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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331872/effect-of-physical-activity-on-cognitive-flexibility-depression-and-rbd-in-healthy-elderly
#1
Stefanie Lerche, Alexandra Gutfreund, Kathrin Brockmann, Markus A Hobert, Isabel Wurster, Ulrike Sünkel, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Florian G Metzger, Walter Maetzler, Daniela Berg
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease increases with the raising number of elderly, which will be a challenging situation for the healthcare systems and society in the future. There is evidence that there are modifiable risk-factors e.g. physical activity for these diseases. Here, we study the interaction between sports inactivity with prodromal markers for neurodegeneration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated 667 neurologically healthy individuals cross-sectional and a subgroup longitudinal over six years...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331837/spontaneous-focusing-on-numerosity-in-preschool-as-a-predictor-of-mathematical-skills-and-knowledge-in-the-fifth-grade
#2
Cristina E Nanu, Jake McMullen, Petriina Munck, Minna M Hannula-Sormunen
Previous studies in a variety of countries have shown that there are substantial individual differences in children's spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON), and these differences are positively related to the development of early numerical skills in preschool and primary school. A total of 74 5-year-olds participated in a 7-year follow-up study, in which we explored whether SFON measured with very small numerosities at 5 years of age predicts mathematical skills and knowledge, math motivation, and reading in fifth grade at 11 years of age...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331727/individual-variation-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-fear-extinction-performance
#3
Daniel M Stout, Dean T Acheson, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331690/effect-of-depressive-symptoms-on-the-evolution-of-neuropsychological-functions-over-the-course-of-adolescence
#4
Mohammad H Afzali, Maeve Oleary-Barrett, Jean R Séguin, Patricia Conrod
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive understanding of the association between depression and neuropsychological functioning over the course of adolescence requires developmentally sensitive assessment through longitudinal data. The aim of current study is to examine the concurrent and subsequent effects of depressive symptoms on the initial level and evolution of four neuropsychological functioning domains (i.e., spatial working memory, delayed recall memory, perceptual reasoning, and inhibitory control)...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331440/the-effect-of-bilateral-eye-movements-versus-no-eye-movements-on-sexual-fantasies
#5
Ross M Bartels, Leigh Harkins, Samantha C Harrison, Nikki Beard, Anthony R Beech
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. METHODS: Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330626/low-frequency-rtms-in-the-superior-parietal-cortex-affects-the-working-memory-in-horizontal-axis-during-the-spatial-task-performance
#6
Jéssica Alves Ribeiro, Francisco Victor Costa Marinho, Kaline Rocha, Francisco Magalhães, Abrahão Fontes Baptista, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Mauricio Cagy, Victor Hugo Bastos, Daya Gupta, Silmar Teixeira
Spatial working memory has been extensively investigated with different tasks, treatments, and analysis tools. Several studies suggest that low frequency of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the parietal cortex may influence spatial working memory (SWM). However, it is not yet known if after low-frequency rTMS applied to the superior parietal cortex, according to Pz electroencephalography (EEG) electrode, would change the orientation interpretation about the vertical and horizontal axes coordinates in an SWM task...
