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Nicolas L Fernandez, Disha Srivastava, Amanda L Ngouajio, Christopher M Waters
In Vibrio cholerae , high intracellular cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is associated with a biofilm lifestyle while low intracellular c-di-GMP is associated with a motile lifestyle. C-di-GMP also regulates other behaviors such as acetoin production and type II secretion; however, the extent of phenotypes regulated by c-di-GMP is not fully understood. We recently determined that the sequence upstream of the DNA repair gene three methyladenine glycosylase ( tag ) was positively induced by c-di-GMP, suggesting this signaling system might impact DNA repair pathways...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Gen Enomoto, Yukiko Okuda, Masahiko Ikeuchi
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger involved in sessile/motile lifestyle transitions. We previously reported that c-di-GMP is a crucial inducer of cell aggregation of the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. The three cooperating cyanobacteriochrome photoreceptors (SesA/B/C) regulate cell aggregation in a light color-dependent manner by synthesizing/degrading c-di-GMP. Although a variety of c-di-GMP signaling proteins are encoded in cyanobacterial genomes, how c-di-GMP signaling networks are organized remains elusive...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hui-Jie Chen, Na Li, Ye Luo, Yong-Liang Jiang, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Yuxing Chen, Qiong Li
The second messenger c-di-GMP plays a key role in bacterial growth, survival and pathogenesis, thus its intracellular homeostasis should be finely maintained. Mycobacterium smegmatis encodes a GAF domain containing bifunctional enzyme DcpA that catalyzes the synthesis and hydrolysis of c-di-GMP . Here we found that M. smegmatis DcpA catalyzes the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP at a higher velocity, compared to the synthetic activity, resulting in a sum reaction from the ultimate substrate GTP to the final product pGpG...
March 19, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Cristian Alfredo Segura-Cerda, Michel de Jesús Aceves-Sánchez, Brenda Marquina-Castillo, Dulce Mata-Espinoza, Jorge Barrios-Payán, Perla Jazmín Vega-Domínguez, César Pedroza-Roldán, Jorge Bravo-Madrigal, Alba Adriana Vallejo-Cardona, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez
Pellicles, a type of biofilm, have gathered a renewed interest in the field of tuberculosis as a structure that mimics some characteristics occurring during M. tuberculosis infection, such as antibiotic recalcitrance and chronicity of infection, and as a source of antigens for humoral response in infected guinea pigs. In other bacteria, it has been well documented that the second messenger c-di-GMP modulates the transition from planktonic cells to biofilm formation. In this work, we used the live vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG to determine whether deletion of genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism would affect interaction with macrophages, capacity to induce immune response in a murine cell line and mice, and how the protein profile was modified when grown as surface pellicles...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Brijesh Kumar, John L Sorensen, Silvia T Cardona
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic bacterium that can thrive in different environments, including the amino acid-rich mucus of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. B. cenocepacia responds to the nutritional conditions that mimic the CF sputum by increasing flagellin expression and swimming motility. Individual amino acids also induce swimming but not flagellin expression. Here, we show that modulation of the second messenger cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) levels by the PAS-containing c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, BCAL1069 (CdpA), regulates the swimming motility of B...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alberto Ramírez Mata, César Millán Pacheco, José F Cruz Pérez, Martha Minjárez Sáenz, Beatriz E Baca
BACKGROUND: The cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) second messenger exemplifies a signaling system that regulates many bacterial behaviors of key importance; among them, c-di-GMP controls the transition between motile and sessile life-styles in bacteria. Cellular c-di-GMP levels in bacteria are regulated by the opposite enzymatic activities of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which are proteins that have GGDEF and EAL domains, respectively. Azospirillum is a genus of plant-growth-promoting bacteria, and members of this genus have beneficial effects in many agronomically and ecologically essential plants...
