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Influenza mortality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734805/c-reactive-protein-mediating-immunopathological-lesions-a-potential-treatment-option-for-severe-influenza-a-diseases
#1
Rongbao Gao, Lijie Wang, Tian Bai, Ye Zhang, Hong Bo, Yuelong Shu
Severe influenza diseases with high mortality have been frequently reported, especially in those patients infected with avian influenza A (H5N1, H7N9 or H10N8) or during a pandemic. Respiratory distress, which is attributed to alveolar damage associated with immunopathological lesions, is the most common cause of death. There is a wealth of information on pathogenesis or treatment options. In this study, we showed that high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were induced and correlated with complement activation in patients infected with severe influenza A (H5N1, H7N9 or H10N8), and higher levels were induced in fatal patients than in survivors...
July 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734518/influenza-a-global-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Rotrosen, Kathleen M Neuzil
Influenza is a common respiratory illness in children and accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality on an annual basis. Inactivated and live influenza vaccines are approved for children and are safe and efficacious. The absolute effectiveness of vaccines varies by year and is influenced by several factors. The reason for recent reduced performance of live-attenuated influenza vaccines is poorly understood, and active research is ongoing. Vaccination programs are less common in tropical and subtropical countries, where unique logistical and feasibility challenges exist...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729359/the-%C3%AE-defensin-retrocyclin-101-inhibits-tlr4-and-tlr2-dependent-signaling-and-protects-mice-against-influenza-infection
#3
Daniel Prantner, Kari Ann Shirey, Wendy Lai, Wuyuan Lu, Alexander M Cole, Stefanie N Vogel, Alfredo Garzino-Demo
Despite widespread use of annual influenza vaccines, seasonal influenza-associated deaths number in the thousands each year, in part because of exacerbating bacterial superinfections. Therefore, discovering additional therapeutic options would be a valuable aid to public health. Recently, TLR4 inhibition has emerged as a possible mechanism for protection against influenza-associated lethality and acute lung injury. Based on recent data showing that rhesus macaque θ-defensins could inhibit TLR4-dependent gene expression, we tested the hypothesis that a novel θ-defensin, retrocyclin (RC)-101, could disrupt TLR4-dependent signaling and protect against viral infection...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724579/novel-bivalent-viral-vectored-vaccines-induce-potent-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-conferring-protection-against-stringent-influenza-a-virus-challenge
#4
Claire M Tully, Senthil Chinnakannan, Caitlin E Mullarkey, Marta Ulaszewska, Francesca Ferrara, Nigel Temperton, Sarah C Gilbert, Teresa Lambe
Seasonal influenza viruses are a common cause of acute respiratory illness worldwide and generate a significant socioeconomic burden. Influenza viruses mutate rapidly, necessitating annual vaccine reformulation because traditional vaccines do not typically induce broad-spectrum immunity. In addition to seasonal infections, emerging pandemic influenza viruses present a continued threat to global public health. Pandemic influenza viruses have consistently higher attack rates and are typically associated with greater mortality compared with seasonal strains...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722576/malaria-associated-mortality-in-the-australian-defence-force-during-the-twentieth-century
#5
G Dennis Shanks
Malaria has been a military problem throughout history capable of causing epidemics that stop military operations. Individual mortality was examined from records of the three major wars of the 20th century that involved Australia in which 133 (1914-1919), 92 (1943-1945), and two (1965-1967) soldiers are known to have died with malaria. Those dying were predominately enlisted soldiers with a mean age of 29 years often complicated by other infections such as influenza pneumonia or scrub typhus. Lethal epidemics of falciparum malaria occurred in Palestine/Syria in October 1918 and New Guinea in September 1943 to March 1944...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720851/microneedle-patch-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-during-pregnancy-enhances-maternal-immune-responses-promoting-survival-and-long-lasting-passive-immunity-to-offspring
#6
E Stein Esser, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Haripriya Kalluri, Devin McAllister, Elena V Vassilieva, Elizabeth Q Littauer, Nadia Lelutiu, Mark R Prausnitz, Richard W Compans, Ioanna Skountzou
Influenza virus causes life-threatening infections in pregnant women and their newborns. Immunization during pregnancy is the most effective means of preventing maternal and infant mortality/morbidity; however, influenza vaccination rates of pregnant women remain under 50%. Furthermore, the availability of vaccines in low-resource populations is limited. Skin immunization with microneedle patches (MN) is a novel and safe vaccination platform featuring thermostable vaccine formulations. Cold-chain independence and the potential for self-administration can expand influenza vaccination coverage in developing countries...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718801/from-variation-of-influenza-viral-proteins-to-vaccine-development
#7
REVIEW
Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics are one of the most important global public health concerns and are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Influenza viruses can evolve through antigen drift and shift to overcome the barriers of human immunity, leading to host adaption and transmission. Mechanisms underlying this viral evolution are gradually being elucidated. Vaccination is an effective method for the prevention of influenza virus infection. However, the emergence of novel viruses, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), the avian influenza A virus (H7N9), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI H5N1), that have infected human populations frequently in recent years reveals the tremendous challenges to the current influenza vaccine strategy...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718786/egg-independent-influenza-vaccines-and-vaccine-candidates
#8
REVIEW
Ilaria Manini, Claudia Maria Trombetta, Giacomo Lazzeri, Teresa Pozzi, Stefania Rossi, Emanuele Montomoli
Vaccination remains the principal way to control seasonal infections and is the most effective method of reducing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Since the 1940s, the main method of producing influenza vaccines has been an egg-based production process. However, in the event of a pandemic, this method has a significant limitation, as the time lag from strain isolation to final dose formulation and validation is six months. Indeed, production in eggs is a relatively slow process and production yields are both unpredictable and highly variable from strain to strain...
