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bipolar type

Khanin Iamthanaporn, Keerati Chareancholvanich, Chaturong Pornrattanamaneewong
BACKGROUND: Hemiarthroplasty (HA) is an effective procedure for treatment of femoral neck fracture. However, it is debatable whether unipolar or bipolar HA is the most suitable implant. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the causes of failure and longevity in both types of HA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 133 cases that underwent revision surgery of HA between 2002 and 2012. The causes of revision surgery were identified and stratified into early (≤ 5 years) failure and late (> 5 years) failure...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Nicolas A Nuñez, Stefano Comai, Eduard Dumitrescu, Maykel F Ghabrash, John Tabaka, Marie Saint-Laurent, Stephen Vida, Theodore Kolivakis, Allan Fielding, Nancy Low, Pablo Cervantes, Linda Booij, Gabriella Gobbi
BACKGROUND: Some authors have hypothesized that Treatment-Resistant Unipolar Depression (TRD-UP) should be considered within the bipolar spectrum disorders and that hidden bipolarity may be a risk factor for TRD-UP. However, there are neither studies comparing clinical and sociodemographic data of patients with TRD-UP versus Bipolar (BP) disorders nor are there any examining differences versus Bipolar type I (BP-I) and Bipolar type II (BP-II). METHODS: Charts analysis was conducted on 194 patients followed at the Mood Disorders Clinic of the McGill University Health Center...
March 16, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Kai G Kahl, Michael Deuschle, Brendon Stubbs, Ulrich Schweiger
Background Severe mental illnesses (SMIs), i.e. major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are associated with an elevated risk for the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. Several factors have been associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality in SMI, including lifestyle factors (smoking, inactivity, unhealthy diet), endocrine and immunologic alterations; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) promotes the development of cardiometabolic disorders, at least in part by inflammatory and metabolic functions...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Yijun Pan, Jennifer L Short, Stephanie A Newman, Kwok H C Choy, Durgesh Tiwari, Christopher Yap, Danielle Senyschyn, William A Banks, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Epidemiological evidence suggests that people with bipolar disorder prescribed lithium exhibit a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to those prescribed other mood-stabilizing medicines. Lithium chloride (LiCl) reduces brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels, and the brain clearance of Aβ is reduced in AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the cognitive benefits of LiCl are associated with enhanced brain clearance of exogenously-administered Aβ. The brain clearance of intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered125 I-Aβ42 was assessed in male Swiss outbred mice administered daily oral NaCl or LiCl (300 mg/kg for 21 days)...
March 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ali Sahraian, Zahra Ehsaei, Arash Mowla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Our Objective is to study the effects of aripiprazole as an adjuvant treatment for obsessive and compulsive (OC) symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) type I, manic phase. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 56 patients with BD who had OC symptoms were randomly allocated to receive aripiprazole or placebo plus their routine medication regimen (lithium + clonazepam)...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Gordon Parker, Amelia Paterson, Mia Romano, Isabelle Granville Smith
OBJECTIVES: To increase awareness of the sensory changes experienced during hypo/manic and depressive states by those with a bipolar disorder and determine if the prevalence of such features is similar across differing bipolar sub-types. METHODS: We interviewed 66 patients who acknowledged sensory changes during hypo/manic states. They were allocated to bipolar I, bipolar II and soft bipolar diagnostic categories and the prevalence of 10 differing sensory changes was quantified during hypo/manic and depressive phases...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Hyung Wook Park, Hong-Lim Kim, Yong Soo Park, In-Beom Kim
The retina is a highly specialised part of the brain responsible for visual processing. It is well-laminated; three layers containing five different types of neurons are compartmentalised by two synaptic layers. Among the retinal layers, the inner nuclear layer (INL) is composed of horizontal, bipolar, and amacrine cell types. Bipolar cells form one sublayer in the distal half of the IPL, while amacrine cells form another sublayer in the proximal half, without any border-like structure. Here, we report that a plexiform layer-like structure exists temporarily in the border between the bipolar and amacrine sublayers in the INL in the rat retina during retinal development...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Chan-Chieh Lin, Gareoung Kim, Dianta Ginting, Kyunghan Ahn, Jong Soo Rhyee
Topological insulators generally share commonalities with good thermoelectric materials because of their narrow band gaps and heavy constituent elements. Here we propose that a topological crystalline insulator (TCI) could exhibit a high thermoe-lectric performance by breaking its crystalline symmetry and tuning chemical potential by elemental doping. As a candidate material, we investigate thermoelectric properties of the Cl-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.7Sn0.3Se. The infrared absorption spectra reveal that the band gap is increased from 0...
