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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343279/the-independent-influences-of-heat-strain-and-dehydration-upon-cognition
#1
Anne M J van den Heuvel, Benjamin J Haberley, David J R Hoyle, Nigel A S Taylor, Rodney J Croft
PURPOSE: Many researchers have addressed the potential effects of hyperthermia and dehydration on cognition, often revealing contradictory outcomes. A possible reason for this inconsistency is that experiments may have been inadequately designed for such effects. In this study, the impact of hyperthermia, dehydration and their combination on cognition were evaluated in eight young males, after accounting for a range of experimental limitations. METHODS: Passive heating and thermal clamping at two mean body temperatures (36...
March 25, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340237/pain-and-cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
R Scherder, N Kant, E Wolf, A C M Pijnenburg, E Scherder
Objective. : The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between pain and cognition in patients with multiple sclerosis. Design. : Cross-sectional. Setting. : Nursing home and personal environment of the investigators. Subjects. : Two groups of participants were included: 91 patients with multiple sclerosis and 80 matched control participants. Methods. : The level of pain was measured by the following pain scales: Number of Words Chosen-Affective, Colored Analogue Scale for pain intensity and suffering from pain, and the Faces Pain Scale...
March 15, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340224/the-association-of-context-specific-sitting-time-and-physical-activity-intensity-to-working-memory-capacity-and-academic-achievement-in-young-adults
#3
Mireia Felez-Nobrega, Charles H Hillman, Eva Cirera, Anna Puig-Ribera
To examine combined associations between self-reported context-specific sitting time (ST) and physical activity (PA) with working memory capacity (WMC) and academic achievement in a sample of Spanish adults. Undergraduate students ( n = 371; 21 years ± 3 years, 44% female) were recruited from University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia. Participants completed a 54-item survey that assessed socio-demographic variables (e.g. age, gender, academic year), min/week of light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) intensity PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), min/day of domain-specific ST (Last 7 days sedentary behavior questionnaire) and academic performance (grade point average)...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339998/executive-functioning-in-pediatric-chronic-pain-do-deficits-exist
#4
Karen E Weiss, Cynthia Harbeck-Weber, Michael J Zaccariello, Jacqueline N Kimondo, Tracy E Harrison, Barbara K Bruce
Objective. : Despite ample research documenting deficits in executive functioning for adults with chronic pain, the literature on pediatric patients with chronic pain is limited and provides mixed results. The current study sought to further investigate the nature of executive dysfunction in this population and also examine the relationships between pain intensity, duration, and catastrophizing with sustained attention, working memory, and self- and parent-report of executive functioning...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338977/effects-of-augmenting-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-signaling-on-working-memory-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study-using-acute-d-cycloserine
#5
Jennifer K Forsyth, Peter Bachman, Daniel H Mathalon, Brian J Roach, Elissa Ye, Robert F Asarnow
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been hypothesized to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction. However, the mechanisms through which the NMDAR contributes to individual cognitive functions differ. To explore how NMDAR signaling relates to specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we tested the effects of enhancing NMDAR signaling on working memory and experience-dependent plasticity using d-cycloserine (DCS). Plasticity was assessed using an EEG paradigm that utilizes high-frequency visual stimulation (HFvS) to induce neural potentiation, and 2 learning tasks, the information integration (IIT) and weather prediction (WPT) tasks...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337947/memory-demands-in-linguistic-compensation
#6
Srdan Medimorec, Chandeep Mander, Evan F Risko
Individuals often modify speech characteristics to accommodate their listeners. In the present study we investigate how speakers modify their speech in a dictation task and what this says about their beliefs with respect to the listener's information processing limitations. To do so, we asked participants to either read a set of numbers aloud, or dictate numbers so that another person could write them down. Our results suggest that speech modification in this task was not related to the speakers' differences in working memory capacity, and could represent speakers' attempt to minimize working memory demands of the listener...
March 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337645/maintenance-of-memory-for-melodies-articulation-or-attentional-refreshing
#7
Michael A Nees, Ellen Corrini, Peri Leong, Joanna Harris
Past research on the effects of articulatory suppression on working memory for nonverbal sounds has been characterized by discrepant findings, which suggests that multiple mechanisms may be involved in the rehearsal of nonverbal sounds. In two experiments we examined the potential roles of two theoretical mechanisms of verbal working memory-articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing-in the maintenance of memory for short melodies. In both experiments, participants performed a same-different melody comparison task...
