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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819217/anti-biofilm-effects-of-anthranilate-on-a-broad-range-of-bacteria
#1
Xi-Hui Li, Soo-Kyoung Kim, Joon-Hee Lee
Anthranilate, one of tryptophan degradation products has been reported to interfere with biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we investigated the effects of anthranilate on biofilm formation by various bacteria and the mechanisms responsible. Anthranilate commonly inhibited biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa, Vibrio vulnificus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus, and disrupted biofilms preformed by these bacteria. Because anthranilate reduced intracellular c-di-GMP and enhanced swimming and swarming motilities in P...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792538/the-importance-of-conserved-amino-acids-in-heme-based-globin-coupled-diguanylate-cyclases
#2
Xuehua Wan, Jennifer A Saito, James S Newhouse, Shaobin Hou, Maqsudul Alam
Globin-coupled diguanylate cyclases contain globin, middle, and diguanylate cyclase domains that sense O2 to synthesize c-di-GMP and regulate bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. However, relatively few studies have extensively examined the roles of individual residues and domains of globin-coupled diguanylate cyclases, which can shed light on their signaling mechanisms and provide drug targets. Here, we report the critical residues of two globin-coupled diguanylate cyclases, EcGReg from Escherichia coli and BpeGReg from Bordetella pertussis, and show that their diguanylate cyclase activity requires an intact globin domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790983/nitrate-sensing-and-metabolism-inhibit-biofilm-formation-in-the-opportunistic-pathogen-burkholderia-pseudomallei-by-reducing-the-intracellular-concentration-of-c-di-gmp
#3
Mihnea R Mangalea, Brooke A Plumley, Bradley R Borlee
The opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, an emerging infectious disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although melioidosis is most prevalent during the rainy season in endemic areas, domestic gardens and farms can also serve as a reservoir for B. pseudomallei during the dry season, in part due to irrigation and fertilizer use. In the environment, B. pseudomallei forms biofilms and persists in soil near plant root zones...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783566/autoclaved-sludge-as-the-ideal-seed-to-culture-anammox-bacteria-reactor-performance-and-microbial-community-diversity
#4
Yu Wang, Cui-Na Bu, Qi Kang, Hafiz Adeel Ahmad, Jian Zhang, Baoyu Gao, Shou-Qing Ni
Reducing activity of commensal bacteria in inocula may enhance anammox bacteria proliferation and realization of anammox process. Fast start-up of anammox process in an UASB reactor was successfully achieved by using autoclaved sludge (anaerobic granular sludge pretreated by autoclaving) and 0.3% active anammox sludge as inoculum. Continuous experiments indicated that R2 (autoclaved sludge addition) could shorten the start-up period from 72days to 63days. The first 50days anammox population specific growth rates (μ) of R1 (the control) and R2 were determined to be 0...
July 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783096/c-di-amp-an-essential-molecule-in-the-signaling-pathways-that-regulate-the-viability-and-virulence-of-gram-positive-bacteria
#5
REVIEW
Tazin Fahmi, Gary C Port, Kyu Hong Cho
Signal transduction pathways enable organisms to monitor their external environment and adjust gene regulation to appropriately modify their cellular processes. Second messenger nucleotides including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP), cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), and cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) play key roles in many signal transduction pathways used by prokaryotes and/or eukaryotes. Among the various second messenger nucleotides molecules, c-di-AMP was discovered recently and has since been shown to be involved in cell growth, survival, and regulation of virulence, primarily within Gram-positive bacteria...
