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Early School Leaving

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486706/association-of-anhedonia-with-adolescent-smoking-susceptibility-and-initiation
#1
Matthew D Stone, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Adam M Leventhal
Introduction: Emerging literature implicates anhedonia-diminished capacity to experience pleasure-as a maintaining factor underlying cigarette smoking in adults. The role of anhedonia in adolescent smoking uptake has largely been uninvestigated, leaving unclear whether anhedonia is associated with smoking initiation and with psychosocial determinants of susceptibility to smoking initiation that could be targeted in prevention. This study examined the association of anhedonia with smoking initiation (ever smoke: yes/no) and factors indicative of susceptibility to smoking initiation among never-smokers (smoking outcome expectancies, curiosity about smoking, and willingness and future intention to initiate smoking)...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285251/neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-young-violent-offenders-overlap-and-background-characteristics
#2
Eva Billstedt, Henrik Anckarsäter, Märta Wallinius, Björn Hofvander
Neurodevelopmental disorders (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), tic disorder, intellectual disability (ID)), in prison populations have received increased attention but the focus has generally been on one single condition leaving out the global picture. This study assessed the prevalence and overlap of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in a consecutive cohort (n=270) of young adult male offenders (age 18-25 years), sentenced for "hands-on" violent offences and serving prison time in Swedish prisons...
June 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273984/study-of-risk-factors-for-development-of-voice-disorders-and-its-impact-on-the-quality-of-life-of-school-teachers-in-mangalore-india
#3
Arati Alva, Megna Machado, Kiran Bhojwani, Suja Sreedharan
INTRODUCTION: School teachers are most prone to the development and detrimental effects of voice disorders as a consequence of their work. The risk factors for development of dysphonia in teachers are multifactorial. AIM: The primary aim of our study was to investigate the various risk factors that influence the onset and progression of voice disorders in school teachers in the Indian context. We wanted to assess the effect of voice problems on the physical, psychosocial and functional aspect of a teacher's life...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215240/morningness-eveningness-correlates-with-sleep-time-quality-and-hygiene-in-secondary-school-students-a-multilevel-analysis
#4
Christian Vollmer, Konrad S Jankowski, Juan F Díaz-Morales, Heike Itzek-Greulich, Peter Wüst-Ackermann, Christoph Randler
At the onset of puberty, students shift their sleep to later hours, but school starts early. It is suggested that evening orientation and early school start times do not go well together. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate sleep problems in adolescence, and it was expected that the adolescents' eveningness orientation is associated with many sleep-related problems. Students of secondary education (n = 3201; mean = 13.8 ± 1.8 years) filled out a self-report questionnaire containing measures of morningness-eveningness, sleep time (midpoint of sleep, social "jetlag"), sleep length (on schooldays and on weekends), sleep quality, and sleep hygiene as well as questions on electronic screen media use...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141727/-media-addiction-in-a-10-year-old-boy
#5
Scott Brown, Michael A Scharf, Cristina Bustos, Denise Chavira, Martin T Stein
Bryan is a 10-year-old boy who is brought to his pediatrician by his parents with concerns about oppositional behaviors. Bryan's parents report that he has always been hyperactive and oppositional since a very young age. He has been previously diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and has been treated with appropriate stimulant medications for several years; however, despite this, his parents feel increasingly unable to manage his difficult behaviors. He refuses to do chores or follow through with household routines...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040097/hospital-based-multidisciplinary-youth-mentoring-and-medical-exposure-program-positively-influences-and-reinforces-health-care-career-choice-the-reach-one-each-one-program-early-experience
#6
Omar K Danner, Carl Lokko, Felicia Mobley, Montreka Dansby, Michael Maze, Brene' Bradley, Elizabeth Williams, Leslie Ray Matthews, Emma Harrington, Lisa Mack, Clarence Clark, Ken Wilson, Derrick Beech, Sheryl Heron, Ed Childs
BACKGROUND: According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, underrepresented minorities (URMs) are more likely to leave science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields at higher rates than their peers during undergraduate studies. Many institutions of higher learning have implemented pipeline programs aimed at preparing and inspiring high school and college aged students in select careers in health sciences with varying levels of success. Research has shown that a health care workforce that mirrors the community they serve is more effective in reducing health disparities and increasing positive health outcomes...
