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"Working memory"

Kurt K Hubbard, Diane Blyler
Research involving working memory has indicated that stress and anxiety compete for attentional resources when a person engages in attention-dependent cognitive processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived stress and state anxiety on working memory and academic performance among health science students and to explore whether the reduction of stress and anxiety was achieved through progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training. A convenience sample of 128 graduate students participated in this study...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
D D Correa, J C Root, M Kryza-Lacombe, M Mehta, S Karimi, M L Hensley, N Relkin
Women with ovarian cancer often undergo chemotherapy involving multiple agents. However, little is known about treatment-related central neurotoxicity in this population. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess brain structure and function and neurocognitive abilities in patients with ovarian cancer following first-line chemotherapy. Eighteen patients with ovarian, peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer and eighteen healthy controls matched for gender, age and education participated in the study...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Juliet Shih, Heather Leutwyler, Christine Ritchie, Steven M Paul, Jon D Levine, Bruce Cooper, Fay Wright, Yvette P Conley, Christine Miaskowski
PURPOSE: Between 14 and 85 % of patients report noticeable changes in cognitive function during chemotherapy (CTX). The purposes of this study were to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with inter-individual variability in initial levels of attentional function as well as with changes in the trajectories of attentional function in a sample of oncology patients who received two cycles of CTX. METHODS: Oncology outpatients (n = 1329) were recruited from two comprehensive cancer centers, one veteran's affairs hospital, and four community-based oncology programs...
October 20, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Julia Vakhrusheva, Brielle Marino, T Scott Stroup, David Kimhy
Schizophrenia is characterized by extensive neurocognitive deficits, which are linked to greater disability, poorer functional outcome, and have been suggested to impact daily functioning more than clinical symptoms. Aerobic exercise (AE) has emerged as a potential intervention. This review examines the impact of AE on brain structure and function along with neurocognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence indicates that AE can increase hippocampal volume and cortical thickness, in addition to exerting a neuroprotective effect against hippocampal volume decrease and cortical thinning...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Janna M Gottwald, Sheila Achermann, Carin Marciszko, Marcus Lindskog, Gustaf Gredebäck
The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasks-involving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibition-and a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants' performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks...
October 7, 2016: Psychological Science
Neila Maria R de Lima, Emerson de O Ferreira, Mara Yone S D Fernandes, Francisco Arnaldo V de Lima, Kelly Rose T Neves, Marta Regina S do Carmo, Geanne M de Andrade
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of ischemic brain damage. Astrocyte activation promotes the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and iNOS. Eventually, neuronal death occurs, leading to the development of motor and memory deficits in patients. Boldine is the main alkaloid in the leaves and bark of the Peumus boldus Molina, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of boldine on neuroinflammation and memory deficits induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice...
October 19, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Daniel Ben-Eliezer, Eldad Yechiam
Considered an antidepressant and anti-anxiety agent, Hypericum perforatum affects multiple neurotransmitters in a non-competitive synergistic manner, and may have nootropic potential. We quantitatively reviewed the pre-clinical literature to examine if there is a cognitive-enhancing effect of H. perforatum in healthy rodents. Additionally, within these studies, we compared the effects observed in intact rodents versus those whose performance has been impaired, mostly through stress manipulations. The meta-analysis incorporated studies that examined the effect of H...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Laura Whitton, Donna Cosgrove, Christopher Clarkson, Denise Harold, Kimberley Kendall, Alex Richards, Kiran Mantripragada, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, James Walters, Annette Hartmann, Betina Konte, Dan Rujescu, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Stephen Rea, Gary Donohoe, Derek W Morris
Epigenetic mechanisms are an important heritable and dynamic means of regulating various genomic functions, including gene expression, to orchestrate brain development, adult neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. These processes when perturbed are thought to contribute to schizophrenia pathophysiology. A core feature of schizophrenia is cognitive dysfunction. For genetic disorders where cognitive impairment is more severe such as intellectual disability, there are a disproportionally high number of genes involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Linda Chang, Gro C Løhaugen, Tamara Andres, Caroline S Jiang, Vanessa Douet, Naomi Tanizaki, Christina Walker, Deborrah Castillo, Ahnate Lim, Jon Skranes, Chad Otoshi, Eric N Miller, Thomas M Ernst
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an adaptive-working memory training (WMT) program, the corresponding neural correlates, and LMX1A-rs4657412 polymorphism on the adaptive-WMT, in HIV-participants compared to seronegative controls (SN). METHODS: 201/206 qualified participants completed baseline assessments before randomization to 25-sessions of adaptive-WMT or non-adaptive-WMT. 74/76 (34HIV, 42SN) completed adaptive-WMT and all 40 completed non-adaptive-WMT (20HIV, 20SN) and were assessed after 1-month, and 55 adaptive-WMT-participants were also assessed after 6-months...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Cecilia U D Stenfors, Linda M Hanson, Töres Theorell, Walter S Osika
Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV) health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Alessandro D'Ambrosio, Elisabetta Pagani, Gianna C Riccitelli, Bruno Colombo, Mariaemma Rodegher, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of cerebellar sub-regions on motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Whole and sub-regional cerebellar volumes, brain volumes, T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (LV), and motor performance scores were obtained from 95 relapse-onset MS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). MS patients also underwent an evaluation of working memory and processing speed functions. Cerebellar anterior and posterior lobes were segmented using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox (SUIT) from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12)...
