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Influenza mortality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105842/absolute-quantification-of-h5-subtype-avian-influenza-viruses-using-droplet-digital-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#1
Yi Hu, Peng Xu, Jing Luo, Hongxuan He, Wenbin Du
Human infection with avian influenza A H5N1 viruses can cause severe diseases with high mortality rate and continues to pose a significant threat to global public health. Rapid diagnosis is needed for identifying the types of influenza viruses for making timely treatment decisions. Here, we demonstrate absolute quantification of H5-subtype influenza viruses by digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dLAMP) on our recently developed cross-interface emulsification (XiE) method. Our results show that XiE-based dLAMP is highly specific and displays comparable sensitivity to real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR)...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104185/causes-and-outcomes-of-sepsis-in-southeast-asia-a-multinational-multicentre-cross-sectional-study
#2
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of pathogens that cause sepsis would aid management and antimicrobial selection. In this study, we aimed to identify the causative pathogens of sepsis in southeast Asia. METHODS: In this multinational multicentre cross-sectional study of community-acquired sepsis and severe sepsis, we prospectively recruited children (age ≥30 days and <18 years) and adults (age ≥18 years) at 13 public hospitals in Indonesia (n=3), Thailand (n=4), and Vietnam (n=6)...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091839/impact-of-the-2014-2015-influenza-season-on-the-activity-of-an-academic-emergency-department
#3
Nicolas Beysard, Bertrand Yersin, Pascal Meylan, Olivier Hugli, Pierre-Nicolas Carron
The morbidity and mortality of the 2014-2015 influenza season were more important than those in previous years. We assessed the impact of the 2014-2015 influenza season on the length of stay (LOS) and workload in an academic emergency department (ED). This is a monocentric retrospective study. The database of the microbiology laboratory was used to identify influenza nasal swabs performed during the influenza seasons from 2010 to 2015. Patients admitted to the ED during these periods were identified through the administrative database and cross-checked with patients who underwent an influenza nasal swab in the ED...
January 16, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088400/hospitalizations-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-vaccine-preventable-infections-in-the-first-2-years-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#4
Amy G Feldman, Shikha S Sundaram, Brenda L Beaty, Allison Kempe
OBJECTIVES: To examine in liver transplant recipients at centers participating in the Pediatric Health Information System dataset the number of hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and vaccine-preventable infections (VPIs) in the first 2 years after transplantation, morbidity and mortality associated with these hospitalizations, and costs associated with these hospitalizations. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients <18 years of age who underwent liver transplantation at a Pediatric Health Information System center between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086957/regulatory-t-cells-and-il10-suppress-pulmonary-host-defense-during-early-life-exposure-to-radical-containing-combustion-derived-ultrafine-particulate-matter
#5
Sridhar Jaligama, Jordy Saravia, Dahui You, Nikki Yadav, Greg I Lee, Bishwas Shrestha, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory tract viral infections in infants. Recent identification of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the PM from a variety of combustion sources suggests its role in the enhancement of disease severity of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs induces pulmonary immunosuppression allowing for enhanced influenza disease severity...
January 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074789/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-severe-influenza-infection-with-respiratory-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Shashvat Sukhal, Jaskaran Sethi, Malini Ganesh, Pedro A Villablanca, Anita K Malhotra, Harish Ramakrishna
INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been extensively used for potentially reversible acute respiratory failure associated with severe influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia; however, it remains an expensive, resource-intensive therapy, with a high associated mortality. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to summarize and pool outcomes data available in the published literature to guide clinical decision-making and further research. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE (1966 to April 15, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to April 15, 2015), CENTRAL, and Google Scholar for patients with severe H1N1 pneumonia and respiratory failure who received ECMO...