March 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Eugenia Tomasella, Lucila Bechelli, Mora Belén Ogando, Camilo Mininni, Mariano N Di Guilmi, Fernanda De Fino, Silvano Zanutto, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Antonia Marin-Burgin, Diego M Gelman
Excessive dopamine neurotransmission underlies psychotic episodes as observed in patients with some types of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The dopaminergic hypothesis was postulated after the finding that antipsychotics were effective to halt increased dopamine tone. However, there is little evidence for dysfunction within the dopaminergic system itself. Alternatively, it has been proposed that excessive afferent activity onto ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons, particularly from the ventral hippocampus, increase dopamine neurotransmission, leading to psychosis...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marisa A Patti, Vanessa Troiani
Atypical sulcogyral patterns in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, as well as with quantitative traits associated with schizophrenia, such as anhedonia. Here we conduct a cross-diagnostic comparison to assess whether atypical OFC sulcogyral patterns confer risk for multiple brain disorders. We examined structural images from 4 groups of adult participants (N = 189), including those diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ; N = 49), bipolar disorder (BP; N = 46), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 41), and controls (N = 53)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
N L O'Brien, A Fiorentino, D Curtis, C Rayner, C Petrosellini, M Al Eissa, N J Bass, A McQuillin, S I Sharp
Recent results imply that rare variants contribute to the risk of schizophrenia. Exome sequence data from the UK10K project was used to identify three rare, amino acid changing variants in the ITGB4 gene which segregated with schizophrenia in two families: rs750367954, rs147480547 and rs145976111. Association analysis was carried out in the exome-sequenced Swedish schizophrenia study and in UCL schizophrenia and bipolar cases and controls genotyped for these variants. A gene-wise weighted burden test was performed on a trio sample of schizophrenia cases and their parents...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Michele Fornaro, Annalisa Anastasia, Francesco Monaco, Stefano Novello, Andrea Fusco, Felice Iasevoli, Domenico De Berardis, Nicola Veronese, Marco Solmi, Andrea de Bartolomeis
BACKGROUND: Treatment-emergent affective switch (TEAS), including treatment-emergent mania (TEM), carry significant burden in the clinical management of bipolar depression, whereas the use of antidepressants raises both efficacy, safety and tolerability concerns. The present study assesses the prevalence and clinical correlates of TEM in selected sample of Bipolar Disorder (BD) Type-II (BD-II) acute depression outpatients. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the clinical and psychopathological features associated with TEM among 91 BD-II depressed outpatients exposed to antidepressants...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
J Contreras, E Hare, G Chavarría-Soley, H Raventós
BACKGROUND: Genetic studies have been consistent that bipolar disorder type I (BPI) runs in families and that this familial aggregation is strongly influenced by genes. In a preliminary study, we proved that anxiety trait meets endophenotype criteria for BPI. METHODS: We assessed 619 individuals from the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) who have received evaluation for anxiety following the same methodological procedure used for the initial pilot study. Our goal was to conduct a multipoint quantitative trait linkage analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to anxiety trait in subjects with BPI...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Anke Hoffmann, Vincenza Sportelli, Michael Ziller, Dietmar Spengler
Bipolar disease (BD) is one of the major public health burdens worldwide and more people are affected every year. Comprehensive genetic studies have associated thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BD risk; yet, very little is known about their functional roles. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are powerful tools for investigating the relationship between genotype and phenotype in disease-relevant tissues and cell types. Neural cells generated from BD-specific iPSCs are thought to capture associated genetic risk factors, known and unknown, and to allow the analysis of their effects on cellular and molecular phenotypes...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Robert M Maier, Zhihong Zhu, Sang Hong Lee, Maciej Trzaskowski, Douglas M Ruderfer, Eli A Stahl, Stephan Ripke, Naomi R Wray, Jian Yang, Peter M Visscher, Matthew R Robinson
Genomic prediction has the potential to contribute to precision medicine. However, to date, the utility of such predictors is limited due to low accuracy for most traits. Here theory and simulation study are used to demonstrate that widespread pleiotropy among phenotypes can be utilised to improve genomic risk prediction. We show how a genetic predictor can be created as a weighted index that combines published genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics across many different traits. We apply this framework to predict risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Psychiatric Genomics consortium data, finding substantial heterogeneity in prediction accuracy increases across cohorts...
