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Influenza mortality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785478/changing-trend-of-infectious-diseases-in-nepal
#1
Shiba Kumar Rai
Many infectious/communicable diseases (IDs) are endemic in Nepal. Until a decade and half ago, IDs were the major cause of both morbidity and mortality accounting 70% for both. However, as a result of various preventive measures implemented by both the state and non-state actors, the overall IDs have shown a changing (declining) trend. The most impressive decline has been seen in the intestinal helminth infection. Though the overall burden of IDs is decreasing, several newer infectious diseases (emerging infections) namely, dengue fever, scrub typhus, influenza (H5N1 and H1N1), and others are posing a great public health problem...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783653/avian-influenza-virus-subtype-h9n2-affects-intestinal-microbiota-barrier-structure-injury-and-inflammatory-intestinal-disease-in-the-chicken-ileum
#2
Hongxin Li, Xiaolin Liu, Feiyang Chen, Kejing Zuo, Che Wu, Yiming Yan, Weiguo Chen, Wencheng Lin, Qingmei Xie
Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AIV) has caused significant losses to the poultry industry due to the high mortality associated with secondary infections attributable to E. coli . This study tries to address the underlying secondary mechanisms after H9N2 AIV infection. Initially, nine day-old specific pathogen-free chickens were assigned to control (uninfected) and H9N2-infected groups, respectively. Using Illumina sequencing, histological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR, it was found that H9N2 AIV caused intestinal microbiota disorder, injury, and inflammatory damage to the intestinal mucosa...
May 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778208/enhanced-infection-of-avian-influenza-virus-h9n2-with-infectious-laryngeotracheitis-vaccination-in-chickens
#3
Nagah Arafat, Abdelfattah H Eladl, Basma H Marghani, Mohamed A Saif, Reham A El-Shafei
Avian influenza and infectious laryngeotracheitis viruses are common causes of respiratory diseases in chickens with economical importance worldwide. In this study, we investigated the effect of experimental co-infection of avian influenza virus-H9N2 (AIV-H9N2) with infectious laryngeotracheitis virus (ILTV) live-attenuated vaccine (LAR-VAC® ) on chickens. Four experimental groups were included in this study: negative control group, AIV-H9N2 group, AIV-H9N2+LAR-VAC® group, and LAR-VAC® group. AIV-H9N2 was inoculated intranasally to challenged groups at 35 days of age...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775471/host-directed-combinatorial-rnai-improves-inhibition-of-diverse-strains-of-influenza-a-virus-in-human-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#4
Michael A Estrin, Islam T M Hussein, Wendy B Puryear, Anne C Kuan, Stephen C Artim, Jonathan A Runstadler
Influenza A virus infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and currently available prevention and treatment methods are suboptimal. In recent years, genome-wide investigations have revealed numerous host factors that are required for influenza to successfully complete its life cycle. However, only a select, small number of influenza strains were evaluated using this platform, and there was considerable variation in the genes identified across different investigations. In an effort to develop a universally efficacious therapeutic strategy with limited potential for the emergence of resistance, this study was performed to investigate the effect of combinatorial RNA interference (RNAi) on inhibiting the replication of diverse influenza A virus subtypes and strains...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774842/detection-of-low-pathogenicity-influenza-a-h7n3-virus-during-duck-mortality-event-cambodia-2017
#5
Annika Suttie, Sokhoun Yann, Phalla Y, Sothyra Tum, Yi-Mo Deng, Vibol Hul, Viseth Srey Horm, Ian Barr, Andrew Greenhill, Paul F Horwood, Kristina Osbjer, Erik A Karlsson, Philippe Dussart
In January 2017, an estimated 3,700 (93%) of 4,000 Khaki Campbell ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) died in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. We detected low pathogenicity avian influenza A(H7N3) virus and anatid herpesvirus 1 (duck plague) in the affected flock; however, the exact cause of the mortality event remains unclear.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773050/the-importance-of-complying-with-vaccination-protocols-in-developed-countries-anti-vax-hysteria-and-the-spread-of-severe-preventable-diseases
#6
Franco Pandolfi, Laura Franza, Laura Todi, Valentina Carusi, Michele Centrone, Alessandro Bonomo, Estelle E Newton, Domenico Schiavino, Eleonora Nucera
BACKGROUND: Vaccines are very effective medical tools for disease prevention and life span increase. Controversies have raised concern about their safety, from autism to polio vaccine contamination with simian virus 40 (SV-40). Hysteria surrounding vaccine-associated risks has resulted in a declining number of vaccinations in developed countries. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g. measles) have occurred in Europe and North America, causing also some causalities. OBJECTIVES: In this review, data on safety and efficacy of vaccines are discussed, showing that the benefits of vaccines far outweigh the risks and that it is important to comply with vaccination protocols, to avoid spreading of severe, preventable diseases...