March 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337548/the-effects-of-anxiety-and-situation-specific-context-on-perceptual-motor-skill-a-multi-level-investigation
#8
Oliver R Runswick, André Roca, A Mark Williams, Neil E Bezodis, Jamie S North
We examined the effects of anxiety and situation-specific contextual information on attentional, interpretational, and behavioural processes underpinning perceptual-motor performance as proposed by Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans (Psychological Research 76:747-759; Nieuwenhuys, Oudejans, Psychological Research 76:747-759, 2012) using an in situ task. Twelve skilled cricket batsmen played against a skilled spin bowler under conditions manipulated to induce low and high levels of anxiety and the presence of low and high levels of situation-specific context...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337168/working-memory-capacity-as-a-factor-influencing-the-relationship-between-language-outcome-and-rehabilitation-in-mandarin-speaking-preschoolers-with-congenital-hearing-impairment
#9
Ming Lo, Pei-Hua Chen
Memory processes could account for a significant part of the variance in language performances of hearing-impaired children. However, the circumstance in which the performance of hearing-impaired children can be nearly the same as the performance of hearing children remains relatively little studied. Thus, a group of pre-school children with congenital, bilateral hearing loss and a group of pre-school children with normal hearing were invited to participate in this study. In addition, the hearing-impaired participants were divided into two groups according to their working memory span...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337155/impact-of-different-e-cigarette-generation-and-models-on-cognitive-performances-craving-and-gesture-a-randomized-cross-over-trial-cogecig
#10
Pasquale Caponnetto, Marilena Maglia, Maria Concetta Cannella, Lucio Inguscio, Mariachiara Buonocore, Claudio Scoglio, Riccardo Polosa, Valeria Vinci
Introduction: Most electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette) are designed to look like traditional cigarettes and simulate the visual, sensory, and behavioral aspects of smoking traditional cigarettes. This research aimed to explore whether different e-cigarette models and smokers' usual classic cigarettes can impact on cognitive performances, craving and gesture. Methods: The study is randomized cross-over trial designed to compare cognitive performances, craving, and gesture in subjects who used first generation electronic cigarettes, second generation electronic cigarettes with their usual cigarettes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337121/logo-effects-on-brand-extension-evaluations-from-the-electrophysiological-perspective
#11
Qian Shang, Guanxiong Pei, Shenyi Dai, Xiaoyi Wang
Brand extension typically has two strategies: brand name extension (BN) and brand logo extension (BL). The current study explored which strategy (BN or BL) better enhanced the success of dissimilar brand extension and product promotion in enterprises. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate electrophysiological processes when subjects evaluated their acceptance of the brand extension using a combined picture of S1 and S2. S1 was a famous brand presented by two identity signs (brand name and brand logo)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336496/functional-eeg-network-analysis-in-schizophrenia-evidence-of-larger-segregation-and-deficit-of-modulation
#12
Javier Gomez-Pilar, Alba Lubeiro, Jesús Poza, Roberto Hornero, Marta Ayuso, César Valcárcel, Karim Haidar, José A Blanco, Vicente Molina
OBJECTIVE: Higher mental functions depend on global cerebral functional coordination. Our aim was to study fast modulation of functional networks in schizophrenia that has not been previously assessed. METHODS: Graph-theory was used to analyze the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during an odd-ball task in 57 schizophrenia patients (18 first episode patients, FEPs) and 59 healthy controls. Clustering coefficient (CLC), characteristic path length (PL) and small-worldness (SW) were computed at baseline ([-300 0] ms prior to stimulus delivery) and response ([150 450] ms post-stimulus) windows...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335872/cognitive-impairment-in-euthymic-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Liana R Elias, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Antônio M O Vale, Cristiano A Köhler, Hanne L Kjærstad, Brendon Stubbs, Lars V Kessing, Eduard Vieta, Michael Maes, Benjamin I Goldstein, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating neurocognition in euthymic youths with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases from inception up until March 23, 2016, for original peer-reviewed articles that investigated neurocognition in euthymic youths with BD compared to HCs. Effect sizes (ES) for individual tests were extracted...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335695/impact-of-cognition-and-noise-reduction-on-speech-perception-in-adults-with-unilateral-cochlear-implants
#14
Suzanne Carolyn Purdy, David Welch, Ellen Giles, Catherine Louise Anne Morgan, Renique Tenhagen, Abin Kuruvilla-Mathew
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of cognition and noise reduction (NR) technology in cochlear implants (CIs) on speech perception and listening effort. METHODS: Thirteen adults fitted with unilateral CIs (Nucleus(®) 6, CP900) participated in this study. Participants performed: (I) cognitive tests of working memory and processing speed, (II) speech perception in noise tests, and (III) an auditory-visual dual-task paradigm to quantify listening effort, as a part of the three-phase experimental study...