July 18, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716363/clinical-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-patients-with-severe-influenza-receiving-intravenous-peramivir-salvage-therapy-in-intensive-care-units
#9
Ching-Yuan Yeh, Fu-Der Wang, Yu-Chung Chuang, Chia-Jui Yang, Shiang-Fen Huang, Wen-Sung Weng, Chun-Hsin Liaw, Wang-Huei Sheng
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated patients with severe influenza who receive intravenous peramivir for salvage therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 71 patients with severe influenza who received intravenous peramivir therapy in the intensive care units of three medical centers between 2012 and 2016. All patients received oseltamivir or zanamivir before the administration of peramivir. RESULTS: A total of 44 men and 27 women with a median age of 55 years were enrolled...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715152/demographic-and-ecological-risk-factors-for-human-influenza-a-virus-infections-in-rural-indonesia
#10
Elisabeth Dowling Root, Dwi Agustian, Cissy Kartasasmita, Timothy M Uyeki, Eric A F Simões
BACKGROUND: Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally-driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. OBJECTIVES: To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang sub-districts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011...
July 17, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708957/influenza-vaccination-in-the-elderly
#11
Smetana Jan, Chlibek Roman, Shaw Jana, Splino Miroslav, Prymula Roman
Seasonal influenza is a prevalent and serious annual illness resulting in widespread morbidity and economic disruption throughout the population; the elderly and immunocompromised are particularly vulnerable to serious sequelae and mortality. The changing demographics worldwide to an aging society have important implications for public health policy and pharmaceutical innovations. For instance, primary prevention via immunization is effective in reducing the burden of influenza illness among the elderly. However, the elderly may be insufficiently protected by vaccination due to the immunosenescence which accompanies aging...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708954/pneumococcal-and-influenza-vaccination-status-of-hospitalized-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-the-effects-of-vaccination-on-clinical-presentation
#12
Ezgi Demirdogen Cetinoglu, Esra Uzaslan, Abdullah Sayıner, Aykut Cilli, Oguz Kılınc, Aysın Sakar Coskun, Armağan Hazar, Nurdan Kokturk, Ayten Filiz, Mehmet Polatli
Background Previous reports have shown that vaccination rates of adult at-risk populations are low in Turkey. There are differing reports with regards to the effectiveness of the influenza and the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) on the clinical outcomes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The purpose of this study was to analyse the influenza (FV) and pneumococcal vaccination (PV) status, the factors that influence the receipt of influenza/pneumococcal vaccine and the effects of prior vaccination on the clinical outcomes in adults hospitalized with CAP...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708896/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-a-cohort-hospitalized-for-pandemic-and-seasonal-influenza-in-germany-based-on-nationwide-inpatient-data
#13
Daniel von der Beck, Werner Seeger, Susanne Herold, Andreas Günther, Benjamin Löh
RATIONALE: From June of 2009 to August of 2010 the influenza subtype H1N1pdm09 caused a worldwide pandemic. The impact on populations and health care systems around the globe evolved differently. Substantial data come from the German national surveillance network in an outpatient and private practice setting, while information on hospitalized patients in Germany is rather limited. METHODS: Data from the Federal Statistics Office comprising health insurance claims of the entire nationwide inpatient sample from 2005 to 2012 were used to identify patients who were hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed influenza and to analyse demographical aspects, comorbidities, hospitalization duration, outcomes and ventilator use during the pandemic and seasonal waves of influenza...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704460/effects-of-reactive-social-distancing-on-the-1918-influenza-pandemic
#14
Duo Yu, Qianying Lin, Alice Py Chiu, Daihai He
The 1918 influenza pandemic was characterized by multiple epidemic waves. We investigated reactive social distancing, a form of behavioral response where individuals avoid potentially infectious contacts in response to available information on an ongoing epidemic or pandemic. We modelled its effects on the three influenza waves in the United Kingdom. In previous studies, human behavioral response was modelled by a Power function of the proportion of recent influenza mortality in a population, and by a Hill function, which is a function of the number of recent influenza mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703004/sialylglycan-assembled-supra-dots-for-ratiometric-probing-and-blocking-of-human-infecting-influenza-viruses
#15
Chang-Zheng Wang, Hai-Hao Han, Xin-Ying Tang, Dong-Ming Zhou, Changfeng Wu, Guo-Rong Chen, Xiao-Peng He, He Tian