May 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768458/burden-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-india-preliminary-data-from-a-hospital-based-sentinel-surveillance-network
#7
Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Girish Kumar Chethrapilly Purushothaman, Bharathy Sukumar, Boopathi Kangusamy, Ambujam Nair Kapoor, Nivedita Gupta, Sanjay Madhav Mehendale
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, acute bacterial meningitis is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality among under five children, particularly in settings where vaccination for H. influenzae type b, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis is yet to be introduced in the national immunization programs. Estimation of disease burden of bacterial meningitis associated with these pathogens can guide the policy makers to consider inclusion of these newer vaccines in the immunization programs. A network of hospital based sentinel surveillance was established to generate baseline data on the burden of bacterial meningitis among children aged less than 5 years in India and to provide a platform for impact assessment following introduction of the Pentavalent and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762672/population-serologic-immunity-to-human-and-avian-h2n2-viruses-in-the-united-states-and-hong-kong-for-pandemic-risk-assessment
#8
T M Babu, R Perera, J T Wu, T Fitzgerald, C Nolan, B J Cowling, S Krauss, J T Treanor, M Peiris
Introduction: Influenza A pandemics cause significant mortality and morbidity. H2N2 viruses have caused prior pandemic, and are circulating in avian reservoirs. The age-related frequency of current population immunity to H2 viruses was evaluated. Methods: Hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) assays against historical human and recent avian influenza A (H2N2) viruses were performed across age groups in Rochester, NY and Hong Kong, China. The impact of existing cross-reactive HAI immunity on the effective reproductive number(R) was modeled...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754745/the-unusually-diverse-mortality-patterns-in-the-pacific-region-during-the-1918-21-influenza-pandemic-reflections-at-the-pandemic-s-centenary
#9
REVIEW
G Dennis Shanks, Nick Wilson, Rebecca Kippen, John F Brundage
The 1918-21 influenza pandemic was the most lethal natural event in recent history. In the Pacific region, the pandemic's effects varied greatly across different populations and settings. In this region, the pandemic's lethal effects extended over 3 years, from November, 1918, in New Zealand to as late as July, 1921, in New Caledonia. Although a single virus strain probably affected all the islands, mortality varied from less than 0·1% in Tasmania, to 22% in Western Samoa. The varied expressions of the pandemic across the islands reflected the nature and timing of past influenza epidemics, degrees of social isolation, ethnicity and sex-related effects, and the likelihood of exposures to pathogenic respiratory bacteria during influenza illnesses...
May 10, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748031/multimorbidity-is-associated-with-uptake-of-influenza-vaccination
#10
Samantha M Harrison, Melissa Y Wei, Lois E Lamerato, Joshua G Petrie, Emily Toth Martin
OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic conditions have higher rates of severe influenza-related illness and mortality. However, influenza vaccination coverage in high-risk populations continues to be suboptimal. We describe the association between cumulative disease morbidity, measured by a previously validated multimorbidity index, and influenza vaccination among community-dwelling adults. METHODS: We obtained interview and medical record data for participants  ≥18 years who sought outpatient care for influenza-like illness between 2011 and 2016 as part of an outpatient-based study of influenza vaccine effectiveness...
May 7, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747736/infections-in-pregnancy-and-the-role-of-vaccines
#11
REVIEW
Kimberly B Fortner, Claudia Nieuwoudt, Callie F Reeder, Geeta K Swamy
Pregnant women are at risk for infection and may have significant morbidity or mortality. Influenza, pertussis, zika, and cytomegalovirus produce mild or asymptomatic illness in the mother, but have profound implications for her fetus. Maternal immunization can prevent or mitigate infections in pregnant women and their infants. The Advisory Committee of Immunization Practices recommends 2 vaccines during pregnancy: inactivated influenza, and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis during pregnancy...
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746637/potential-impact-of-influenza-vaccine-roll-out-on-antibiotic-use-in-africa
#12
Gwenan M Knight, Madeleine Clarkson, Thushan I de Silva
Background: Influenza infections result in both inappropriate and appropriate antibiotic prescribing. There is a huge burden of both influenza and infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in Africa. Influenza vaccines have the potential to reduce appropriate antibiotic use, through reduction of secondary bacterial infections, as well as to reduce levels of influenza misdiagnosed and treated as a bacterial infection (inappropriate). Objectives: To estimate potential reductions in antibiotic use that are achievable by introducing an influenza vaccine into various African settings...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745939/antiviral-treatment-of-childhood-influenza-an-update
#13
Amaran Moodley, John S Bradley, David W Kimberlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Influenza virus can cause severe or life-threatening infection in children. This review provides an update on antiviral medications available to treat and prevent influenza in both healthy children and children with underlying medical conditions, and recommendations on their appropriate use in the outpatient and inpatient settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with influenza infection, a large number of children hospitalized with influenza do not receive specific antiviral treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743603/unexpected-infection-outcomes-of-china-origin-h7n9-low-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus-in-turkeys
#14
Marek J Slomka, Amanda H Seekings, Sahar Mahmood, Saumya Thomas, Anita Puranik, Samantha Watson, Alexander M P Byrne, Daniel Hicks, Alejandro Nunez, Ian H Brown, Sharon M Brookes
The China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) emerged as a zoonotic threat in 2013 where it continues to circulate in live poultry markets. Absence of overt clinical signs in poultry is a typical LPAIV infection outcome, and has contributed to its insidious maintenance in China. This study is the first description of H7N9 LPAIV (A/Anhui/1/13) infection in turkeys, with efficient transmission to two additional rounds of introduced contact turkeys which all became infected during cohousing...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743125/significant-spike-in-excess-mortality-in-england-in-winter-2014-15-influenza-the-likely-culprit
#15
R G Pebody, H K Green, F Warburton, M Sinnathamby, J Ellis, K Mølbak, J Nielsen, S de Lusignan, N Andrews
Significant increases in excess all-cause mortality, particularly in the elderly, were observed during the winter of 2014/15 in England. With influenza A(H3N2) the dominant circulating influenza A subtype, this paper determines the contribution of influenza to this excess controlling for weather. A standardised multivariable Poisson regression model was employed with weekly all-cause deaths the dependent variable for the period 2008-2015. Adjusting for extreme temperature, a total of 26 542 (95% CI 25 301-27 804) deaths in 65+ and 1942 (95% CI 1834-2052) in 15-64-year-olds were associated with influenza from week 40, 2014 to week 20, 2015...
