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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239636/cognitive-impairment-and-decline-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults-with-high-amyloid-%C3%AE-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Jenalle E Baker, Yen Ying Lim, Robert H Pietrzak, Jason Hassenstab, Peter J Snyder, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
INTRODUCTION: This meta-analysis aimed to characterize the nature and magnitude of amyloid (Aβ)-related cognitive impairment and decline in cognitively normal (CN) older individuals. METHOD: MEDLINE Ovid was searched from 2012 to June 2016 for studies reporting relationships between cerebrospinal fluid or positron emission tomography (PET) Aβ levels and cognitive impairment (cross-sectional) and decline (longitudinal) in CN older adults. Neuropsychological data were classified into domains of episodic memory, executive function, working memory, processing speed, visuospatial function, semantic memory, and global cognition...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239531/brain-structure-working-memory-and-response-inhibition-in-childhood-leukemia-survivors
#2
Ellen van der Plas, Russell J Schachar, Johann Hitzler, Jennifer Crosbie, Sharon L Guger, Brenda J Spiegler, Shinya Ito, Brian J Nieman
INTRODUCTION: Survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approach 95%. At the same time, there is growing concern that chemotherapy causes alterations in brain development and cognitive abilities. We performed MRI measurements of white and gray matter volume to explore how variation in brain structure may be related to cognitive abilities in ALL survivors and healthy controls. METHODS: The sample included 24 male ALL survivors who had completed contemporary treatment 3-11 years prior, and 21 age- and sex-matched controls...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239519/white-matter-integrity-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-and-attention-and-working-memory-deficits-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Jacqueline A Owens, Gershon Spitz, Jennie L Ponsford, Alicia R Dymowski, Nicholas Ferris, Catherine Willmott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The medial forebrain bundle (MFB) contains ascending catecholamine fibers that project to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Damage to these fibers following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may alter extracellular catecholamine levels in the PFC and impede attention and working memory ability. This study investigated white matter microstructure of the medial MFB, specifically the supero-lateral branch (slMFB), following TBI, and its association with performance on attention and working memory tasks...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239364/non-native-speech-learning-in-older-adults
#4
Erin M Ingvalson, Casandra Nowicki, Audrey Zong, Patrick C M Wong
Though there is an extensive literature investigating the ability of younger adults to learn non-native phonology, including investigations into individual differences in younger adults' lexical tone learning, very little is known about older adults' ability to learn non-native phonology, including lexical tone. There are several reasons to suspect that older adults would use different learning mechanisms when learning lexical tone than younger adults, including poorer perception of dynamic pitch, greater reliance on working memory capacity in second language learning, and poorer category learning in older adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238857/asiaticoside-attenuation-of-rotenone-induced-oxidative-burden-in-a-rat-model-of-hemiparkinsonism-by-maintaining-the-phosphoinositide-mediated-synaptic-integrity
#5
Margabandhu Gopi, Arambakkam Janardhanam Vanisree
Asiaticoside (AS), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the Indian medicinal herb Centella asiatica is known to exert a neuroprotective effect by attenuating the neurobehavioral, neurochemical and pathological changes in animal models. However, its potential neuroprotection in rotenone-induced hemiparkinsonism which implicates phospholipid-mediated neurotransmission remains unclear. Therefore, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of AS in rat model of ROT-infused hemiparkinsonism with respect to phosphoinositides-assisted cytodynamics and synaptic function...
February 23, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238775/assessing-the-brain-through-the-eye-new-ways-to-explore-hepatic-encephalopathy
#6
Natalia Arias, Marta Méndez, Ignacio Alcalde, Almudena Íñigo-Portugués, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Jaime Arias, Jorge L Arias
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mHE) has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. However, little is known about treating or diagnosing early impairments in mHE. We studied one of its precipitating factors, portal hypertension which is driving the inflammatory process behind mHE. The purpose was to describe an indirect diagnostic method able to detect the pathology at early stages based on the study of the vascularization and mast cells conjunctival hyperplasia as secondary inflammatory response associated to portal hypertension...
February 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238393/preliminary-evidence-of-improved-cognitive-performance-following-vestibular-rehabilitation-in-children-with-combined-adhd-cadhd-and-concurrent-vestibular-impairment
#7
Younes Lotfi, Nima Rezazadeh, Abdollah Moossavi, Hojjat Allah Haghgoo, Reza Rostami, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Faride Badfar, Sedigheh Farokhi Moghadam, Vahid Sadeghi-Firoozabadi, Yousef Khodabandelou
OBJECTIVE: Balance function has been reported to be worse in ADHD children than in their normal peers. The present study hypothesized that an improvement in balance could result in better cognitive performance in children with ADHD and concurrent vestibular impairment. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of comprehensive vestibular rehabilitation therapy on the cognitive performance of children with combined ADHD and concurrent vestibular impairment. METHODS: Subject were 54 children with combined ADHD...
