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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817714/insights-into-secular-trends-of-respiratory-tuberculosis-the-20th-century-maltese-experience
#1
Lianne Tripp, Larry A Sawchuk
Over half a century ago, McKeown and colleagues proposed that economics was a major contributor to the decline of infectious diseases, including respiratory tuberculosis, during the 19th and 20th centuries. Since then, there is no consensus among researchers as to the factors responsible for the mortality decline. Using the case study of the islands of Malta and Gozo, we examine the relationship of economics, in particular, the cost of living (Fisher index) and its relationship to the secular trends of tuberculosis mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#2
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807608/benefits-of-flu-vaccination-for-persons-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-review
#3
REVIEW
M Goeijenbier, T T van Sloten, L Slobbe, C Mathieu, P van Genderen, Walter E P Beyer, Albert D M E Osterhaus
Diabetes mellitus imposes a significant and increasing burden on society, with major consequences for human health, welfare and the economy worldwide. Persons with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing severe complications after influenza virus infection and guidelines advise vaccination. The present evidence for influenza vaccine effectiveness in persons with diabetes mellitus is mainly based on observational studies with clinical endpoints like hospitalization and death, indicating a beneficial reduction of morbidity and mortality...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799083/vaccination-coverage-and-mortality-after-splenectomy-results-from-an-italian-single-centre-study
#4
Antonio Di Sabatino, Marco Vincenzo Lenti, Francesco Paolo Tinozzi, Marina Lanave, Ivana Aquino, Catherine Klersy, Piero Marone, Carlo Marena, Andrea Pietrabissa, Gino Roberto Corazza
Splenectomy is a well-recognised risk factor for life-threatening overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). To prevent OPSI, immunisations against encapsulated bacteria (S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae) and influenza virus are recommended. However, there is still a lack of uniformity and poor compliance with these recommendations. Following a local physicians' awareness campaign regarding the importance of vaccine prophylaxis of splenectomised patients, we aimed to register vaccination coverage, mortality and infection rates in all patients who underwent splenectomy at our hospital, over a six-year time span...
August 10, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798254/oxygen-dependent-changes-in-lung-development-do-not-affect-epithelial-infection-with-influenza-a-virus
#5
William Domm, Min Yee, Ravi S Misra, Robert Gelein, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez Sobrido, Michael A O'Reilly
Infants born prematurely often require supplemental oxygen that contributes to aberrant lung development and increased pulmonary morbidity following a respiratory viral infection. We have been using a mouse model to understand how early-life hyperoxia affects the adult lung response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Prior studies showed how neonatal hyperoxia (100% oxygen) increased sensitivity of adult mice to infection with influenza A virus (IAV (A/Hong Kong/X31) H3N2) as defined by persistent inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis, and mortality...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790324/the-h7n9-influenza-a-virus-infection-results-in-lethal-inflammation-in-the-mammalian-host-via-the-nlrp3-caspase-1-inflammasome
#6
Rongrong Ren, Shuxian Wu, Jialin Cai, Yuqin Yang, Xiaonan Ren, Yanling Feng, Lixiang Chen, Boyin Qin, Chunhua Xu, Hua Yang, Zhigang Song, Di Tian, Yunwen Hu, Xiaohui Zhou, Guangxun Meng
The avian origin influenza A virus (IAV) H7N9 has caused a considerable number of human infections associated with high rates of death since its emergence in 2013. As a vital component of the host innate immune system, the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing receptor, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a critical role against H1N1 viral infection. However, the function of NLRP3 inflammasome in host immunological responses to the lethal H7N9 virus is still obscure. Here, we demonstrated that mice deficient for NLRP3 inflammasome components, including NLRP3, caspase-1, and Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), were less susceptible to H7N9 viral challenge than wild type (WT) controls...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783694/zbp1-dai-is-an-innate-sensor-of-influenza-virus-triggering-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-programmed-cell-death-pathways
#7
Teneema Kuriakose, Si Ming Man, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Rajendra Karki, Sannula Kesavardhana, David E Place, Geoffrey Neale, Peter Vogel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
The interferon (IFN)-inducible protein Z-DNA binding protein 1 [ZBP1; also known as DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factors (DAI) and DLM-1] was identified as a double-stranded DNA sensor, which instigates innate immune responses. However, this classification has been disputed, and whether ZBP1 functions as a pathogen sensor during an infection has remained unknown. We demonstrated ZBP1-mediated sensing of the influenza A virus (IAV) proteins NP and PB1, triggering cell death and inflammatory responses via the receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-RIPK3-caspase-8 axis...