January 12, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330571/impact-of-motor-task-execution-on-an-individual-s-ability-to-mirror-forearm-positions
#7
Netta Gurari, Justin M Drogos, Shawn Lopez, Julius P A Dewald
This work is motivated by our goal of determining why individuals with stroke are impaired when locating their arms in space. We assessed the ability of individuals without neurological impairments to mirror their forearms during various motor tasks so that we could identify baseline performance in an unimpaired population. Nine right-hand dominant participants without neurological impairments mirrored forearm positions bi-directionally (i.e., right forearm mirrors left forearm, vice versa) for three motor tasks (i...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329741/sex-differences-of-hippocampal-structure-in-bipolar-disorder
#8
Jing Shi, Hua Guo, Fengmei Fan, Hongzhen Fan, Huimei An, Zhiren Wang, Shuping Tan, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan
Although differential patterns in clinical characteristics have been consistently noted between male and female patients with bipolar disorder (BD), the effect of sex on the hippocampal structure remains unclear. To address this, the present study investigated the effects of BD and sex on the hippocampal structure, and the relationship between the hippocampal structure and cognitive performance. Morphometric and neurocognitive analyses were performed in 91 subjects (patients with BD: male/female = 33/19; normal controls: male/female = 22/17)...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329385/reassessing-the-evidence-for-capacity-limits-in-neural-signals-related-to-working-memory
#9
Paul M Bays
In 2004, two landmark studies described the discovery of brain imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography) signals that increase with the number of items held in visual working memory (WM). These studies claimed that the signals leveled off (plateaued) once the number of memoranda reached the capacity of WM, as estimated by the prevailing model of the time. However, alternative models were not considered, and changing concepts of WM in the more than a decade since these studies were published necessitate a re-evaluation of their findings; newer models that provide the most accurate account of behavioral data do not incorporate a fixed limit on the number of items stored...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329371/alcohol-use-in-adolescence-and-later-working-memory-findings-from-a-large-population-based-birth-cohort
#10
Liam Mahedy, Matt Field, Suzanne Gage, Gemma Hammerton, Jon Heron, Matt Hickman, Marcus R Munafò
Aims: The study aimed to examine the association between adolescent alcohol use and working memory (WM) using a large population sample. Methods: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used to investigate the association between alcohol use at age 15 years and WM 3 years later, assessed using the N-back task (N ~ 3300). A three-category ordinal variable captured mutually exclusive alcohol groupings ranging in order of severity (i.e. low alcohol users, frequent drinkers and frequent/binge drinkers)...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327497/congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-broader-cognitive-deficits-revealed-by-parent-controls
#11
Frank A Zelko, Tracey M Stewart, Cindy D Brogadir, Casey M Rand, Debra E Weese-Mayer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate neurocognitive deficits in children with Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) by comparing them to their parents, since parents comprise a particularly suitable control group matched on disease-extrinsic factors that can influence neurocognitive functioning. We compared CCHS patients to their parents and to population norms, hypothesizing that they would obtain lower intelligence test scores than both groups. We also compared patient-parent differences against patient-normative differences, to determine whether the two analytic approaches would yield different results...
January 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325715/orexin-knockout-mice-exhibit-impaired-spatial-working-memory
#12
Ruozhi Dang, Qiuhan Chen, Jie Song, Chao He, Jun Zhang, Jianxia Xia, Zhian Hu
Orexins play a crucial role in the maintenance of arousal and are involved in the modulation of diverse physiological process, including cognitive function. Recent data have suggested that orexins are involved in learning and memory processes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of orexin deficiency on working memory. A delayed non-matching-to-place T-maze task was used to evaluate spatial working memory in mice lacking orexin prepro-peptide (orexin knockout; KO) and wild-type controls. We demonstrated that the number of correct choices in the orexin KO mice became lower than that of the controls over training...