The seasonal outbreak of influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide because a number of influenza virus (IV) strains have been shown to infect and circulate in humans. Development of effective means to timely monitor as well as block IVs is still a challenging task. Whereas conventional fluorescence probes rely on a fluorimetric change upon recognizing IVs, here we developed simple "Supra-dots" that are formed through the aqueous supramolecular assembly between a blue-emitting polymer dot and red-emitting sialylglycan probes for the ratiometric detection of IVs...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702195/molecular-indices-of-viral-disease-development-in-wild-migrating-salmon-%C3%A2
#16
Kristina M Miller, Oliver P Günther, Shaorong Li, Karia H Kaukinen, Tobi J Ming
Infectious diseases can impact the physiological performance of individuals, including their mobility, visual acuity, behavior and tolerance and ability to effectively respond to additional stressors. These physiological effects can influence competitiveness, social hierarchy, habitat usage, migratory behavior and risk to predation, and in some circumstances, viability of populations. While there are multiple means of detecting infectious agents (microscopy, culture, molecular assays), the detection of infectious diseases in wild populations in circumstances where mortality is not observable can be difficult...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698265/risk-factors-for-noninvasive-ventilation-failure-in-critically-ill-subjects-with-confirmed-influenza-infection
#17
Alejandro Rodríguez, Cristina Ferri, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Emili Díaz, Joan R Masclans, Federico Gordo, Jordi Sole-Violán, María Bodí, Francesc X Avilés-Jurado, Sandra Trefler, Monica Magret, Gerard Moreno, Luis F Reyes, Judith Marin-Corral, Juan C Yebenes, Andres Esteban, Antonio Anzueto, Stefano Aliberti, Marcos I Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Despite wide use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in several clinical settings, the beneficial effects of NIV in patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to influenza infection remain controversial. The aim of this study was to identify the profile of patients with risk factors for NIV failure using chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analysis and to determine whether NIV failure is associated with ICU mortality. METHODS: This work was a secondary analysis from prospective and observational multi-center analysis in critically ill subjects admitted to the ICU with ARF due to influenza infection requiring mechanical ventilation...
July 11, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694834/influenza-vaccine-response-in-community-dwelling-german-prefrail-and-frail-individuals
#18
Jürgen M Bauer, Antonio De Castro, Nabil Bosco, Celine Romagny, Rebecca Diekmann, Jalil Benyacoub, Karine Vidal
BACKGROUND: The age-related dysregulation of the immune system in older persons results in reduced responses to vaccination and greater susceptibility to infection, especially in frail individuals who suffer the greatest of morbidity and mortality due to infection. Recently, significantly reduced anti-influenza antibody titers and increased rates of influenza infection after vaccination were reported in community-dwelling American frail older adults. The aim of our study was to further assess the relative impact of frailty and of each individual Fried frailty criterion on influenza vaccine response...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692924/experimental-co-infection-of-infectious-bronchitis-and-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h9n2-viruses-in-commercial-broiler-chickens
#19
Kareem E Hassan, Ahmed Ali, Salama A S Shany, Magdy F El-Kady
In this study, commercial broilers were experimentally infected with single (classical IBV, variant IBV or AIV-H9N2) or mixed AIV-H9N2 with classical, variant or vaccine strains of IBV. Birds were monitored for clinical and pathological outcomes and virus shedding for 10days post infection (DPI). Clinical signs were limited to the respiratory tract in all challenged groups and varied from mild to moderate mouth breathing to severe respiratory signs with snorting sound and extended head. Mortalities were only recorded in mixed AIV-H9N2/variant IBV challenge group...
June 30, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690868/mirna-200c-3p-is-crucial-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#20
Qiang Liu, Jianchao Du, Xuezhong Yu, Jun Xu, Fengming Huang, Xiaoyun Li, Cong Zhang, Xiao Li, Jiahui Chang, Daozhen Shang, Yan Zhao, Mingyao Tian, Huijun Lu, Jiantao Xu, Chang Li, Huadong Zhu, Ningyi Jin, Chengyu Jiang
Influenza infection and pneumonia are known to cause much of their mortality by inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is the most severe form of acute lung injury (ALI). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is a negative regulator of angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin system, has been reported to have a crucial role in ALI. Downregulation of ACE2 is always associated with the ALI or ARDS induced by avian influenza virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus and sepsis...
2017: Cell Discovery
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