January 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073985/population-based-pertussis-incidence-and-risk-factors-in-infants-less-than-6-months-in-nepal
#7
Michelle M Hughes, Janet A Englund, Jane Kuypers, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Steven C LeClerq, Mark Steinhoff, Joanne Katz
BACKGROUND: Pertussis is estimated to cause 2 percent of childhood deaths globally and is a growing public health problem in developed countries despite high vaccination coverage. Infants are at greatest risk of morbidity and mortality. Maternal vaccination during pregnancy may be effective to prevent pertussis in young infants, but population-based estimates of disease burden in infants are lacking, particularly in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of pertussis in infants less than 6 months of age in Sarlahi District, Nepal...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068397/burn-injury-leads-to-increased-long-term-susceptibility-to-respiratory-infection-in-both-mouse-models-and-population-studies
#8
Vanessa S Fear, James H Boyd, Suzanne Rea, Fiona M Wood, Janine M Duke, Mark W Fear
BACKGROUND: Burn injury initiates an acute inflammatory response that subsequently drives wound repair. However, acute disruption to the immune response is also common, leading to susceptibility to sepsis and increased morbidity and mortality. Despite increased understanding of the impact of burn injury on the immune system in the acute phase, little is known about long-term consequences of burn injury on immune function. This study was established to determine whether burn injury has long-term clinical impacts on patients' immune responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067290/chimeric-virus-like-particles-containing-influenza-ha-antigen-and-gpi-ccl28-induce-long-lasting-mucosal-immunity-against-h3n2-viruses
#9
Teena Mohan, Zachary Berman, Yuan Luo, Chao Wang, Shelly Wang, Richard W Compans, Bao-Zhong Wang
Influenza virus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, with worldwide seasonal epidemics. The duration and quality of humoral immunity and generation of immunological memory to vaccines is critical for protective immunity. In the current study, we examined the long-lasting protective efficacy of chimeric VLPs (cVLPs) containing influenza HA and GPI-anchored CCL28 as antigen and mucosal adjuvant, respectively, when immunized intranasally in mice. We report that the cVLPs induced significantly higher and sustainable levels of virus-specific antibody responses, especially IgA levels and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers, more than 8-month post-vaccination compared to influenza VLPs without CCL28 or influenza VLPs physically mixed with sCCL28 (soluble) in mice...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062161/-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-respiratory-infections
#10
José María Marimón, José María Navarro-Marí
Acute respiratory infections are the second cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults worldwide, being viruses, bacteria and fungi involved in their etiology. The rapid diagnosis allows for a better clinical management of the patient, for adopting public health measures and for controlling possible outbreaks. The main etiologic agents can be diagnosed within the first hours after the onset of symptoms with antigen detection techniques, primarily immunochromatography. Results are obtained in 15-30minutes, with 70-90% sensitivity and >95% specificity for the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila serogroup O1 infections from urine, Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs and respiratory syncytial virus from nasopharyngeal aspirates...
January 3, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062008/experimental-infection-of-mandarin-duck-with-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n8-and-h5n1-viruses
#11
Hyun-Mi Kang, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Byung-Min Song, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Joojin Jung, Il Jang, You-Chan Bae, Suk Chan Jung, Youn-Jeong Lee
A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was first detected in poultry and wild birds in South Korea in January 2014. Here, we determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three different clades of H5 viruses in mandarin ducks to examine the potential for wild bird infection. H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mandarin ducks than two previously identified H5N1 virus clades (clades 2.2 and 2.3.2.1). However, none of the mandarin ducks infected with H5N8 and H5N1 viruses showed severe clinical signs or mortality, and gross lesions were only observed in a few tissues...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061848/multi-antigen-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-like-particles-particulate-characterizations-and-immunogenicity-evaluation-in-murine-and-avian-models
#12
Che-Ming Jack Hu, Chu-Yang Chien, Ming-Tsan Liu, Zih-Syun Fang, Sui-Yuan Chang, Rong-Huay Juang, Shih-Chung Chang, Hui-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: Human infection with avian influenza A virus (H7N9) was first reported in China in March 2013. Since then, hundreds of cases have been confirmed showing severe symptoms with a high mortality rate. The virus was transmitted from avian species to humans and has spread to many neighboring areas, raising serious concerns over its pandemic potential. Towards containing the disease, the goal of this study is to prepare a virus-like particle (VLP) that consists of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein 1 (M1) derived from the human isolate A/Taiwan/S02076/2013(H7N9) for potential vaccine development...
