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"Working memory"

Kristin L Szuhany, Danny MacKenzie, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impaired ability to delay rewards, delay discounting (DD), is associated with several problematic conditions in which impulsive decision-making derails long-term goals. Working memory (WM), the ability to actively store and manipulate information, is associated with DD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive priming on DD and to identify moderation of this effect dependent on degree of WM capacity (WMC) and depressed mood. METHODS: A WM task (n-back) was used as a cognitive prime before assessment of DD (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and was compared to a similar prime from an inhibition task in a factorial design in 183 community participants...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Bonnie Auyeung
BACKGROUND: The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Ioana Miruna Balmus, Radu Lefter, Alin Ciobica, Iulia Antioch, Daniela Ababei, Romeo Dobrin
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neuropeptides which together with vasopressin, melatonin, insulin and other hormones can alter both behavior and physiological or neuronal functions. This growing interest on OT roles is also based on the demonstrated beneficial effects as a stress reliever and a social bonding agent. The association between old age and OT was only vaguely studied. Little or few is known on the effect of the OT hormone on the old body. Hereby, we present our preliminary results in the research on behavioral changes regarding the intraperitoneal administration of OT in aged rats...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
David De Vito, Anne E Ferrey, Mark J Fenske, Naseem Al-Aidroos
Ignoring visual stimuli in the external environment leads to decreased liking of those items, a phenomenon attributed to the affective consequences of attentional inhibition. Here we investigated the generality of this "distractor devaluation" phenomenon by asking whether ignoring stimuli represented internally within visual working memory has the same affective consequences. In two experiments we presented participants with two or three visual stimuli and then, after the stimuli were no longer visible, provided an attentional cue indicating which item in memory was the target they would have to later recall, and which were task-irrelevant distractors...
March 15, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Nikhil Krishnan, Daniel B Poll, Zachary P Kilpatrick
Working memory (WM) is limited in its temporal length and capacity. Classic conceptions of WM capacity assume the system possesses a finite number of slots, but recent evidence suggests WM may be a continuous resource. Resource models typically assume there is no hard upper bound on the number of items that can be stored, but WM fidelity decreases with the number of items. We analyze a neural field model of multi-item WM that associates each item with the location of a bump in a finite spatial domain, considering items that span a one-dimensional continuous feature space...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Zude Zhu, Xiaopu Hou, Yiming Yang
Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Charles V Vorhees, Jenna N Sprowles, Samantha L Regan, Michael T Williams
High throughput screens for developmental neurotoxicity (DN) will facilitate evaluation of chemicals and can be used to prioritize those designated for follow-up. DN is evaluated under different guidelines. Those for drugs generally include peri- and postnatal studies and juvenile toxicity studies. For pesticides and commercial chemicals, when triggered, include developmental neurotoxicity studies (DNT) and extended one-generation reproductive toxicity studies. Raffaele et al. (2010) reviewed 69 pesticide DNT studies and found two of the four behavioral tests underperformed...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Damiano Terenzi, Raffaella I Rumiati, Mauro Catalan, Lucia Antonutti, Giovanni Furlanis, Paolo Garlasco, Paola Polverino, Claudio Bertolotti, Paolo Manganotti, Marilena Aiello
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting...
March 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Jeroen Gielen, Wietse Wiels, Jeroen Van Schependom, Jorne Laton, Wim Van Hecke, Paul M Parizel, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Guy Nagels
INTRODUCTION: The paced serial addition test (PSAT) is regularly used to assess cognitive deficits in various neuropsychiatric conditions. Being a complex test, it reflects the status of multiple cognitive domains such as working memory, information processing speed and executive functioning. Two versions of the PSAT exist. One uses auditory stimuli through spoken numbers and is known as the PASAT, while the other one presents patients with visual stimuli and is called PVSAT. The PASAT is considered more frustrating by patients, and hence the visual version is usually preferred...
2018: PloS One
Erin L Beatty, Alexandra Muller-Gass, Dorothy Wojtarowicz, Marie-Eve Jobidon, Ingrid Smith, Quan Lam, Oshin Vartanian
Humans rely on topographical memory to encode information about spatial aspects of environments. However, even though people adopt different strategies when learning new maps, little is known about the impact of those strategies on topographical memory, and their neural correlates. To examine that issue, we presented participants with 40 unfamiliar maps, each of which displayed one major route and three landmarks. Half were instructed to memorize the maps by focusing on the route, whereas the other half memorized the maps by focusing on the landmarks...