October 19, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
J Zhao, Y Zhang, Y Y Chao, J Ma, Y F Yang, J Y Zhao, Y H Du, W W Li, X Q Song, L X Lü
Objective: To study the impairments of cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia and the potential effectiveness of risperidone and olanzapine monotherapy on first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 57 first-episode schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls were assessed at baseline, and patients were assessed again after 8-week antipsychotics therapy. Results: The positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) reductive ratio between the two groups was similar. At baseline, the performance of schizophrenia patients was significant poor than healthy controls in the four domains of cognitive function (P<0...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Marie McCann, Donna M Bayliss, Mike Anderson, Catherine Campbell, Noel French, Judy McMichael, Corinne Reid, Romola S Bucks
In two studies, the relationship between sleep and working memory performance was investigated in children born very preterm (i.e., gestation less than 32 weeks) and the possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. In Study 1, parent-reported measures of snoring, night-time sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were collected on 89 children born very preterm aged 6 to 7 years. The children completed a verbal working memory task, as well as measures of processing speed and verbal storage capacity. Night-time sleep quality was found to be associated with verbal working memory performance over and above the variance associated with individual differences in processing speed and storage capacity, suggesting that poor sleep may have an impact on the executive component of working memory...
October 19, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Giuseppe Pastura, Tadeu Takao Almodovar Kubo, Maria Angélica Regalla, Cíntia Machado Mesquita, Gabriel Coutinho, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto, Otávio Figueiredo, Paulo Mattos, Alexandra Prüfer de Queiroz Campos Araújo
Objective: To perform a pilot study to investigate the association between working memory and cortical thickness in a sample of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods: Seventeen children aged 7-10 years diagnosed with ADHD and 16 healthy children underwent a magnetic resonance scan for cortical thickness measurements. Data was correlated with working memory performance using the Backwards Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Kelsey E Smith, Jeffrey Schatz
Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for working memory deficits due to multiple disease processes. We assessed working memory abilities and related functions in 32 school-age children with SCD and 85 matched comparison children using Baddeley's working memory model as a framework. Children with SCD performed worse than controls for working memory, central executive function, and processing/rehearsal speed. Central executive function was found to mediate the relationship between SCD status and working memory, but processing speed did not...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
J D Huntley, A Hampshire, D Bor, A Owen, R J Howard
BACKGROUND: Interventions that improve cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease are urgently required. AIMS: To assess whether a novel cognitive training paradigm based on 'chunking' improves working memory and general cognitive function, and is associated with reorganisation of functional activity in prefrontal and parietal cortices (trial registration: ISRCTN43007027). METHOD: Thirty patients with mild Alzheimer's disease were randomly allocated to receive 18 sessions of 30 min of either adaptive chunking training or an active control intervention over approximately 8 weeks...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Louise A Brown
Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael C Trumbo, Laura E Matzen, Brian A Coffman, Michael A Hunter, Aaron P Jones, Charles S H Robinson, Vincent P Clark
Although working memory (WM) training programs consistently result in improvement on the trained task, benefit is typically short-lived and extends only to tasks very similar to the trained task (i.e., near transfer). It is possible that pairing repeated performance of a WM task with brain stimulation encourages plasticity in brain networks involved in WM task performance, thereby improving the training benefit. In the current study, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was paired with performance of a WM task (n-back)...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Jeanette M Johnstone, Chelsea Roake, Ifrah Sheikh, Ashlie Mole, Joel T Nigg, Barry Oken
Adolescents are in a high-risk period developmentally, in terms of susceptibility to stress. A mindfulness intervention represents a potentially useful strategy for developing cognitive and emotion regulation skills associated with successful stress coping. Mindfulness strategies have been used successfully for emotional coping in adults, but are not as well studied in youth. This article details a novel proposal for the design of an 8-week randomized study to evaluate a high school-based mindfulness curriculum delivered as part of a two semester health class...
December 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
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