April 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030418/the-impact-of-a-junior-faculty-fellowship-award-on-academic-advancement-and-retention
#7
Maureen T Connelly, Amy M Sullivan, Manuel Chinchilla, Margaret L Dale, S Jean Emans, Carol Cooperman Nadelson, Malkah Tolpin Notman, Nancy J Tarbell, Corwin M Zigler, Eleanor G Shore
PURPOSE: Academic faculty experience barriers to career development and promotion. In 1996, Harvard Medical School (HMS) initiated an intramural junior faculty fellowship to address these obstacles. The authors sought to understand whether receiving a fellowship was associated with more rapid academic promotion and retention. METHOD: Junior faculty fellowship recipients and all other instructor and assistant professors at HMS between 1996 and 2011 were identified...
December 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029372/cajal-s-unbearable-cephalalgias-the-consequences-of-a-misdiagnosis
#8
REVIEW
S Giménez-Roldán
Around the age of 66 Cajal consulted neurologist Nicolas Achúcarro complaining of "unbearable cephalalgias". He had not ever suffered from headaches. The diagnosis of early arteriosclerosis that was considered at the time a physiological, irreversible ailment of ageing had a strong emotional impact on Cajal. Comorbid depression, insomnia and self-treatment with escalating doses of Veronal(®) (barbital), a short-acting barbiturate, presumably aggravated the situation. Exposure to warm environments and being involved in tense discussions were identified as triggering factors of the headaches...
October 28, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903252/shifting-tides-in-the-emigration-patterns-of-canadian-physicians-to-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-secondary-data-analysis
#9
Thomas R Freeman, Stephen Petterson, Sean Finnegan, Andrew Bazemore
BACKGROUND: The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources...
December 1, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886736/pushed-or-pulled-girls-and-boys-facing-early-school-leaving-risk-in-italy
#10
Camilla Borgna, Emanuela Struffolino
Compared to girls, boys are more at risk of early school leaving. However, it is unclear whether gender differences are driven by push factors, which alienate students from the school system, or pull factors, which attract them out of it. This paper examines gender differences in early school leaving, assessing the role of previous scholastic performance, parental education, and differential employment opportunities. By analyzing two nationally representative datasets, we focus on Italy, a country with high rates of early school leaving and pronounced gender inequalities in the labor market...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849487/demographic-and-psychosocial-predictors-of-early-attrition-for-drug-use-in-u-s-marines
#11
Martin R White, Christopher J Phillips, Kartavya J Vyas, Lauren Bauer
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine demographic and psychosocial predictors of early attrition for drug use in a cohort of U.S. Marines and the resulting lost person-days. METHOD: The study included data from 35,193 male Marines who completed a life history questionnaire during their first week of basic training. Associations between demographic and psychosocial variables with subsequent discharge for drug use were analyzed using logistic regression...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807079/-now-i-care-a-qualitative-study-of-how-overweight-adolescents-managed-their-weight-in-the-transition-to-adulthood
#12
Helen Sweeting, Emily Smith, Joanne Neary, Charlotte Wright
OBJECTIVES: A qualitative study of recalled experiences of early adolescent overweight/obesity revealed low levels of weight-related concern. This further analysis aimed to explore weight-related concern and weight-loss efforts as participants transitioned into adulthood. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Participants were 35 young adults from a population-based cohort study who had body mass index (BMI) >95th centile between ages 11 and 15 and participated in semistructured interviews aged 24...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802253/do-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-benefit-from-early-intervention-regarding-absence-from-work-a-randomized-controlled-single-center-pilot-study
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anja Davis Norbye, Aina Vedvik Omdal, Marit Eikrem Nygaard, Ulla Romild, Guttorm Eldøen, Rune Midgard
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-center pilot study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of running a trial to explore if early intervention in individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) would lead to an early return to work (RTW) and reduce sick leave during 12 months of follow-up compared with patients on a 3-month waiting list. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Back pain is the reason for numerous absent days from work...