February 18, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237888/cognitive-fatigue-a-time-based-resource-sharing-account
#8
Guillermo Borragán, Hichem Slama, Mario Bartolomei, Philippe Peigneux
Cognitive Fatigue (CF) is an important confound impacting cognitive performance. How CF is triggered and what are the features that make a cognitive effort perceived as exhausting remain unclear. In the theoretical framework of the Time-based Resource-sharing (TBRS) model (Barrouillet et al., 2004), we hypothesized that CF is an outcome of increased cognitive load due to constrained time to process ongoing cognitive demands. We tested this cognitive load-related CF hypothesis across 2 experiments manipulating both task complexity and cognitive load induced by the processing time interval...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236141/effects-of-age-and-location-in-chinese-relative-clauses-processing
#9
Wenguang He, Na Xu, Runqing Ji
Three experiments investigated Chinese relative clause processing with children, youths and elders using sentence-picture matching and self-paced reading methods. In Experiment 1, we found that object-extracted clause were easier to comprehend than subject-extracted clause , and object-modified relative clause (i.e., object-modified subject-extracted clause[Formula: see text]object-modified object-extracted clause) were difficult to comprehend than subject modified relative clause (subject-modified subject-extracted clause[Formula: see text]subject-modified object-extracted clause)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236135/deriving-theoretical-phase-locking-values-of-a-coupled-cortico-thalamic-neural-mass-model-using-center-manifold-reduction
#10
Yutaro Ogawa, Ikuhiro Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi Kotani, Yasuhiko Jimbo
Cognitive functions such as sensory processing and memory processes lead to phase synchronization in the electroencephalogram or local field potential between different brain regions. There are a lot of computational researches deriving phase locking values (PLVs), which are an index of phase synchronization intensity, from neural models. However, these researches derive PLVs numerically. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on the derivation of a theoretical PLV. In this study, we propose an analytical method for deriving theoretical PLVs from a cortico-thalamic neural mass model described by a delay differential equation...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235816/corpus-callosal-atrophy-and-associations-with-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-disease
#11
Jennifer G Goldman, Ian O Bledsoe, Doug Merkitch, Vy Dinh, Bryan Bernard, Glenn T Stebbins
OBJECTIVE: To investigate atrophy of the corpus callosum on MRI in Parkinson disease (PD) and its relationship to cognitive impairment. METHODS: One hundred patients with PD and 24 healthy control participants underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluations and structural MRI brain scans. Participants with PD were classified as cognitively normal (PD-NC; n = 28), having mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n = 47), or having dementia (PDD; n = 25) by Movement Disorder Society criteria...
February 24, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231478/event-related-brain-potential-indices-of-cognitive-function-and-brain-resource-reallocation-during-working-memory-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, David W Shucard
OBJECTIVE: To examine event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during a visual n-back working memory (WM) task, and test the hypothesis that compensatory brain function may be associated with variance in task performance in MS patients. METHODS: Midline ERPs for 25MS patients and 18 HCs were obtained for a visual n-back task that placed increasing demands on WM. N-back behavioral measures and neuropsychological performance measures of WM were also obtained...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230631/aerobic-exercise-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#13
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Andrea Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with incomplete remission because of negative and cognitive symptoms in a large proportion of patients. Antipsychotic medication is successful in modulating positive symptoms, but only to a lower extent negative symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, development of innovative add-on treatment is highly needed. In this review, recent evidence from clinical studies reveals effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230072/improved-social-interaction-recognition-and-working-memory-with-cannabidiol-treatment-in-a-prenatal-infection-poly-i-c-rat-model
#14
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Ilijana Babic, Xu-Feng Huang, Katrina Weston-Green
Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties, however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction...
