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"Early School Leaving"

Camilla Borgna, Emanuela Struffolino
Compared to girls, boys are more at risk of early school leaving. However, it is unclear whether gender differences are driven by push factors, which alienate students from the school system, or pull factors, which attract them out of it. This paper examines gender differences in early school leaving, assessing the role of previous scholastic performance, parental education, and differential employment opportunities. By analyzing two nationally representative datasets, we focus on Italy, a country with high rates of early school leaving and pronounced gender inequalities in the labor market...
January 2017: Social Science Research
Delphine Theobald, David P Farrington, Maria M Ttofi, Rebecca V Crago
BACKGROUND: Dating violence is an important problem. Evidence suggests that women are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. AIMS: The present study investigates the prevalence of dating violence compared with cohabiting violence in a community sample of men and women and assesses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict this behaviour. A secondary aim is to construct a risk score for dating violence based on the strongest risk factors...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Carla Haelermans, Kristof De Witte
This paper explores the impact of residential mobility on educational outcomes. By considering a large Dutch city with substantial internal residential mobility, we examine how residential mobility influences the decision of students to drop out of school. The paper exploits a rich administrative dataset with extensive information on educational, individual, family, housing and moving characteristics of students. It combines a matching design with a multivariate regression analysis, such that the evaluation draws on a well-comparable control group for the treated students...
July 2015: Social Science Research
Wayne Hall
AIMS: To examine changes in the evidence on the adverse health effects of cannabis since 1993. METHODS: A comparison of the evidence in 1993 with the evidence and interpretation of the same health outcomes in 2013. RESULTS: Research in the past 20 years has shown that driving while cannabis-impaired approximately doubles car crash risk and that around one in 10 regular cannabis users develop dependence. Regular cannabis use in adolescence approximately doubles the risks of early school-leaving and of cognitive impairment and psychoses in adulthood...
January 2015: Addiction
Pascale Esch, Valéry Bocquet, Charles Pull, Sophie Couffignal, Torsten Lehnert, Marc Graas, Laurence Fond-Harmant, Marc Ansseau
BACKGROUND: Most psychiatric disorders present symptom patterns that cause severe impairment on the emotional, cognitive and social level. Thus, adolescents who suffer from a mental disorder risk finding themselves in a downward spiral caused by the reciprocal association of psychological symptoms and negative school experiences that may culminate in early school leaving. In addition to previous collective work that mainly focused on school refusing behaviour among children and was presented as an expert's opinion, the following systematic review fills the knowledge gap by providing a structured overview of the bidirectional association between mental health and secondary school dropout based on a sound methodology and with a particular focus on mediating factors...
2014: BMC Psychiatry
François Beck, Romain Guignard, Jean-Baptiste Richard
Cannabis is by far the most common illicit drug in France. Among 15-64 years, 32.1% have already experienced it and 8.4% declare they have used it at least once during the past twelve months. In Europe, France is one of the countries with the highest prevalence. Males are markedly more often cannabis users than females and this gender gap tends to increase with the level of use. During the last two decades, the part of the population having tried cannabis did not stop increasing, under the influence of a generalization of the cannabis experience among young people...
December 2013: La Revue du Praticien
D J Stipek
The desirability of secondary schooling has recently been challenged and a policy of allowing adolescents to enter work environments at an earlier age has been advocated. The potential losses in intellectual development that might result from early school leaving are assessed by reviewing evidence on the contribution of high schools and work to adolescents' intellectual development. The paper concludes that while students who have mastered basic skills may benefit from early work experience, students who have not achieved a level of intellectual development that would allow them to function as responsible adults should remain in an educational setting that is more likely to raise their skill level than a work environment...
April 1981: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Karin J H Verweij, Anja C Huizink, Arpana Agrawal, Nicholas G Martin, Michael T Lynskey
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that early cannabis use is correlated with poor educational performance including high school drop-out. The predominant explanation for this relationship is that cannabis use causes disengagement from education. Another explanation is that the association between early cannabis use and educational attainment is not causal, but the result of overlapping risk factors that increase the likelihood of both early cannabis use and disengagement from education...
December 1, 2013: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Afifa Abdelkafi Koubaa, Samira Bouslama, Najet Bel Abed, Hayet Dahmen, Zvine Mira Gabsi, Abdallah Gabsi, Nabil Ouerfelli, Mohamed Taher Mabaouj, Imen Bachouche
AIM: To assess the main reasons for the school failure in a school in Zaghouan, how to handle these issues, to evaluate the work of the school social office. METHODS: A retrospective study included 86 failure cases in a school in Zaghouan, handled by the school social office for three years (2004 - 2007). He have detected the principals causes of school failure, detected by the educational staff or by the listening office. RESULTS: The causes of failure are mainly social (46%) as family problems and low income...
October 2011: La Tunisie Médicale
Paul Anisef, Robert S Brown, Kelli Phythian, Robert Sweet, David Walters
While education statistics confirm that there is little difference in the dropout rates of native-born and immigrant youth, analyses of Toronto District School Board (TDSB) data have revealed significant variation in school persistence within immigrant groups. Among newcomer youth, the decision to leave school early has been reported to be strongly influenced by socioeconomic status as well as such factors as country of origin, age at arrival, generational status, family structure, and academic performance...