March 24, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335012/improving-working-memory-performance-in-brain-injured-patients-using-hypnotic-suggestion
#15
Jonas K Lindeløv, Rikke Overgaard, Morten Overgaard
Working memory impairment is prevalent in brain injured patients across lesion aetiologies and severities. Unfortunately, rehabilitation efforts for this impairment have hitherto yielded small or no effects. Here we show in a randomized actively controlled trial that working memory performance can be effectively restored by suggesting to hypnotized patients that they have regained their pre-injury level of working memory functioning. Following four 1-h sessions, 27 patients had a medium-sized improvement relative to 22 active controls (Bayes factors of 342 and 37...
February 4, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334687/neurocognitive-status-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-brain-tumors-in-good-neurological-condition-the-impact-of-tumor-type-volume-and-location
#16
Philipp Hendrix, Elisa Hans, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive function is of great importance in patients with brain tumors. Even patients in good neurological condition may suffer from neurocognitive dysfunction that affects their daily living. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for neurocognitive dysfunction in patients suffering from common supratentorial brain tumors with minor neurological deficits. METHODS: A prospective study evaluating neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with a newly-diagnosed brain tumor in good neurological condition was performed at a major German academic institution...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334189/neural-mechanisms-for-the-benefits-of-stimulus-driven-attention
#17
Katelyn M Wills, Jingtai Liu, Jonathan Hakun, David C Zhu, Eliot Hazeltine, Susan M Ravizza
Stimulus-driven attention can improve working memory (WM) when drawn to behaviorally relevant information, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test competing hypotheses regarding the nature of the benefits of stimulus-driven attention to WM: that stimulus-driven attention benefits WM directly via salience detection, that stimulus-driven attention benefits WM incidentally via cognitive control mechanisms recruited to reduce interference from salient features, or that both mechanisms are co-involved in enhancing WM for salient information...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334138/working-memory-modulation-of-frontoparietal-network-connectivity-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#18
Jesper Duemose Nielsen, Kristoffer H Madsen, Zheng Wang, Zhening Liu, Karl J Friston, Yuan Zhou
Working memory (WM) impairment is regarded as a core aspect of schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms behind this cognitive deficit remain unclear. The connectivity of a frontoparietal network is known to be important for subserving WM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the current study investigated whether WM-dependent modulation of effective connectivity in this network is affected in a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients compared with similarly performing healthy participants during a verbal n-back task...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334075/intrinsic-brain-hub-connectivity-underlies-individual-differences-in-spatial-working-memory
#19
Jin Liu, Mingrui Xia, Zhengjia Dai, Xiaoying Wang, Xuhong Liao, Yanchao Bi, Yong He
Spatial working memory (SWM) is an important component of working memory and plays an essential role in driving high-level cognitive abilities. Recent studies have demonstrated that individual SWM is associated with global brain communication. However, whether specific network nodal connectivity, such as brain hub connectivity, is involved in individual SWM performances remains largely unknown. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data from a large group of 130 young healthy participants and evaluated their SWM performances...
October 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334072/the-lateral-habenula-as-a-relay-of-cortical-information-to-process-working-memory
#20
Victor Mathis, Alexandra Barbelivien, Monique Majchrzak, Chantal Mathis, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Lucas Lecourtier
Working memory is a cognitive ability allowing the temporary storage of information to solve problems or adjust behavior. While working memory is known to mainly depend on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), very few is known about how cortical information are relayed subcortically. By its connectivity, the lateral habenula (lHb) might act as a subcortical relay for cortical information. Indeed, the lHb receives inputs from several mPFC subregions, and recent findings suggest a role for the lHb in online processing of spatial information, a fundamental aspect of working memory...
October 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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