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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911438/evolutionary-convergence-in-experimental-pseudomonas-populations
#1
Peter A Lind, Andrew D Farr, Paul B Rainey
Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899451/real-time-spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-the-distribution-of-c-di-gmp-during-biofilm-development
#2
Harikrishnan A S Nair, Saravanan Periasamy, Yang Liang, Staffan Kjelleberg, Scott A Rice
Bis-(3 ́-5 ́)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a dynamic intracellular signaling molecule that plays a central role in the biofilm life cycle. Current methodologies for the quantification of c-di-GMP are typically based on chemical extraction, representing end-point measurements. Chemical methodologies also fail to take into consideration the physiological heterogeneity of the biofilm and thus represents an average c-di-GMP concentration across the entire biofilm. To address these problems, a ratiometric, image-based quantification method has been developed based on expression of the green fluorescence protein (GFP) under the control of the c-di-GMP responsive cdrA promoter (1)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897378/subcellular-clustering-of-a-putative-c-di-gmp-dependent-exopolysaccharide-machinery-affecting-macro-colony-architecture-in-bacillus-subtilis
#3
Patricia Bedrunka, Peter L Graumann
The structure of bacterial biofilms is predominantly established through the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). We show that Bacillus subtilis contains an operon (ydaJ-N) whose induction leads to increased Congo Red staining of biofilms and strongly altered biofilm architecture, suggesting that it mediates the production of an unknown exopolysaccharide. Supporting this idea, overproduction of YdaJKLMN leads to cell clumping during exponential growth in liquid culture, and also causes colony morphology alterations in wild type cells, as well as in a mutant background lacking the major exopolysaccharide of B...
November 29, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893989/drug-discovery-targeting-heme-based-sensors-and-their-coupled-activities
#4
Eduardo Henrique Silva Sousa, Luiz Gonzaga de França Lopes, Gonzalo Gonzalez, Marie-Alda Gilles-Gonzalez
Heme-based sensors have emerged during the last 20years as being a large family of proteins that occur in all kingdoms of life. A myriad of biological adaptations are associated with these sensors, which include vasodilation, bacterial virulence, dormancy, chemotaxis, biofilm formation, among others. Due to the key activities regulated by these proteins along with many other systems that use similar output domains, there is a growing interest in developing small molecules as their regulators. Here, we review the development of potential activators and inhibitors for many of these systems, including human soluble guanylate cyclase, c-di-GMP-related enzymes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DevS/DosT (differentially expressed in virulent strain response regulator/sensor/dormancysurvival sensorT), the Rev-erb-α and β nuclear receptor, among others...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855163/genetic-modulation-of-c-di-gmp-turnover-affects-multiple-virulence-traits-and-bacterial-virulence-in-rice-pathogen-dickeya-zeae
#5
Yufan Chen, Mingfa Lv, Lisheng Liao, Yanfang Gu, Zhibin Liang, Zurong Shi, Shiyin Liu, Jianuan Zhou, Lianhui Zhang
The frequent outbreaks of rice foot rot disease caused by Dickeya zeae have become a significant concern in rice planting regions and countries, but the regulatory mechanisms that govern the virulence of this important pathogen remain vague. Given that the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is associated with modulation of various virulence-related traits in various microorganisms, here we set to investigate the role of the genes encoding c-di-GMP metabolism in the regulation of the bacterial physiology and virulence by construction all in-frame deletion mutants targeting the annotated c-di-GMP turnover genes in D...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852620/cyclic-di-gmp-binding-induces-structural-rearrangements-in-the-plza-and-plzc-proteins-of-the-lyme-disease-and-relapsing-fever-spirochetes-a-possible-switch-mechanism-for-c-di-gmp-mediated-effector-functions
#6
Katherine L Mallory, Daniel P Miller, Lee D Oliver, John C Freedman, Jessica L Kostick-Dunn, Jason A Carlyon, James D Marion, Jessica K Bell, Richard T Marconi
The c-di-GMP network of Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme disease, consists of Rrp1, a diguanylate cyclase/response regulator; Hpk1, a histidine kinase; PdeA and PdeB, c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases; and PlzA, a PilZ domain c-di-GMP receptor. Borrelia hermsii, a causative agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, possesses a putative c-di-GMP regulatory network that is uncharacterized. While B. burgdorferi requires c-di-GMP to survive within ticks, the associated effector mechanisms are poorly defined...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842489/a-novel-phase-variant-of-the-cholera-pathogen-shows-stress-adaptive-cryptic-transcriptomic-signatures
#7
Bliss Lambert, Maheshi Dassanayake, Dong-Ha Oh, Shana B Garrett, Sang-Yeol Lee, Gregg S Pettis
BACKGROUND: In a process known as phase variation, the marine bacterium and cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae alternately expresses smooth or rugose colonial phenotypes, the latter being associated with advanced biofilm architecture and greater resistance to ecological stress. To define phase variation at the transcriptomic level in pandemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain N16961, we compared the RNA-seq-derived transcriptomes among the smooth parent N16961, its rugose derivative (N16961R) and a smooth form obtained directly from the rugose at high frequencies consistent with phase variation (N16961SD)...