August 7, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777083/structural-basis-for-the-regulation-of-chemotaxis-by-mapz-in-the-presence-of-c-di-gmp
#6
Yingxiao Zhu, Zenglin Yuan, Lichuan Gu
The bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) mediates multiple aspects of bacterial physiology through binding to various effectors. In some cases, these effectors are single-domain proteins which only contain a PilZ domain. It remains largely unknown how single-domain PilZ proteins function and regulate their downstream targets. Recently, a single-domain PilZ protein, MapZ (PA4608), was identified to inhibit the activity of the methyltransferase CheR1. Here, crystal structures of the C-terminal domain of CheR1 containing SAH and of CheR1 in complex with c-di-GMP-bound MapZ are reported...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767643/bow-tie-signaling-in-c-di-gmp-machine-learning-in-a-simple-biochemical-network
#7
Jinyuan Yan, Maxime Deforet, Kerry E Boyle, Rayees Rahman, Raymond Liang, Chinweike Okegbe, Lars E P Dietrich, Weigang Qiu, Joao B Xavier
Bacteria of many species rely on a simple molecule, the intracellular secondary messenger c-di-GMP (Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate), to make a vital choice: whether to stay in one place and form a biofilm, or to leave it in search of better conditions. The c-di-GMP network has a bow-tie shaped architecture that integrates many signals from the outside world-the input stimuli-into intracellular c-di-GMP levels that then regulate genes for biofilm formation or for swarming motility-the output phenotypes...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758290/crystal-structure-of-master-biofilm-regulator-csgd-regulatory-domain-reveals-an-atypical-receiver-domain
#8
Yurong Wen, Zhenlin Ouyang, Bart Devreese, Wangxiao He, Yongping Shao, Wuyuan Lu, Fang Zheng
The master regulator CsgD switches planktonic growth to biofilm formation by activating synthesis of curli fimbriae and cellulose in Enterobacteriaceae. CsgD was classified to be the LuxR response regulatory family, while its cognate sensor histidine kinase has not been identified yet. CsgD consists of a C-terminal DNA binding domain and an N-terminal regulatory domain that provokes the upstream signal transduction to further modulate its function. We provide the crystal structure of Salmonella Typhimurium CsgD regulatory domain, which reveals an atypical β5α5 response regulatory receiver domain folding with the α2 helix representing as a disorder loop compared to the LuxR/FixJ canonical response regulator, and the structure indicated a noteworthy α5 helix similar to the non-canonical master regulator VpsT receiver domain α6...
July 30, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751888/identification-of-the-components-involved-in-cyclic-di-amp-signaling-in-mycoplasma-pneumoniae
#9
Cedric Blötz, Katrin Treffon, Volkhard Kaever, Frank Schwede, Elke Hammer, Jörg Stülke
Bacteria often use cyclic dinucleotides as second messengers for signal transduction. While the classical molecule c-di-GMP is involved in lifestyle selection, the functions of the more recently discovered signaling nucleotide cyclic di-AMP are less defined. For many Gram-positive bacteria, c-di-AMP is essential for growth suggesting its involvement in a key cellular function. We have analyzed c-di-AMP signaling in the genome-reduced pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Our results demonstrate that these bacteria produce c-di-AMP, and we could identify the diadenylate cyclase CdaM (MPN244)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737376/insight-into-c-di-gmp-regulation-in-anammox-aggregation-in-response-to-alternating-feed-loadings
#10
Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu, Xi Tang, Chao Wang, Zhao Niu, Ying Feng
Substrate concentrations generally fluctuate in wastewaters. However, how anammox biomass behaves to overcome the stress of alternating feed loadings remains unclear. Here, we combined long-term reactor operation, batch tests, 16S rRNA transcript sequencing, and metabolomics analysis to investigate the aggregation of anammox biomass under the regulation of c-di-GMP, a key second messenger, in response to alternating feed loadings. We demonstrated that the aggregation process was significantly faster under alternating loadings and was significantly correlated with higher levels of c-di-GMP and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production...