February 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229913/increased-risk-of-developing-schizophrenia-in-animals-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke-during-the-gestational-period
#15
Alexandra I Zugno, Mariana B Oliveira, Gustavo A Mastella, Alexandra S A Heylmann, Lara Canever, Felipe D Pacheco, Louyse S Damazio, Sullivan A Citadin, Luiz Antonio de Lucca, Lutiana Roque Simões, Fernanda Malgarin, Josiane Budni, Tatiana Barichello, Patricia F Schuck, João Quevedo
Cigarette smoking during the prenatal period has been investigated as a causative factor of obstetric abnormalities, which lead to cognitive and behavioural changes associated with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate behaviour and AChE activity in brain structures in adult rats exposed to cigarette smoke during the prenatal period. Pregnant rats were divided into non-PCSE (non-prenatal cigarette smoke exposure) and PCSE (prenatal cigarette smoke exposure) groups. On post-natal day 60, the rats received saline or ketamine for 7days and were subjected to behavioural tasks...
February 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229518/transition-to-success-on-the-model-room-task-the-importance-of-improvements-in-working-memory
#16
Lauren E Hartstein, Neil E Berthier
Previous work has shown that children under age 3 often perform very poorly on the model room task, in which they are asked to find a hidden toy based on its location in a scale model. One prominent theory for their failure is that they lack the ability to understand the model as both a physical object and as a symbolic representation of the larger room. A hypothesized additional component is that they need to overcome weak, competing representations of where the object was on a previous trial, and where it is in the present trial, in order to succeed in their search...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227862/effects-of-high-frequency-rtms-on-sleep-deprivation-a-pilot-study
#17
D P Martinez-Cancino, J Azpiroz-Leehan, L Jimenez-Angeles, A Garcia-Quintanar, R Santana-Miranda, D P Martinez-Cancino, J Azpiroz-Leehan, L Jimenez-Angeles, A Garcia-Quintanar, R Santana-Miranda, A Garcia-Quintanar, L Jimenez-Angeles, R Santana-Miranda, J Azpiroz-Leehan, D P Martinez-Cancino
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a neurostimulation technique which has the potential to serve as a unique research tool for investigating a wide variety of fields in cognitive neuroscience. TMS has been approved by the FDA to serve as a treatment to depression and has also been used to evaluate its effects among several conditions such as Alzheimer, Parkinson disease, chronic pain and stroke. High frequency TMS has been previously used with the intention to measure and modulate the negative effects of sleep deprivation in cognitive performance, but there is no consensus about the ideal protocol yet...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227767/regional-brain-activity-that-determines-successful-and-unsuccessful-working-memory-formation
#18
Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono, Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono, Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono
Using EEG source reconstruction with Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP), we investigated the regional brain activity that determines successful memory encoding in two participant groups of high and low accuracy rates. Eighteen healthy young adults performed a sequential fashion of visual Sternberg memory task. The 32-channel EEG was continuously measured during participants performed two 70 trials of memory task. The regional brain activity corresponding to the oscillatory EEG activity in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) during encoding period was analyzed by MSP implemented in SPM8...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227396/supervised-multimodal-fusion-and-its-application-in-searching-joint-neuromarkers-of-working-memory-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#19
Shile Qi, Vince D Calhoun, Theo G M van Erp, Eswar Damaraju, Juan Bustillo, Yuhui Du, Jessica A Turner, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith M Ford, James Voyvodic, Bryon A Mueller, Aysenil Belger, Sarah Mc Ewen, Steven G Potkin, Adrian Preda, F Birn, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui, Shile Qi, Vince D Calhoun, Theo G M van Erp, Eswar Damaraju, Juan Bustillo, Yuhui Du, Jessica A Turner, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith M Ford, James Voyvodic, Bryon A Mueller, Aysenil Belger, Sarah McEwen, Steven G Potkin, Adrian Preda, F Birn, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui
Multimodal fusion is an effective approach to better understand brain disease. To date, most current fusion approaches are unsupervised; there is need for a multivariate method that can adopt prior information to guide multimodal fusion. Here we proposed a novel supervised fusion model, called "MCCAR+jICA", which enables both identification of multimodal co-alterations and linking the covarying brain regions with a specific reference signal, e.g., cognitive scores. The proposed method has been validated on both simulated and real human brain data...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226876/brain-activation-profiles-in-mtbi-evidence-from-erp-activity-of-working-memory-response
#20
Lianyang Li, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, Nikhil Padhye, George Zouridakis, Lianyang Li, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, Nikhil Padhye, George Zouridakis, Nikhil Padhye, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, George Zouridakis, Lianyang Li
In this study we analyzed event related potentials (ERPs) obtained in an N-back working memory test that varied in difficulty from 0- to 2-back. We collected 21 channels of activity from 11 mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients and 7 normal controls, on three different visits, and used the amplitude and latency of the P300 component to characterize the subjects. A preprocessing procedure based on independent component analysis was used first to identify and eliminate electrophysiological noise on a single trial basis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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