January 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324924/mobile-phone-use-for-5-minutes-can-cause-significant-memory-impairment-in-humans
#13
F Kalafatakis, D Bekiaridis-Moschou, Eirini Gkioka, Magda Tsolaki
INTRODUCTION: Concerns about the possible adverse health effects of mobile phones (MP) have increased along with the expansion of their use. A number of research papers have tried to address this issue. Although many investigations concluded that MP use does have negative consequences, in terms of cognitive function of the human brain, the results so far have been divisive. A number of studies reported impairment of cognitive function after exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field (MP EMF), while others observed no effect or improved performance...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324862/taking-two-to-tango-fmri-analysis-of-improvised-joint-action-with-physical-contact
#14
Léa A S Chauvigné, Michel Belyk, Steven Brown
Many forms of joint action involve physical coupling between the participants, such as when moving a sofa together or dancing a tango. We report the results of a novel two-person functional MRI study in which trained couple dancers engaged in bimanual contact with an experimenter standing next to the bore of the magnet, and in which the two alternated between being the leader and the follower of joint improvised movements. Leading showed a general pattern of self-orientation, being associated with brain areas involved in motor planning, navigation, sequencing, action monitoring, and error correction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324745/proof-of-concept-study-of-an-at-home-engaging-digital-intervention-for-pediatric-adhd
#15
Naomi O Davis, Jeffrey Bower, Scott H Kollins
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have limited impact on the distinct neurocognitive impairments associated with ADHD, and existing cognitive training programs have shown limited efficacy. This proof-of-concept study assessed treatment acceptability and explored outcomes for a novel digital treatment targeting cognitive processes implicated in ADHD. METHOD: Participants included 40 children with ADHD and 40 children without ADHD. Following psychiatric screening, ADHD ratings, and baseline neuropsychological measures, participants completed 28-days of at-home treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322860/antenatal-and-neonatal-antecedents-of-executive-dysfunctions-in-extremely-preterm-children
#16
Alan Leviton, Robert M Joseph, Elizabeth N Allred, T Michael O'Shea, H Gerry Taylor, Karl K C Kuban
To find out why children born extremely preterm are at heightened risk of executive dysfunctions, the authors assessed 716 children who were 10 years old born extremely preterm whose IQ was ≥ 70. A working memory dysfunction (n = 169), an inhibition dysfunction (n = 360), a switching dysfunction (355), and all 3 (executive dysfunction; n = 107) were defined on the basis of Z-scores ≤ -1 on the Differential Ability Scales-II Working Memory composite, and/or on the NEPSY-II Inhibition-Inhibition and Inhibition-Switching subtests...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321658/slower-time-estimation-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Carmelo M Vicario, Kim L Felmingham
Cognitive deficits in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms suggest there may be an underlying and persistent problem with temporal processing in PTSD, but this question has not been systematically examined. We investigated the ability of a group of PTSD participants in estimating the duration of supra-second visual stimuli relative to healthy controls. The data of 59 participants with PTSD and 62 healthy controls, collected from the BRID database, have been examined. Overall, our results indicate that PTSD patients overestimate the duration of the displayed stimuli...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321584/the-critical-role-of-phase-difference-in-theta-oscillation-between-bilateral-parietal-cortices-for-visuospatial-working-memory
#18
Philip Tseng, Kai-Chi Iu, Chi-Hung Juan
Visual working memory (VWM) refers to people's ability to maintain and manipulate visual information on line. Its capacity varies between individuals, and neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between one's VWM capacity and theta power in the parietal cortex. However, it is unclear how the parietal cortices communicate with each other in order to support VWM processing. In two experiments we employed transcranial alternate current stimulation (tACS) to use frequency-specific (6 Hz) alternating current to modulate theta oscillation between the left and right parietal cortex with either in-phase (0° difference, Exp 1), anti-phase (180° difference, Exp 2), or sham sinusoidal current stimulation...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320933/gray-matter-networks-and-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Carolina M Rimkus, Menno M Schoonheim, Martijn D Steenwijk, Hugo Vrenken, Anand Jc Eijlers, Joep Killestein, Mike P Wattjes, Claudia C Leite, Frederik Barkhof, Betty M Tijms
BACKGROUND: Coordinated patterns of gray matter morphology can be represented as networks, and network disruptions may explain cognitive dysfunction related to multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether single-subject gray matter network properties are related to impaired cognition in MS. METHODS: We studied 148 MS patients (99 female) and 33 healthy controls (HC, 21 female). Seven network parameters were computed and compared within MS between cognitively normal and impaired subjects, and associated with performance on neuropsychological tests in six cognitive domains with regression models...
January 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319333/an-investigation-of-executive-functioning-in-pediatric-anxiety
#20
Yolanda E Murphy, Anna Luke, Elle Brennan, Sarah Francazio, Isabella Christopher, Christopher A Flessner
Although science's understanding (e.g., etiology, maintaining factors, etc.) of pediatric anxiety and related problems has grown substantially over recent years, several aspects to anxiety in youths remain elusive, particularly with relation to executive functioning. To this end, the current study sought to examine several facets to executive functioning (i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition, planning, working memory) within a transdiagnostic sample of youths exhibiting varying degrees of anxiety symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
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