March 14, 2018: Neuroreport
Tabitha C Peck, My Doan, Kimberly A Bourne, Jessica J Good
The underrepresentation of women in technical and STEM fields is a well-known problem, and stereotype threatening situations have been linked to the inability to recruit and retain women into these fields. Virtual reality enables the unique ability to perform body-swap illusions, and research has shown that these illusions can change participant behavior. Characteristically people take on the traits of the avatar they are embodying. We hypothesized that female participants embodying male avatars when a stereotype threat was made salient would demonstrate stereotype lift...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Lison Fanuel, Sophie Portrat, Barbara Tillmann, Gaën Plancher
Recent evidence suggests that working memory (WM) performance can be enhanced in the presence of an isochronous rhythm during the retention interval because it improves refreshing. Considering the cognitive load (CL) effect as an indicator of refreshing, the present study investigated whether an isochronous rhythm might benefit memory performance under varying cognitive load. For that goal, the presence of a regular rhythm and the cognitive load of the concurrent task (i.e., reading of digits that were either same or different within a trial) were systematically varied...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Yoav Kessler
Removal has been suggested to play a key role in controlling the contents of working memory. The present study examined the aftereffects of removal in a working memory updating task. Participants performed the reference-back paradigm, a version of the n-back task that is composed of two trial types: reference trials that required working memory updating and comparison trials that did not require updating. N-2 repetition effects-the difference in performance between trials that presented the same stimulus as the one presented two trials before (ABA sequences) and trials in which the stimulus differed from the two previous stimuli (ABC sequences)-were examined...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Valérie Camos, Matthew Johnson, Vanessa Loaiza, Sophie Portrat, Alessandra Souza, Evie Vergauwe
Working memory is one of the most important topics of research in cognitive psychology. The cognitive revolution that introduced the computer metaphor to describe human cognitive functioning called for this system in charge of the temporary storage of incoming or retrieved information to permit its processing. In the past decades, one particular mechanism of maintenance, attentional refreshing, has attracted an increasing amount of interest in the field of working memory. However, this mechanism remains rather mysterious, and its functioning is conceived in very different ways across the literature...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Artur C Jaschke, Henkjan Honing, Erik J A Scherder
Background: Research on the effects of music education on cognitive abilities has generated increasing interest across the scientific community. Nonetheless, longitudinal studies investigating the effects of structured music education on cognitive sub-functions are still rare. Prime candidates for investigating a relationship between academic achievement and music education appear to be executive functions such as planning, working memory, and inhibition. Methods: One hundred and forty-seven primary school children, Mage = 6...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Alex Lau-Zhu, Emily A Holmes, Sally Butterfield, Joni Holmes
Recent experimental and clinical research has suggested that Tetris game play can disrupt maladaptive forms of mental imagery because Tetris competes for limited cognitive resources within visuospatial working memory (WM) that contribute to imagery. Whether or not Tetris performance is selectively associated with visuospatial WM remains to be tested. In this study, young adults (N = 46) completed six standardized measures indexing verbal and non-verbal reasoning, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory, and verbal and visuospatial WM...
July 2017: Applied Cognitive Psychology
Arun Gupta, Pratima Murthy, Shobini Rao
Chronic use of mind altering substances can lead to a wide variety of neuropsychological deficits, affecting the domains of attention, learning, memory, reasoning. Executive functions such as working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control may specifically be impaired. These deficits can impact engagement in effective psychosocial interventions. Mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction may not be picked up in routine clinical examination or through commonly used tests like the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Christopher Wass, Bruno Sauce, Alessandro Pizzo, Louis D Matzel
In both humans and mice, performance on tests of intelligence or general cognitive ability (GCA) is related to dopamine D1 receptor-mediated activity in the prelimbic cortex, and levels of DRD1 mRNA predict the GCA of mice. Here we assessed the turnover rate of D1 receptors as well as the expression level of the D1 chaperone protein (DRiP78) in the medial PPC (mPFC) of mice to determine whether rate of receptor turnover was associated with variations in the GCA of genetically heterogeneous mice. Following assessment of GCA (aggregate performance on four diverse learning tests) mice were administered an irreversible dopamine receptor antagonist (EEDQ), after which the density of new D1 receptors were quantified...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vessela Stamenova, Brian Levine
Our objective was to review the literature and quantitatively summarise the effectiveness of Goal Management Training® (GMT) (alone or in combination with other training approaches) in improving executive functions in adult populations. Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global were searched for articles citing "goal management training". Any group trials (n > 3) in adults that used multiple-session GMT programmes were included in the analyses. Outcome variables were extracted and classified into one of nine cognitive measures domains: executive functioning tasks, everyday executive functioning tasks, subjective executive tasks rated by the patient, subjective executive tasks rated by proxy, working memory, speed of processing, long-term memory, instrumental activities of daily living and general mental health status questionnaires...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Anand Rughani, Jason M Schwalb, Christos Sidiropoulos, Julie Pilitsis, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Jennifer A Sweet, Sandeep Mittal, Alberto J Espay, Jorge Gonzalez Martinez, Aviva Abosch, Emad Eskandar, Robert Gross, Ron Alterman, Clement Hamani
QUESTION 1: Is bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) more, less, or as effective as bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as measured by improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (UPDRS-III) scores? RECOMMENDATION: Given that bilateral STN DBS is at least as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (as measured by improvements in UPDRS-III scores), consideration can be given to the selection of either target in patients undergoing surgery to treat motor symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
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