March 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Steven T Walston, Robert H Chow, James D Weiland
This in vitro investigation examines the response of retinal bipolar cells to extracellular electrical stimulation. 
 Approach: In vitro investigations characterizing the response of retinal neurons to electrical stimulation have primarily focused on retinal ganglion cells because they are the output neurons of the retina and their superficial position in the retina makes them readily accessible to in vitro recording techniques. Thus, the majority of information regarding the response of inner retinal neurons has been inferred from ganglion cell activity...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Gabriele Sani, Alessio Simonetti, Delfina Janiri, Nerisa Banaj, Elisa Ambrosi, Pietro De Rossi, Valentina Ciullo, David B Arciniegas, Fabrizio Piras, Gianfranco Spalletta
BACKGROUND: Prior studies on the effects of lithium on limbic and subcortical gray matter volumes are mixed. It is possible that discrepant findings may be explained by the duration of lithium exposure. We investigated this issue in individuals with type I bipolar disorder (BP-I). METHODS: Limbic and subcortical gray matter volume was measured using FreeSurfer in 60 subjects: 15 with BP-I without prior lithium exposure [no-exposure group (NE)]; 15 with BP-I and lithium exposure < 24 months [short-exposure group (SE)]; 15 with BP-I and lithium exposure > 24 months [long-exposure group (LE)]; and 15 healthy controls (HC)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Shuhua Deng, Xiuqing Zhu, Bin Sun, Jinqing Hu, Dewei Shang, Weijia Chen, Haoyang Lu, Xiaojia Ni, Ming Zhang, Zhanzhang Wang, Yuguan Wen, Chang Qiu
The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and relative risk of off-label prescription of antidepressants in Chinese pediatric outpatients according to China Food and Drug Administration (C-FDA) and USFDA regulations. Medical records of 18 459 pediatric outpatients were identified between 2013 and 2015. Patient characteristics, prevalence of off-label antidepressant prescriptions, and relative risk factors associated with off-label prescribing were analyzed. The results indicate that patients aged from 12 to 17 years account for 88...
March 2, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Mark J Niciu, Bridget J Shovestul, Brittany A Jaso, Cristan Farmer, David A Luckenbaugh, Nancy E Brutsche, Lawrence T Park, Elizabeth D Ballard, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: Ketamine induces rapid and robust antidepressant effects, and many patients also describe dissociation, which is associated with antidepressant response. This follow-up study investigated whether antidepressant efficacy is uniquely related to dissociative symptom clusters. METHODS: Treatment-resistant patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD) (n = 126) drawn from three studies received a single subanesthetic (0.5 mg/kg) ketamine infusion...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kimberley J Billingsley, Maurizio Manca, Olympia Gianfrancesco, David A Collier, Helen Sharp, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
Genomic wide association studies identified the CACNA1C locus as genetically associated with both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. CACNA1C encodes Cav1.2, one of four subunits of L-type voltage gated calcium channels. Variation resides in non-coding regions of CACNA1C which interact with the promoter and are validated expression quantitative trait loci. Using reporter gene constructs we demonstrate the CACNA1C promoter is a major mediator of inducible regulation of CACNA1C activity in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line...
February 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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