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Early School Leaving

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903252/shifting-tides-in-the-emigration-patterns-of-canadian-physicians-to-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-secondary-data-analysis
#1
Thomas R Freeman, Stephen Petterson, Sean Finnegan, Andrew Bazemore
BACKGROUND: The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources...
December 1, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886736/pushed-or-pulled-girls-and-boys-facing-early-school-leaving-risk-in-italy
#2
Camilla Borgna, Emanuela Struffolino
Compared to girls, boys are more at risk of early school leaving. However, it is unclear whether gender differences are driven by push factors, which alienate students from the school system, or pull factors, which attract them out of it. This paper examines gender differences in early school leaving, assessing the role of previous scholastic performance, parental education, and differential employment opportunities. By analyzing two nationally representative datasets, we focus on Italy, a country with high rates of early school leaving and pronounced gender inequalities in the labor market...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849487/demographic-and-psychosocial-predictors-of-early-attrition-for-drug-use-in-u-s-marines
#3
Martin R White, Christopher J Phillips, Kartavya J Vyas, Lauren Bauer
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine demographic and psychosocial predictors of early attrition for drug use in a cohort of U.S. Marines and the resulting lost person-days. METHOD: The study included data from 35,193 male Marines who completed a life history questionnaire during their first week of basic training. Associations between demographic and psychosocial variables with subsequent discharge for drug use were analyzed using logistic regression...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807079/-now-i-care-a-qualitative-study-of-how-overweight-adolescents-managed-their-weight-in-the-transition-to-adulthood
#4
Helen Sweeting, Emily Smith, Joanne Neary, Charlotte Wright
OBJECTIVES: A qualitative study of recalled experiences of early adolescent overweight/obesity revealed low levels of weight-related concern. This further analysis aimed to explore weight-related concern and weight-loss efforts as participants transitioned into adulthood. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Participants were 35 young adults from a population-based cohort study who had body mass index (BMI) >95th centile between ages 11 and 15 and participated in semistructured interviews aged 24...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802253/do-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-benefit-from-early-intervention-regarding-absence-from-work-a-randomized-controlled-single-center-pilot-study
#5
Anja Davis Norbye, Aina Vedvik Omdal, Marit Eikrem Nygaard, Ulla Romild, Guttorm Eldøen, Rune Midgard
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-center pilot study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of running a trial to explore if early intervention in individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) would lead to an early return to work (RTW) and reduce sick leave during 12 months of follow-up compared with patients on a 3-month waiting list. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Back pain is the reason for numerous absent days from work...
November 1, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709744/risk-factors-for-dating-violence-versus-cohabiting-violence-results-from-the-third-generation-of-the-cambridge-study-in-delinquent-development
#6
Delphine Theobald, David P Farrington, Maria M Ttofi, Rebecca V Crago
BACKGROUND: Dating violence is an important problem. Evidence suggests that women are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. AIMS: The present study investigates the prevalence of dating violence compared with cohabiting violence in a community sample of men and women and assesses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict this behaviour. A secondary aim is to construct a risk score for dating violence based on the strongest risk factors...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642414/students-perspectives-of-undergraduate-research-methods-education-at-three-public-medical-schools-in-uganda
#7
Ian Guyton Munabi, William Buwembo, Ruberwa Joseph, Kawungezi Peter, Francis Bajunirwe, Erisa Sabakaki Mwaka
INTRODUCTION: In this study we used a model of adult learning to explore undergraduate students' views on how to improve the teaching of research methods and biostatistics. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of survey data of 600 undergraduate students from three medical schools in Uganda. The analysis looked at student's responses to an open ended section of a questionnaire on their views on undergraduate teaching of research methods and biostatistics. Qualitative phenomenological data analysis was done with a bias towards principles of adult learning...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214533/two-decades-of-haemophilia-treatment-in-the-netherlands-1972-92
#8
A H Triemstra, C Smit, H M VAN DER Ploeg, E Briët, F R Rosendaal
Four questionnaire surveys were conducted over a period of 20 years to evaluate long-term effects of haemophilia treatment in the Netherlands. The response to the prestructured questionnaires in 1972, 1978, 1985 and 1992 varied between 70% and 84%. Data concerned treatment modalities, bleeding episodes, hospitalization, absenteeism, joint impairment and employment. Results over the period 1972-92 for patients with severe and moderately severe haemophilia showed that the use of prophylaxis had sharply increased (from 21% to 45%), as was the case for home treatment (from 4% to 62%)...