May 2010: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
Harriet A Ball, Sisira H Siribaddana, Athula Sumathipala, Yulia Kovas, Nick Glozier, Peter McGuffin, Matthew Hotopf
BACKGROUND: There is very little genetically informative research identifying true environmental risks for psychiatric conditions. These may be best explored in regions with diverse environmental exposures. The current study aimed to explore similarities and differences in such risks contributing to depression and fatigue. METHODS: Home interviews assessed depression (lifetime-ever), fatigue and environmental exposures in 4,024 randomly selected twins from a population-based register in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka...
2010: BMC Psychiatry
Adriana Barone, Niall O'Higgins
We examine the determinants of obesity and its role in influencing early school leaving amongst adolescents in the city of Salerno and its province in Southern Italy. A human capital investment model is employed and this provides a framework within which to analyse the interrelated 'decisions' regarding schooling and overeating, taking into account the importance of time preference and the differential effects of adolescent obesity for males and females. We find that: (a) there is a strong and robust positive association between obesity and early school leaving; (b) there is evidence to support the notion that this association is the consequence of a causal relation running from obesity to school leaving; and, (c) there are significant gender differences in the nature of this relationship...
March 2010: Economics and Human Biology
Catherine P Bradshaw, Lindsey M O'Brennan, Clea A McNeely
There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase youths' likelihood of successfully completing high school. This chapter applies the core competencies framework to the promotion of youths' success within the school environment...
2008: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Dannette Marie, David M Fergusson, Joseph M Boden
OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of ethnic identity in cannabis use, and links between ethnic identity, cannabis use and life outcomes, in a birth cohort of >1000 young people studied to age 25. METHODS: Data were gathered on cultural identification, cannabis use, socioeconomic factors, childhood adversity, and a range of life outcomes as part of a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort (Christchurch Health and Development Study). RESULTS: Those reporting Maori identity had rates of cannabis use and dependence that were significantly higher (p<0...
September 2008: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Maria Donald, Jo Dower, Ignacio Correa-Velez, Mark Jones
OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk and protective factors for medically serious suicide attempts among young Australian adults. METHOD: The study used a case-control design. A clinical sample of 18-24 year olds was recruited via the emergency department of a large public hospital following a suicide attempt (n=95) and was compared to a sample of 18-24 year olds who participated in a population-based survey (n=380). RESULTS: Risk factors for medically serious suicide attempts included early school leaving, parental divorce (males only), distress due to problems with parents (females only), distress due to problems with friends, distress due to the break-up of a romantic relationship, tobacco use, high alcohol use, current depressive symptomatology and a previous diagnosis of depression...
January 2006: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Sandra Beekhoven, Hetty Dekkers
This study assessed the reasons for very early school leaving of boys in the lower secondary vocational track. A unique combination of quantitative and qualitative data from different sources provided background data on these boys from a national cohort study on their elementary and high school periods. In-depth interviews in which the boys reflect on their early school leaving were conducted. Four case studies are presented in which the boys' own reflections are interpreted in light of the cohort data. It was found that several factors contribute simultaneously to early school leaving; however, the emphasis lies with learning problems, lack of motivation, and problems arising from choosing the wrong vocational track...
2005: Adolescence
Suwanna Ruangkanchanasetr, Adisak Plitponkarnpim, Priyasuda Hetrakul, Ronnachai Kongsakon
PURPOSE: To identify the prevalence of risk behaviors and related risk factors in adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. METHODS: Youth risk behavior survey questionnaires were collected from 2311 adolescents in 8 schools, 13 communities and 2 Juvenile Home Institutions from January to February 2001. Their mean age was 15.5 +/- 1.8 years, and 59% were female. Risk factors of interest were gender, parental marital status, socioeconomic status, family relationship, parental drug addiction, peer group, loneliness, self-esteem, and school performance...
March 2005: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Michael T Lynskey, Carolyn Coffey, Louisa Degenhardt, John B Carlin, George Patton
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which weekly cannabis use during mid-adolescence may increase the risk of early school-leaving. SETTING: A prospective study of a general population sample of adolescents studied from ages 15-21 years in Melbourne, Australia. METHOD: Computer-assisted self-completion questionnaires and telephone interviews conducted in six waves at ages 15-18 and again at age 21 in a sample of 1601 male and female school students...
May 2003: Addiction
S Jaffee, A Caspi, T E Moffitt, J Belsky, P Silva
This 20-year longitudinal study showed that the young adult offspring of teen mothers are at risk for a range of adverse outcomes including early school leaving, unemployment, early parenthood, and violent offending. We tested how much the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes could be accounted for by social selection (in which a woman's characteristics that make her an inadequate parent also make her likely to bear children in her teens) versus social influence (in which the consequences of becoming a teen mother also bring harm to her children, apart from any characteristics of her own)...
2001: Development and Psychopathology
B P Smyth, J Barry, E Keenan
AIMS: To measure the frequency of syringe borrowing in young Irish injecting drug users (IDUs) and identify associated characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Addiction treatment services in Dublin. PARTICIPANTS: Treated IDUs (N = 246). MEASUREMENTS: Data on drug injecting and syringe borrowing in the previous 6 months. FINDINGS: The median age was 22 years and the median length of injecting history was 19 months...
May 2001: Addiction
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