March 9, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Helma Wennemers, Carlotta Foletti, Rolf Kramer, Harald Mauser, Urs Jenal, Konrad Bleicher
c di GMP is an attractive target in the fight against bacterial infections as it is a near ubiquitous second messenger that regulates important cellular processes, including biofilm formation and virulence of pathogens. The screening of a combinatorial peptide library enabled the identification of the proline-rich tetrapeptide Gup-Gup-Nap-Arg that binds c di GMP in water with selectivity over other nucleotides. Computational and CD spectroscopic studies provided a binding mode of the complex and enabled the design of a pentapeptide with even higher binding strength towards c di GMP...
March 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jinhong Kan, Lin An, Yao Wu, Jia Long, Liyang Song, Rongxiang Fang, Yantao Jia
During plant-pathogen interactions, pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to cope with the sophisticated defense systems of host plants. Proline iminopeptidase (PIP) is essential to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) virulence, and conserved in many plant-associated bacteria, but its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that disrupting pip in Xcc enhanced its flagella-mediated bacterial motility by decreasing intracellular c-di-GMP levels, and overexpression of pip restricted bacterial motility by elevating c-di-GMP levels...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Susanne Herbst, Martin Lorkowski, Olga Sarenko, Thi Kim Loan Nguyen, Tina Jaenicke, Regine Hengge
The nucleotide second messenger c-di-GMP nearly ubiquitously promotes bacterial biofilm formation, with enzymes that synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP being controlled by diverse N-terminal sensor domains. Here, we describe a novel class of widely occurring c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) that feature a periplasmic "CSS domain" with two highly conserved cysteines that is flanked by two transmembrane regions (TM1 and TM2) and followed by a cytoplasmic EAL domain with PDE activity. Using PdeC, one of the five CSS domain PDEs of Escherichia coli K-12 , we show that DsbA/DsbB-promoted disulfide bond formation in the CSS domain reduces PDE activity...
March 7, 2018: EMBO Journal
Katherine D Launer-Felty, Scott A Strobel
Cyclic dinucleotides are second messenger molecules produced by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes in response to external stimuli. In bacteria, these molecules bind to RNA riboswitches and several protein receptors ultimately leading to phenotypic changes such as biofilm formation, ion transport and secretion of virulence factors. Some cyclic dinucleotide analogs bind differentially to biological receptors and can therefore be used to better understand cyclic dinucleotide mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. However, production of some of these analogs involves lengthy, multistep syntheses...
March 5, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Weihui Li, Meng Li, Lihua Hu, Jingpeng Zhu, Zhiwei Xie, Jiarui Chen, Zheng-Guo He
Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a global signaling molecule that widely modulates diverse cellular processes. However, whether or not the c-di-GMP signal participates in regulation of bacterial antioxidant defense is unclear, and the involved regulators remain to be explored. In this study, we characterized HpoR as a novel c-di-GMP effective transcription factor and found a link between the c-di-GMP signal and the antioxidant regulation in Mycobacterium smegmatis. H2O2 stress induces c-di-GMP accumulation in M...
February 27, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yang Fu, Zhaoqing Yu, Shu Liu, Bo Chen, Li Zhu, Zhou Li, Shan-Ho Chou, Jin He
C-di-GMP has been well investigated to play significant roles in the physiology of many Gram-negative bacteria. However, its effect on Gram-positive bacteria is less known. In order to more understand the c-di-GMP functions in Gram-positive bacteria, we have carried out a detailed study on the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes and their physiological functions in Bacillus thuringiensis , a Gram-positive entomopathogenic bacterium that has been applied as an insecticide successfully. We performed a systematic study on the ten putative c-di-GMP-synthesizing enzyme diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and c-di-GMP-degrading enzyme phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in B...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Robert W McKee, Naira Aleksanyan, Elizabeth M Garrett, Rita Tamayo
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that regulates the transition from motile to sessile lifestyles in numerous bacteria and controls virulence factor production in a variety of pathogens. In Clostridium difficile , c-di-GMP negatively regulates flagellum biosynthesis and swimming motility, and promotes the production of type IV pili (TFP), biofilm formation, and surface motility in vitro Flagella have been identified as colonization factors in C. difficile , but the role of TFP in adherence to host cells and in colonization of the mammalian gut is unknown...