August 12, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783091/evolution-of-influenza-a-virus-by-mutation-and-re-assortment
#8
REVIEW
Wenhan Shao, Xinxin Li, Mohsan Ullah Goraya, Song Wang, Ji-Long Chen
Influenza A virus (IAV), a highly infectious respiratory pathogen, has continued to be a significant threat to global public health. To complete their life cycle, influenza viruses have evolved multiple strategies to interact with a host. A large number of studies have revealed that the evolution of influenza A virus is mainly mediated through the mutation of the virus itself and the re-assortment of viral genomes derived from various strains. The evolution of influenza A virus through these mechanisms causes worldwide annual epidemics and occasional pandemics...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777309/biological-evaluation-of-uridine-derivatives-of-2-deoxy-sugars-as-potential-antiviral-compounds-against-influenza-a-virus
#9
Ewelina Krol, Ilona Wandzik, Martyna Krejmer-Rabalska, Boguslaw Szewczyk
Influenza virus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the limited ability of currently available treatments, there is an urgent need for new anti-influenza drugs with broad spectrum protection. We have previously shown that two 2-deoxy sugar derivatives of uridine (designated IW3 and IW7) targeting the glycan processing steps during maturation of viral glycoproteins show good anti-influenza virus activity and may be a promising alternative approach for the development of new anti-influenza therapy...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776246/burden-of-lower-respiratory-infections-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-between-1990-and-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-2015-study
#10
Ali H Mokdad
OBJECTIVES: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study (GBD) to calculate the burden of lower respiratory infections (LRIs) in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We conducted a systematic analysis of mortality and morbidity data for LRI and its specific etiologic factors, including pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. We used modeling methods to estimate incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775271/mutations-driving-airborne-transmission-of-a-h5n1-virus-in-mammals-cause-substantial-attenuation-in-chickens-only-when-combined
#11
Mathilde Richard, Sander Herfst, Judith M A van den Brand, Dennis de Meulder, Pascal Lexmond, Theo M Bestebroer, Ron A M Fouchier
A/H5N1 influenza viruses pose a threat to human and animal health. A fully avian A/H5N1 influenza virus was previously shown to acquire airborne transmissibility between ferrets upon accumulation of five or six substitutions that affected three traits: polymerase activity, hemagglutinin stability and receptor binding. Here, the impact of these traits on A/H5N1 virus replication, tissue tropism, pathogenesis and transmission was investigated in chickens. The virus containing all substitutions associated with transmission in mammals was highly attenuated in chickens...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774731/potent-influenza-a-virus-entry-inhibitors-targeting-a-conserved-region-of-hemagglutinin
#12
Dongguo Lin, Yinzhu Luo, Guang Yang, Fangfang Li, Xiangkun Xie, Daiwei Chen, Lifang He, Jingyu Wang, Chunfeng Ye, Shengsheng Lu, Lin Lv, Shuwen Liu, Jian He
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) induce acute respiratory disease and cause significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. With the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains, new and effective anti-IAV drugs with different modes of action are urgently needed. In this study, by conjugating cholesterol to the N-terminus of the short peptide KKWK, a lipopeptide named S-KKWK was created. The anti-IAV test indicated that S-KKWK and its derivatives displayed potent antiviral activities against a broad variety of influenza A viral strains including oseltamivir-resistant strains and clinically relevant isolates with IC50 values ranging from 0...
July 31, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768557/the-high-frequency-of-non-aspartic-acid-residues-at-ha222-in-influenza-a-h1n1-2009-pandemic-viruses-is-associated-with-mortality-during-the-upsurge-of-2015-a-molecular-and-epidemiological-study-from-central-india
#13
P V Barde, M Sahu, M K Shukla, P K Bharti, R K Sharma, L K Sahare, M J Ukey, N Singh
Influenza A(H1N1) viruses of the 2009 pandemic (A(H1N1)pdm09) continue to cause outbreaks in the post-pandemic period. During January to May 2015, an upsurge of influenza was recorded that resulted in high fatality in central India. Genetic lineage, mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene and infection by quasi-species are reported to affect disease severity. The objective of this study is to present the molecular and epidemiological trends during the 2015 influenza outbreak in central India. All the referred samples were subjected to qRT-PCR for diagnosis...
August 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762125/progress-in-definition-prevention-and-treatment-of-fungal-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Carsten Schwarz, Dominik Hartl, Olaf Eickmeier, Andreas Hector, Christian Benden, Isabelle Durieu, Amparo Sole, Silvia Gartner, Carlos E Milla, Peter James Barry
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic lethal multi-system condition; however, most of the morbidity and mortality is dependent on the status of the respiratory system. Progressive respiratory decline is mediated by chronic infection and inflammation, punctuated by important acute events known as pulmonary exacerbations which can lead to accelerated decline. The main bacterial species causing infections include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. In addition to bacteria, fungi are detected in a significant number of patients...