August 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725053/cyclic-di-gmp-regulates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistance-to-ethionamide
#11
Hai-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Wei Xu, He-Wei Jiang, Fan-Lin Wu, Xiang He, Yin Liu, Shu-Juan Guo, Yang Li, Li-Jun Bi, Jiao-Yu Deng, Xian-En Zhang, Sheng-Ce Tao
Tuberculosis is still on the top of infectious diseases list on both mobility and mortality, especially due to drug-resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Ethionamide (ETH) is one of effective second line anti-TB drugs, a synthetic compound similar to isoniazid (INH) structurally, with existing severe problem of ETH resistance. ETH is a prodrug, which is activated by Etha inside M.tb, and etha is transcriptionally repressed by Ethr. We found that c-di-GMP could bind Ethr, enhanced the binding of Ethr to the promoter of etha, and then repressed the transcription of etha, thus caused resistance of M...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680857/cyclic-dinucleotides-in-oral-bacteria-and-in-oral-biofilms
#12
Ulvi K Gürsoy, Mervi Gürsoy, Eija Könönen, Herman O Sintim
Oral cavity acts as a reservoir of bacterial pathogens for systemic infections and several oral microorganisms have been linked to systemic diseases. Quorum sensing and cyclic dinucleotides, two "decision-making" signaling systems, communicate to regulate physiological process in bacteria. Discovery of cyclic dinucleotides has a long history, but the progress in our understanding of how cyclic dinucleotides regulate bacterial lifestyle is relatively new. Oral microorganisms form some of the most intricate biofilms, yet c-di-GMP, and c-di-AMP signaling have been rarely studied in oral biofilms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680041/bsmr-degrades-c-di-gmp-to-modulate-biofilm-formation-of-nosocomial-pathogen-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#13
Wei Liu, Xiu-Qi Tian, Jin-Wei Wei, Li-Li Ding, Wei Qian, Zhong Liu, Fang-Fang Wang
c-di-GMP is a cellular second messenger that regulates diverse bacterial processes, including swimming, biofilm formation and virulence. However, in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a nosocomial pathogen that frequently infects immunodeficient or immunoincompetent patients, the regulatory function of c-di-GMP remains unclear. Here we show that BsmR is a negative regulator of biofilm development that degrades c-di-GMP through its EAL domain. Increasing BsmR expression resulted in significant increase in bacterial swimming and decrease in cell aggregation...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679171/a-burkholderia-endophyte-of-the-ancient-maize-landrace-chapalote-utilizes-c-di-gmp-dependent-and-independent-signaling-to-suppress-diverse-plant-fungal-pathogen-targets
#14
Hanan R Shehata, Manish N Raizada
Chapalote is a maize (corn) landrace grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, valued in part for its broad-spectrum pathogen resistance. Previously we showed that Chapalote possesses a bacterial endophyte, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, which suppresses growth of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, a fungal pathogen of a maize relative, used as a model system. Ten mutants that lost the anti-pathogen activities were identified, corresponding to five genes. However, S. homoeocarpa is not a known maize pathogen, hence the relevance of these anti-fungal mechanisms to its ancient host has not been clear...