January 7, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060980/-obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-complications-during-acute-respiratory-infections-in-children
#13
Loreto Fuenzalida, Diego F García-Díaz
Obesity has a high prevalence among children. On the other hand, acute respiratory infections especially of viral origin, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this age group. During the recent pandemic of influenza A (H1N1) virus, obesity was identified as a novel independent risk factor for severity multiple markers of the disease. We reviewed the evidence associating obesity with a worse course of respiratory diseases in children. Nine out of 40 retrieved articles, were chosen to be reviewed...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060016/excess-respiratory-viral-infections-and-low-antibody-responses-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#14
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana Amaral, Jorge Pinto, Maria L B Teixeira, Regina C M Succi, Laura Freimanis, Jennifer S Read, George Siberry
OBJECTIVE: HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) have frequent severe infection, hospitalization and death. We performed a serologic investigation to determine the role of common childhood respiratory pathogens in the excess incidence of infections in HEUs. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs. METHODS: Among 247 HEUs and 88 HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infant-mother pairs, we measured maternal antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pneumococcus (PNC 1, 5, 6B, 14); infant antibodies to RSV, influenza A (Flu), parainfluenza viruses (PIV 1, 2, 3), and PNC 1, 5, 6B and 14 were measured at 0 and 6 months, and anti-tetanus antibodies at 6 months...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057805/cns-targeted-autoimmunity-leads-to-increased-influenza-mortality-in-mice
#15
Justin D Glenn, Matthew D Smith, Pei Xue, Yee Chan-Li, Samuel Collins, Peter A Calabresi, Maureen R Horton, Katharine A Whartenby
The discovery that central nervous system (CNS)-targeted autoreactive T cells required a process of licensing in the lung revealed an unexpected relationship between these organs. The clinical and immunological significance of this finding is bidirectional in that it showed not only a mechanism by which T cells become pathogenic before entering the CNS, but also the potential for this process to influence lung immunity as well. Epidemiological studies have shown that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, independent of immunosuppressive therapies...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056009/notice-to-readers-final-mmwr-issue-including-table-iii-data
#16
(no author information available yet)
This January 6, 2017, issue of MMWR (Vol. 65, No. 52) will be the last to include data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System in Notifiable Disease and Mortality Tables, Table III ("Number of deaths from pneumonia and influenza and all deaths, by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services region and state").
January 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054228/polymicrobial-pneumococcal-bacteraemia-a-case-control-study
#17
I Grau, C Ardanuy, M H Schulze, J Liñares, R Pallares
Polymicrobial bacteraemia involving Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenza, viridans streptococci, Salmonella spp.) occurred in 3.4% of our pneumococcal bacteraemia cases. Compared with 308 controls (monomicrobial bacteraemia), the 77 polymicrobial cases included more males (83 vs 62%, p = 0.001), had serious underlying diseases (100 vs 80%, p < 0.001), abdominal infection (18 vs 5%, p < 0.001), nosocomial infection (33 vs 8%, p < 0...
January 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049230/a-survey-of-parental-perception-and-pattern-of-action-in-response-to-influenza-like-illness-in-their-children-including-healthcare-use-and-vaccination-in-korea
#18
Ji Hyen Hwang, Chang Hoon Lim, Dong Ho Kim, Byung Wook Eun, Dae Sun Jo, Young Hwan Song, Yun Kyung Kim
Seasonal influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality of children in Korea. However, few data are available on parental perception and action toward childhood influenza. This study aimed to characterize parental perception and patterns of action in response to influenza and influenza-like illnesses (ILIs), including vaccination and healthcare use. This prospective study involved a random survey of parents whose children were aged 6-59 months. The survey was conducted in October 2014. The study included 638 parents of 824 children younger than 6 years...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049046/the-business-cycle-and-mortality-urban-versus-rural-counties
#19
Sediq Sameem, Kevin Sylwester
Many studies have found that mortality declines during recessions, but do such results remain consistent in both urban and rural settings? To help uncover explanations for such a pro-cyclical nature of mortality, the present study revisits this topic but allows for associations between unemployment and mortality to differ between urban and rural areas. Using a total of 66 863 observations across 3066 counties of the U.S. from 1990 to 2013, we allow the coefficient on unemployment to differ between urban and rural counties...
December 23, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045978/cord-blood-acute-phase-reactants-predict-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-in-preterm-infants
#20
Leena B Mithal, Hannah L Palac, Ram Yogev, Linda M Ernst, Karen K Mestan
BACKGROUND: Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. METHODS: In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32...
2017: PloS One
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