November 14, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822534/long-term-evolution-of-burkholderia-multivorans-during-a-chronic-cystic-fibrosis-infection-reveals-shifting-forces-of-selection
#8
Inês N Silva, Pedro M Santos, Mário R Santos, James E A Zlosnik, David P Speert, Sean W Buskirk, Eric L Bruger, Christopher M Waters, Vaughn S Cooper, Leonilde M Moreira
Burkholderia multivorans is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients may be chronically infected for years, during which the bacterial population evolves in response to unknown forces. Here we analyze the genomic and functional evolution of a B. multivorans infection that was sequentially sampled from a CF patient over 20 years. The population diversified into at least four primary, coexisting clades with distinct evolutionary dynamics. The average substitution rate was only 2...
May 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821498/established-t-cell-inflamed-tumors-rejected-after-adaptive-resistance-was-reversed-by-combination-sting-activation-and-pd-1-pathway-blockade
#9
Ellen Moore, Paul E Clavijo, Ruth Davis, Harrison Cash, Carter Van Waes, Young Kim, Clint Allen
Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma harbor T cell-inflamed and non-T cell-inflamed tumors. Despite this, only 20% of patients respond to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy. Lack of induction of innate immunity through pattern-recognition receptors, such as the stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) receptor, may represent a significant barrier to the development of effective antitumor immunity. Here, we demonstrate robust control of a T cell-inflamed (MOC1), but not non-T cell-inflamed (MOC2), model of head and neck cancer by activation of the STING pathway with the synthetic cyclic dinucleotide RP,RP dithio-c-di-GMP...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811183/a-cyclic-di-gmp-binding-adaptor-protein-interacts-with-a-chemotaxis-methyltransferase-to-control-flagellar-motor-switching
#10
Linghui Xu, Lingyi Xin, Yukai Zeng, Joey Kuok Hoong Yam, Yichen Ding, Prabhadevi Venkataramani, Qing Wei Cheang, Xiaobei Yang, Xuhua Tang, Lian-Hui Zhang, Keng-Hwee Chiam, Liang Yang, Zhao-Xun Liang
The bacterial messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binds to various effectors, the most common of which are single-domain PilZ proteins. These c-di-GMP effectors control various cellular functions and multicellular behaviors at the transcriptional or posttranslational level. We found that MapZ (methyltransferase-associated PilZ; formerly known as PA4608), a single-domain PilZ protein from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, directly interacted with the methyltransferase CheR1 and that this interaction was enhanced by c-di-GMP...
October 18, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811181/a-pilz-domain-protein-for-chemotaxis-adds-another-layer-to-c-di-gmp-mediated-regulation-of-flagellar-motility
#11
REVIEW
Mona W Orr, Vincent T Lee
Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger in bacteria. In this issue of Science Signaling, Xu et al show that c-di-GMP regulates chemotaxis by binding to the PilZ domain protein MapZ to alter the methyltransferase activity of its protein partner CheR, fleshing out the c-di-GMP signaling network of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
October 18, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803478/development-of-a-drug-delivery-system-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#12
Takashi Nakamura
 Delivery systems are a powerful technology for enhancing the effect of cancer immunotherapy. We have been in the process of developing lipid-based delivery systems for controlling the physical properties and dynamics of immunofunctional molecules such as antigens and adjuvants. The lipid nanoparticulation of these molecules improves their physical properties, resulting in a good water dispensability, greater stability, and small size. The cell wall skeleton of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG-CWS) could be used to replace live BCG as a drug for treating bladder cancer, but problems associated with the physical properties of BCG-CWS have prevented its use...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799551/degradation-of-cyclic-diguanosine-monophosphate-by-a-hybrid-two-component-protein-protects-azoarcus-sp-strain-cib-from-toluene-toxicity
#13
Zaira Martín-Moldes, Blas Blázquez, Claudine Baraquet, Caroline S Harwood, María T Zamarro, Eduardo Díaz
Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that controls diverse functions in bacteria, including transitions from planktonic to biofilm lifestyles, virulence, motility, and cell cycle. Here we describe TolR, a hybrid two-component system (HTCS), from the β-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp. strain CIB that degrades c-di-GMP in response to aromatic hydrocarbons, including toluene. This response protects cells from toluene toxicity during anaerobic growth. Whereas wild-type cells tolerated a sudden exposure to a toxic concentration of toluene, a tolR mutant strain or a strain overexpressing a diguanylate cyclase gene lost viability upon toluene shock...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796435/the-signaling-protein-mucg-negatively-affects-the-production-and-the-molecular-mass-of-alginate-in-azotobacter-vinelandii
#14
Carlos Leonel Ahumada-Manuel, Josefina Guzmán, Carlos Peña, Elva Quiroz-Rocha, Guadalupe Espín, Cinthia Núñez
Azotobacter vinelandii is a soil bacterium that produces the polysaccharide alginate. In this work, we identified a miniTn5 mutant, named GG9, which showed increased alginate production of higher molecular mass, and increased expression of the alginate biosynthetic genes algD and alg8 when compared to its parental strain. The miniTn5 was inserted within ORF Avin07920 encoding a hypothetical protein. Avin07910, located immediately downstream and predicted to form an operon with Avin07920, encodes an inner membrane multi-domain signaling protein here named mucG...