May 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739721/trends-in-influenza-vaccination-coverage-rates-in-south-korea-from-2005-to-2014-effect-of-public-health-policies-on-vaccination-behavior
#16
Jeongmin Seo, Juwon Lim
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Annual vaccination is effective in its prevention and is recommended especially in susceptible populations such as the elderly over 65 years, children younger than 5, pregnant women, and people with chronic diseases. Overall, South Korea has a high vaccination rate owing to its National Immunization Program, although the method and extent of its coverage varies among the target subgroups. The aim of this study is to assess the trend of influenza vaccination coverage between 2005 and 2014 in South Korea to address the influence of sociodemographic and disease factors on vaccination behavior...
May 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736671/triple-combination-of-fda-approved-drugs-including-flufenamic-acid-clarithromycin-and-zanamivir-improves-survival-of-severe-influenza-in-mice
#17
Andrew C Y Lee, Kelvin K W To, Anna J X Zhang, Houshun Zhu, Can Li, Ricky R Zhang, Ivan F N Hung, Richard Y T Kao, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Seasonal influenza virus remains a common cause of mortality despite the use of neuraminidase inhibitors. This study evaluated the efficacy of a triple combination of zanamivir, clarithromycin and flufenamic acid (FFA) in the treatment of influenza virus A(H1N1) infection. An in vitro cell protection assay and a multiple-cycle growth assay showed that the antiviral activity of zanamivir was enhanced when combined with clarithromycin or FFA. A mouse challenge model was used here for the evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of the triple combination treatment...
May 7, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735962/fatal-myopericarditis-following-an-influenza-a-h3n2-infection
#18
Caroline Lefeuvre, Sylvie Behillil, Stéphane Triau, Antonio Monteiro-Rodrigues, François Templier, Cong Tri Tran, Hélène Le Guillou-Guillemette, Françoise Lunel-Fabiani, Vincent Enouf, Alexandra Ducancelle
BACKGROUND Influenza viruses induce uncomplicated infections in most cases in individuals with no known predisposing factors. Acute febrile illness is generally limited to upper respiratory symptoms and several constitutional symptoms, including headache, lethargy, and myalgia. However, influenza A virus is a cause of severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Some patients are at risk for serious and fatal complications. Cardiac involvement is a well-known condition, but, clinically apparent influenza myocarditis is not common...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730305/vaccination-with-three-tandem-repeats-of-m2-extracellular-domain-fused-to-leismania-major-hsp70-protects-mice-against-influenza-a-virus-challenge
#19
Shokouhi Hadiseh, Farahmand Behrokh, Ghaemi Amir, Mazaheri Vahideh, Fotouhi Fatemeh
Influenza viruses are globally important respiratory pathogens with high degree of morbidity and mortality during annual epidemics. Influenza A vaccination has been challenged due to genetic evolution. M2 protein is the surface antigen of the virus and facilitates virus entry into the host cells. N-terminal 24 amino acid residues that constitute the extracellular domain of M2 protein (M2e) show remarkable conservation among all subtypes of influenza A viruses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of using HSP70 as an adjuvant fused to three tandem repeats of M2e (3M2e) to enhance the immune responses against influenza A challenge...
May 3, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726612/experimental-infection-of-h5n1-and-h5n8-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-northern-pintail-anas-acuta
#20
J-H Kwon, D-H Lee, D E Swayne, J-Y Noh, S-S Yuk, S Jeong, S-H Lee, C Woo, J-H Shin, C-S Song
The wide geographic spread of Eurasian Goose/Guangdong lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade 2.3.4.4 viruses by wild birds is of great concern. In December 2014, an H5N8 HPAI clade 2.3.4.4 Group A (2.3.4.4A) virus was introduced to North America. Long-distance migratory wild aquatic birds between East Asia and North America, such as Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), were strongly suspected of being a source of intercontinental transmission. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity, infectivity and transmissibility of an H5N8 HPAI clade 2...
May 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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