February 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Mauricio Díaz, Matias Castro, Sylvia Copaja, Nicolas Guiliani
Acidophile bacteria belonging to the Acidithiobacillus genus are pivotal players for the bioleaching of metallic values such as copper. Cell adherence to ores and biofilm formation, mediated by the production of extracellular polymeric substances, strongly favors bioleaching activity. In recent years, the second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) has emerged as a central regulator for biofilm formation in bacteria. C-di-GMP pathways have been reported in different Acidithiobacillus species; however, c-di-GMP effectors and signal transduction networks are still largely uncharacterized in these extremophile species...
February 21, 2018: Genes
Fangchao Song, Hao Wang, Karin Sauer, Dacheng Ren
Recently, we reported that the stiffness of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) affects the attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and the morphology and antibiotic susceptibility of attached cells. To further understand how P. aeruginosa responses to material stiffness during attachment, the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 and several isogenic mutants were characterized for their attachment on soft and stiff PDMS. Compared to the wild-type strain, mutation of the oprF gene abolished the differences in attachment, growth, and size of attached cells between soft and stiff PDMS surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anne E Mattingly, Nachiket Kamatkar, Bradley R Borlee, Joshua D Shrout
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits flagellar-mediated swimming in liquid and swarming on hydrated surfaces under diverse nutrient conditions. Prior studies have implicated a phosphodiesterase, DipA, in regulating these flagella-mediated motilities, but collectively, the necessity for DipA was unclear. In this study, we find that the media composition conditionally constrains the influence of DipA on flagellar motility. We show that DipA exhibits more influence on minimal media supplemented with glutamate or glucose where flagellar motility was negated for the dipA mutant...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Serena Rinaldo, Giorgio Giardina, Federico Mantoni, Alessio Paone, Francesca Cutruzzolà
The nitrogen cycle pathways are responsible for the circulation of inorganic and organic N-containing molecules in nature. Among these pathways, those involving amino acids, N-oxides and in particular nitric oxide (NO) play strategic roles in the metabolism of microorganisms in natural environments and in host-pathogen interactions. Beyond their role in the N-cycle, amino acids and NO are also signalling molecules able to influence group behaviour in microorganisms and cell-cell communication in multicellular organisms, including humans...
February 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Xiaochen Yuan, Fang Tian, Chenyang He, Geoffrey B Severin, Christopher M Waters, Quan Zeng, Fengquan Liu, Ching-Hong Yang
Dickeya dadantii 3937 secretes pectate lyases (Pels) to degrade the plant cell wall. Previously, we have demonstrated that EGcpB and EcpC function as cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs) to positively regulate Pel production. However, the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) responsible for the synthesis of c-di-GMP and dichotomously regulation of Pel has remained a mystery. Here, we identified GcpA is the dominant DGC to negatively regulate Pel production by specifically repressing pelD gene expression...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Candela Muriel, Eva Arrebola, Miguel Redondo-Nieto, Francisco Martínez-Granero, Blanca Jalvo, Sebastian Pfeilmeier, Esther Blanco-Romero, Irene Baena, Jacob G Malone, Rafael Rivilla, Marta Martín
The transcriptional regulator AmrZ is a global regulatory protein conserved within the pseudomonads. AmrZ can act both as a positive and a negative regulator of gene expression, controlling many genes implicated in environmental adaption. Regulated traits include motility, iron homeostasis, exopolysaccharides production and the ability to form biofilms. In Pseudomonas fluorescens F113, an amrZ mutant presents a pleiotropic phenotype, showing increased swimming motility, decreased biofilm formation and very limited ability for competitive colonization of rhizosphere, its natural habitat...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yang Zhang, Jun Yang, Guangchun Bai
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and the CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) provide an adaptive immunity to bacteria and archaea against specific DNA invaders. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes a Type III CRISPR-Cas system, which has not been experimentally explored. In this study, we found that the CRISPR-Cas systems of both Mtb and M. bovis BCG were highly upregulated by deletion of Rv2837c (cnpB), which encodes a multifunctional protein that hydrolyzes cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), and nanoRNAs (short oligonucleotides of five residues or shorter in length)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
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