October 28, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792789/the-diguanylate-cyclase-hsbd-intersects-with-the-hptb-regulatory-cascade-to-control-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-and-motility
#15
Martina Valentini, Benoît-Joseph Laventie, Joana Moscoso, Urs Jenal, Alain Filloux
The molecular basis of second messenger signaling relies on an array of proteins that synthesize, degrade or bind the molecule to produce coherent functional outputs. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has emerged as a eubacterial nucleotide second messenger regulating a plethora of key behaviors, like the transition from planktonic cells to biofilm communities. The striking multiplicity of c-di-GMP control modules and regulated cellular functions raised the question of signaling specificity. Are c-di-GMP signaling routes exclusively dependent on a central hub or can they be locally administrated? In this study, we show an example of how c-di-GMP signaling gains output specificity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757101/genes-required-for-the-anti-fungal-activity-of-a-bacterial-endophyte-isolated-from-a-corn-landrace-grown-continuously-by-subsistence-farmers-since-1000-bc
#16
Hanan R Shehata, Cassandra L Ettinger, Jonathan A Eisen, Manish N Raizada
Endophytes are microbes that inhabit internal plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes are known to combat pathogens. The corn (maize) landrace Chapalote has been grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, without the use of fungicides, and the crop remains highly valued by farmers, in part for its natural tolerance to pests. We hypothesized that the pathogen tolerance of Chapalote may, in part, be due to assistance from its endophytes. We previously identified a bacterial endophyte from Chapalote seeds, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, for its ability to combat a diversity of crop pathogens, including Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the most important fungal disease of creeping bentgrass, a relative of maize used here as a model system...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753193/cellulose-production-activated-by-cyclic-di-gmp-through-bcsa-and-bcsz-is-a-virulence-factor-and-an-essential-determinant-of-the-three-dimensional-architecture-of-biofilms-formed-by-erwinia-amylovora-ea1189
#17
Luisa F Castiblanco, George W Sundin
Bacterial biofilms are multicellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix mainly composed of exopolysaccharides (EPSs), protein, and nucleic acids, which determines the architecture of the biofilm. Erwinia amylovora Ea1189 forms a biofilm inside the xylem of its host, that results in vessel plugging and water transport impairment. Production of the EPSs amylovoran and levan are critical for the formation of a mature biofilm. Additionally, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) was reported to positively regulate amylovoran biosynthesis and biofilm formation in E...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701843/expression-of-the-diguanylate-cyclase-gcba-is-regulated-by-fleq-in-response-to-cyclic-di-gmp-in-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440
#18
Yujie Xiao, Hailing Nie, Huizhong Liu, Wenli Chen, Qiaoyun Huang
Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger that regulates diverse cellular processes, is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) and degraded by phosphodiesterase (PDE). GcbA is a well conserved DGC among Pseudomonas species, and has been reported to influence biofilm formation and flagellar motility in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we confirm the function of GcbA in Pseudomonas putida and reveal that expression of GcbA is regulated by FleQ in response to c-di-GMP...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700990/sustained-sensing-as-an-emerging-principle-in-second-messenger-signaling-systems
#19
Mona W Orr, Michael Y Galperin, Vincent T Lee
Bacteria utilize a diverse set of nucleotide second messengers to regulate cellular responses by binding macromolecular receptors (RNAs and proteins). Recent studies on cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) have shown that this signaling molecule binds multiple receptors to regulate different steps in the same biological process. We propose this property of the same molecule regulating multiple steps in the same process is biologically meaningful and have termed this phenomenon 'sustained sensing'. Here, we discuss the recent findings that support the concept of sustained sensing of c-di-GMP levels and provide additional examples that support the utilization of sustained sensing by other second messengers...
October 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672149/trigger-phosphodiesterases-as-a-novel-class-of-c-di-gmp-effector-proteins
#20
REVIEW
Regine Hengge
The bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP controls bacterial biofilm formation, motility, cell cycle progression, development and virulence. It is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (with GGDEF domains), degraded by specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs, with EAL of HD-GYP domains) and sensed by a wide variety of c-di-GMP-binding effectors that control diverse targets. c-di-GMP-binding effectors can be riboswitches as well as proteins with highly diverse structures and functions. The latter include 'degenerate' GGDEF/EAL domain proteins that are enzymatically inactive but still able to bind c-di-GMP...
November 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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