July 1995: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27093243/perceptions-and-attitudes-regarding-sexually-transmitted-infection-stis-and-family-planning-among-adolescents-in-northern-madagascar
#9
Amanda Klinger, Ramin Asgary
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and early pregnancy are high among adolescents in Madagascar. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach to evaluate perceptions, attitudes, and misconceptions regarding STIs and contraception among female and male adolescents ages 15-19 years (n = 43) in Northern Madagascar in 2014 using focus group discussions with open-ended questions. Data were coded and analyzed for major themes. Participants were in the 6th to 12th grade in school; 53% were female...
April 19, 2016: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092995/precocious-transitions-and-long-term-heroin-use-outcomes-a-longitudinal-study-of-gang-affiliated-mexican-american-males
#10
Alice Cepeda, Kathryn M Nowotny, Jessica Frankeberger, Avelardo Valdez
A longitudinal study (15years) investigates heroin use patterns following precocious transition experiences for gang-affiliated Mexican-American males (n=119) in San Antonio, Texas. Five precocious transitions are examined: cohabitation, early nest leaving, school dropout, teenage parenthood, and unemployment (while not in school). Half of these men used heroin over the follow-up period for an average of under 4years. Findings from a zero-inflated Poisson model indicate that while these transitions do not have a significant effect on initiation of heroin use, they do have an important influence on individual's drug trajectories once they have initiated...
September 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058184/national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-workshop-summary-enhancing-opportunities-for-training-and-retention-of-a-diverse-biomedical-workforce
#11
Gregg A Duncan, Angelia Lockett, Leah R Villegas, Sharilyn Almodovar, Jose L Gomez, Sonia C Flores, David S Wilkes, Xenia T Tigno
RATIONALE: Committed to its mission of conducting and supporting research that addresses the health needs of all sectors of the nation's population, the Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (NHLBI/NIH) seeks to identify issues that impact the training and retention of underrepresented individuals in the biomedical research workforce. OBJECTIVES: Early-stage investigators who received grant support through the NIH Research Supplements to Promote Diversity in Health Related Research Program were invited to a workshop held in Bethesda, Maryland in June, 2015, in order to (1) assess the effectiveness of the current NHLBI diversity program, (2) improve its strategies towards achieving its goal, and (3) provide guidance to assist the transition of diversity supplement recipients to independent NIH grant support...
April 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26958655/academic-performance-of-students-with-the-highest-and-mediocre-school-leaving-grades-does-the-aptitude-test-for-medical-studies-tms-balance-their-prognoses
#12
Guni Kadmon, Martina Kadmon
BACKGROUND: Admission to undergraduate medical training in Germany occurs by central and local pathways. Central admission includes two distinct groups: Students with top school-leaving grades (best-SLG group) and students with inferior school-leaving grades who are admitted with a delay of up to seven years (delayed admission group). Students with academic difficulties and early dropouts are present in both groups. Local admission at our university involves the German Test for Medical Studies (TMS) and allows the admission by merit of students with a wide range of school-leaving grades...
2016: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811868/intestinal-microbiome-is-related-to-lifetime-antibiotic-use-in-finnish-pre-school-children
#13
Katri Korpela, Anne Salonen, Lauri J Virta, Riina A Kekkonen, Kristoffer Forslund, Peer Bork, Willem M de Vos
Early-life antibiotic use is associated with increased risk for metabolic and immunological diseases, and mouse studies indicate a causal role of the disrupted microbiome. However, little is known about the impacts of antibiotics on the developing microbiome of children. Here we use phylogenetics, metagenomics and individual antibiotic purchase records to show that macrolide use in 2-7 year-old Finnish children (N=142; sampled at two time points) is associated with a long-lasting shift in microbiota composition and metabolism...