June 29, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677348/the-pseudomonas-putida-csra-rsma-homologues-negatively-affect-c-di-gmp-pools-and-biofilm-formation-through-the-ggdef-eal-response-regulator-cfcr
#15
Óscar Huertas-Rosales, Manuel Romero, Stephan Heeb, Manuel Espinosa-Urgel, Miguel Cámara, María Isabel Ramos-González
Expression of cfcR, encoding the only GGDEF/EAL response regulator in Pseudomonas putida, is transcriptionally regulated by RpoS, ANR and FleQ, and the functionality of CfcR as a diguanylate cyclase requires the multisensor CHASE3/GAF hybrid histidine kinase named CfcA. Here an additional level of cfcR control, operating post-transcriptionally via the RNA-binding proteins RsmA, RsmE and RsmI, is unraveled. Specific binding of the three proteins to an Rsm binding motif (5'CANGGANG3') encompassing the translational start codon of cfcR was confirmed...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674069/cyclic-di-gmp-and-vpsr-induce-the-expression-of-type-ii-secretion-in-vibrio-cholerae
#16
Rudolph E Sloup, Ashley E Konal, Geoffrey B Severin, Michelle L Korir, Mira M Bagdasarian, Michael Bagdasarian, Christopher M Waters
Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogen which alternates between growth in environmental reservoirs and infection of human hosts causing severe diarrhea. The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) mediates this transition by controlling a wide range of functions such as biofilms, virulence, and motility. Here we report that c-di-GMP induces expression of the extracellular protein secretion (eps) gene cluster, which encodes the Type II Secretion System (T2SS) in V. cholerae Analysis of the eps genes confirmed the presence of two promoters located upstream of epsC, the first gene in the operon, one of which is induced by c-di-GMP...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652311/a-nutrient-regulated-cyclic-diguanylate-phosphodiesterase-controls-clostridium-difficile-biofilm-and-toxin-production-during-stationary-phase
#17
Erin B Purcell, Robert W McKee, David S Courson, Elizabeth M Garrett, Shonna M McBride, Richard E Cheney, Rita Tamayo
The signaling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) mediates physiological adaptation to extracellular stimuli in a wide range of bacteria. The complex metabolic pathways governing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation are highly regulated, but the specific cues that impact c-di-GMP signaling are largely unknown. In the intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile, c-di-GMP inhibits flagellar motility and toxin production, and promotes pilus-dependent biofilm formation, but no specific biological functions have been ascribed to any of the individual c-di-GMP synthases or phosphodiesterases...
June 26, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652301/stand-alone-eal-domain-proteins-form-a-distinct-subclass-of-eal-proteins-involved-in-regulation-of-cell-motility-and-biofilm-formation-in-enterobacteria
#18
Youssef El Mouali, Hyunhee Kim, Irfan Ahmad, Annelie Brauner, Ying Liu, Mikael Skurnik, Michael Y Galperin, Ute Römling
The second messenger cyclic di-GMP is almost ubiquitous among bacteria and so are the cyclic di-GMP turnover proteins, which mediate the transition between motility and sessility. EAL domain proteins have been characterized as cyclic di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases. While most EAL domain proteins contain additional, usually N-terminal, domains, there is a distinct family of proteins within stand-alone EAL domains, exemplified by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium proteins STM3611 (YhjH/PdeH), a c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase, and the enzymatically inactive STM1344 (YdiV/CdgR) and STM1697, which regulate bacterial motility through interaction with the flagella master regulator FlhDC...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652300/the-proline-variant-of-the-w-f-l-m-t-s-r-c-di-gmp-binding-motif-suppresses-dependence-on-signal-association-for-regulator-function
#19
Daniel M Chodur, Linda Guo, Meng Pu, Eric Bruger, Nico Fernandez, Chris Waters, Dean A Rowe-Magnus
Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacteria and potent opportunistic human pathogen. It enters the food-chain by asymptomatically colonizing a variety of marine organisms, most notably oysters. Expression of the brp-encoded extracellular polysaccharide, which enhances cell-surface adherence, is regulated by c-di-GMP and the activator BrpT. The V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus homologs, VpsT and CpsQ, directly bind c-di-GMP via a novel W[F/L/M][T/S]R motif and c-di-GMP binding is absolutely required for activity...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647124/putative-protein-vc0395_0300-from-vibrio-cholerae-is-a-diguanylate-cyclase-with-a-role-in-biofilm-formation
#20
Divya Bandekar, Om Prakash Chouhan, Swati Mohapatra, Mousumi Hazra, Saugata Hazra, Sumit Biswas
The hallmark of the lifecycle of Vibrio cholerae is its ability to switch between two lifestyles - the sessile, non-pathogenic form and the motile, infectious form in human hosts. One of these changes is in the formation of surface biofilms, when in sessile aquatic habitats. The cell-cell interactions within a V. cholerae biofilm are stabilized by the production of an exopolysachharide (EPS) matrix, which in turn is regulated by the ubiquitous secondary messenger, cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), synthesized by proteins containing GGD(/E)EF domains in all prokaryotic systems...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
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