caeni, revealing most of the predicted enzymes were predicted to be active...
April 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214735/rna-based-control-mechanisms-of-clostridium-difficile
#20
REVIEW
Olga Soutourina
Clostridium difficile (CD)-associated diarrhoea is currently the most prevalent nosocomial diarrhoea worldwide. Many characteristics of CD pathogenicity remain poorly understood. Recent data strongly indicate the importance of an RNA network for the control of gene expression in CD. More than 200 regulatory RNAs have been identified by deep sequencing and targeted approaches, including Hfq-dependent trans riboregulators, cis-antisense RNAs, CRISPR RNAs, and c-di-GMP-responsive riboswitches. These regulatory RNAs are involved in the control of major processes in the CD infection cycle, for example motility, biofilm formation, adhesion, sporulation, stress response, and defence against bacteriophages...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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