January 26, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26562733/prevalence-of-erosive-tooth-wear-and-associated-factors-in-a-group-of-mexican-adolescents
#14
Álvaro Edgar González-Aragón Pineda, Socorro Aída Borges-Yáñez, Adrian Lussi, María Esther Irigoyen-Camacho, Fernando Angeles Medina
BACKGROUND: Erosive tooth wear is the irreversible loss of dental hard tissue as a result of chemical processes. When the surface of a tooth is attacked by acids, the resulting loss of structural integrity leaves a softened layer on the tooth's surface, which renders it vulnerable to abrasive forces. The authors' objective was to estimate the prevalence of erosive tooth wear and to identify associated factors in a sample of 14- to 19-year-old adolescents in Mexico. METHODS: The authors performed a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample (N = 417) of adolescents in a school in Mexico City, Mexico...
February 2016: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26492718/theoretical-approaches-to-lightness-and-perception
#15
REVIEW
Alan Gilchrist
Theories of lightness, like theories of perception in general, can be categorized as high-level, low-level, and mid-level. However, I will argue that in practice there are only two categories: one-stage mid-level theories, and two-stage low-high theories. Low-level theories usually include a high-level component and high-level theories include a low-level component, the distinction being mainly one of emphasis. Two-stage theories are the modern incarnation of the persistent sensation/perception dichotomy according to which an early experience of raw sensations, faithful to the proximal stimulus, is followed by a process of cognitive interpretation, typically based on past experience...
2015: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26471494/-enfant-terrible-lancelot-hogben-s-life-and-work-in-the-1920s
#16
Steindór J Erlingsson
Until recently the British zoologist Lancelot Hogben (1895-1975) has usually appeared as a campaigning socialist, an anti-eugenicist or a popularizer of science in the literature. The focus has mainly been on Hogben after he became a professor of social biology at the London School of Economics in 1930. This paper focuses on Hogben's life in the 1920s. Early in the decade, while based in London, he focused on cytology, but in 1922, after moving to Edinburgh, he turned his focus on experimental zoology, first concentrating on vertebrate endocrinology and later moving over to the comparative physiology of invertebrate muscle...
August 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26293410/early-intervention-and-identification-strategies-for-young-people-at-risk-of-developing-mental-health-issues-working-in-partnership-with-schools-in-birmingham-uk
#17
Colin J Palmer, Charlotte Connor, Benjamin John Newton, Paul Patterson, Max Birchwood
AIM: This study explores the mental health needs of teachers and how these might impact on their capacity to provide early identification and intervention strategies to support their student's emotional well-being. METHOD: The present study surveyed a sample of UK teachers (N = 320) to explore the impact of work-related stress on their mental health and their ability to provide early intervention support for their students. RESULTS: Our survey showed high levels of work-related stress due to time pressures and excessive workloads; many teachers failed to seek help for their stress often due to stigmatic attitudes and fear of negative response by senior management...
August 21, 2015: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26192902/-the-most-important-obstacles-of-the-development-of-hungarian-psychiatry
#18
REVIEW
Sándor Kalmár
A quarter of a century ago the change of the political system in Hungary precipitated a serious value-crisis and caused a lot of harmful effects in nurturing and the development of psychiatry. The author establishes that the attack against psychiatry is more intensive than previously but neither the education and health management nor the psychiatric leadership could cope with these difficulties. It can't be denied that the foundation of lifelong mental health begins in the early life years and about 75% of the first Mental Disorder manifests in adolescence and youth...
June 2015: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051692/teachers-health
#19
Klaus Scheuch, Eva Haufe, Reingard Seibt
BACKGROUND: Almost 800,000 teachers were working in Germany in the 2012-13 school year. A determination of the most common medical problems in this large occupational group serves as the basis for measures that help maintain teachers' health and their ability to work in their profession. METHODS: We present our own research findings, a selective review of the literature, and data derived from the German statutory health insurance scheme concerning medical disability, long-term illness, and inability to work among teachers...
May 15, 2015: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26047687/explaining-patterns-in-the-school-to-work-transition-an-analysis-using-optimal-matching
#20
Richard Dorsett, Paolo Lucchino
This paper studies the school to work transition in the UK with the aim of achieving a richer understanding of individuals' trajectories in the five years after reaching school leaving age. By applying the technique of 'optimal matching' on data from 1991 to 2008, we group individuals' trajectories post-16, and identify a small number of distinct transition patterns. Our results suggest that while 9 out of 10 young people have generally positive experiences post-16, the remaining individuals exhibit a variety of histories that might warrant policy attention...
December 2014: Advances in Life Course Research
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