July 31, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761611/-literature-review-on-human-influenza-epidemics-occurred-before-the-implementation-plan-for-sentinel-surveillance-program-in-the-drc
#15
REVIEW
Edith Nkwembe-Ngabana, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Benoit Kebela-Ilunga, Emile Okitolo Londa, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), several influenza epidemics are ignored because they are confused with other infectious diseases which have similar symptoms. Our study aims to assess influenza epidemics occurred in the DRC before 2008, year of the implementation of the influenza surveillance program in the DRC. We searched all the documents [articles, report,…] about influenza epidemic or acute respiratory infections [ARI] in the DRC before 2008 by using chosen key words. Epidemic description elements were identified and analyzed in each report...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761583/challenges-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#16
REVIEW
Charlene M C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760668/rig-i-activation-protects-and-rescues-from-lethal-influenza-virus-infection-and-bacterial-superinfection
#17
Christoph Coch, Jan Phillip Stümpel, Vanessa Lilien-Waldau, Dirk Wohlleber, Beate M Kümmerer, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding, Georg Kochs, Natalio Garbi, Stephan Herberhold, Christine Schuberth-Wagner, Janos Ludwig, Winfried Barchet, Martin Schlee, Achim Hoerauf, Friedrich Bootz, Peter Staeheli, Gunther Hartmann, Evelyn Hartmann
Influenza A virus infection causes substantial morbidity and mortality in seasonal epidemic outbreaks, and more efficient treatments are urgently needed. Innate immune sensing of viral nucleic acids stimulates antiviral immunity, including cell-autonomous antiviral defense mechanisms that restrict viral replication. RNA oligonucleotide ligands that potently activate the cytoplasmic helicase retinoic-acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) are promising candidates for the development of new antiviral therapies. Here, we demonstrate in an Mx1-expressing mouse model of influenza A virus infection that a single intravenous injection of low-dose RIG-I ligand 5'-triphosphate RNA (3pRNA) completely protected mice from a lethal challenge with influenza A virus for at least 7 days...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760160/regional-variations-in-mortality-and-causes-of-death-in-israel-2009-2013
#18
Ethel-Sherry Gordon, Ziona Haklai, Jill Meron, Miriam Aburbeh, Inbal Weiss Salz, Yael Applbaum, Nehama F Goldberger
BACKGROUND: Regional variations in mortality can be used to study and assess differences in disease prevalence and factors leading to disease and mortality from different causes. To enable this comparison, it is important to standardize the mortality data to adjust for the effects of regional population differences in age, nationality and country of origin. METHODS: Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for the districts and sub-districts in Israel, for total mortality by gender as well as for leading causes of death and selected specific causes...
August 1, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755836/influenza-seasonality-goes-south-in-the-yucatan-peninsula-the-case-for-a-different-influenza-vaccine-calendar-in-this-mexican-region
#19
Guadalupe Ayora-Talavera, Gerardo Montalvo-Zurbia Flores, Jesus Gómez-Carballo, Refugio González-Losa, Laura Conde-Ferraez, Marylin Puerto-Solís, Irma López-Martínez, Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, Gisela Barrera-Badillo, Rodolfo Acuna-Soto, Alicia A Livinski, Wladimir J Alonso
INTRODUCTION: While vaccination may be relatively straightforward for regions with a well-defined winter season, the situation is quite different for tropical regions. Influenza activity in tropical regions might be out of phase with the dynamics predicted for their hemispheric group thereby impacting the effectiveness of the immunization campaign. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the climatic diversity of Mexico hinders its existing influenza immunization strategy and to suggest that the hemispheric vaccine recommendations be tailored to the regional level in order to optimize vaccine effectiveness...
July 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753227/determinants-of-influenza-vaccination-in-older-adults-a-nationwide-community-based-study-in-taiwan
#20
Chang-Hua Chen, Ming-Shiang Wu, Wen-Yu Hsu, Yu-Min Chen, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Chao A Hsiung, I-Chien Wu
AIMS: Influenza vaccination (InVa) is an effective measure for preventing influenza infection, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. However, the determinants of InVa remain unclear. METHODS: The present study included 4756 adults aged 55 years and older who completed the baseline examination of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan. During the examination, each participant received assessments of InVa status. Comprehensive assessments of sociodemographic (age, sex, education level, marital status, living alone and occupation) and health-related factors (chronic diseases, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activities, cognitive status and physical performance) were also carried out...
July 28, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
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