November 1, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709744/risk-factors-for-dating-violence-versus-cohabiting-violence-results-from-the-third-generation-of-the-cambridge-study-in-delinquent-development
#14
Delphine Theobald, David P Farrington, Maria M Ttofi, Rebecca V Crago
BACKGROUND: Dating violence is an important problem. Evidence suggests that women are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. AIMS: The present study investigates the prevalence of dating violence compared with cohabiting violence in a community sample of men and women and assesses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict this behaviour. A secondary aim is to construct a risk score for dating violence based on the strongest risk factors...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642414/students-perspectives-of-undergraduate-research-methods-education-at-three-public-medical-schools-in-uganda
#15
Ian Guyton Munabi, William Buwembo, Ruberwa Joseph, Kawungezi Peter, Francis Bajunirwe, Erisa Sabakaki Mwaka
INTRODUCTION: In this study we used a model of adult learning to explore undergraduate students' views on how to improve the teaching of research methods and biostatistics. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of survey data of 600 undergraduate students from three medical schools in Uganda. The analysis looked at student's responses to an open ended section of a questionnaire on their views on undergraduate teaching of research methods and biostatistics. Qualitative phenomenological data analysis was done with a bias towards principles of adult learning...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214533/two-decades-of-haemophilia-treatment-in-the-netherlands-1972-92
#16
A H Triemstra, C Smit, H M VAN DER Ploeg, E Briët, F R Rosendaal
Four questionnaire surveys were conducted over a period of 20 years to evaluate long-term effects of haemophilia treatment in the Netherlands. The response to the prestructured questionnaires in 1972, 1978, 1985 and 1992 varied between 70% and 84%. Data concerned treatment modalities, bleeding episodes, hospitalization, absenteeism, joint impairment and employment. Results over the period 1972-92 for patients with severe and moderately severe haemophilia showed that the use of prophylaxis had sharply increased (from 21% to 45%), as was the case for home treatment (from 4% to 62%)...
July 1995: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27093243/perceptions-and-attitudes-regarding-sexually-transmitted-infection-and-family-planning-among-adolescents-in-northern-madagascar
#17
Amanda Klinger, Ramin Asgary
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and early pregnancy are high among adolescents in Madagascar. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach to evaluate perceptions, attitudes, and misconceptions regarding STIs and contraception among female and male adolescents ages 15-19 years (n = 43) in Northern Madagascar in 2014 using focus group discussions with open-ended questions. Data were coded and analyzed for major themes. Participants were in grades 6 to 12 in school; 53% were female. Despite high levels of awareness, significant stigma against and misconceptions about STIs, condom use, and sexual practices existed...
May 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092995/precocious-transitions-and-long-term-heroin-use-outcomes-a-longitudinal-study-of-gang-affiliated-mexican-american-males
#18
Alice Cepeda, Kathryn M Nowotny, Jessica Frankeberger, Avelardo Valdez
A longitudinal study (15years) investigates heroin use patterns following precocious transition experiences for gang-affiliated Mexican-American males (n=119) in San Antonio, Texas. Five precocious transitions are examined: cohabitation, early nest leaving, school dropout, teenage parenthood, and unemployment (while not in school). Half of these men used heroin over the follow-up period for an average of under 4years. Findings from a zero-inflated Poisson model indicate that while these transitions do not have a significant effect on initiation of heroin use, they do have an important influence on individual's drug trajectories once they have initiated...
September 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058184/national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-workshop-summary-enhancing-opportunities-for-training-and-retention-of-a-diverse-biomedical-workforce
#19
Gregg A Duncan, Angelia Lockett, Leah R Villegas, Sharilyn Almodovar, Jose L Gomez, Sonia C Flores, David S Wilkes, Xenia T Tigno
RATIONALE: Committed to its mission of conducting and supporting research that addresses the health needs of all sectors of the nation's population, the Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (NHLBI/NIH) seeks to identify issues that impact the training and retention of underrepresented individuals in the biomedical research workforce. OBJECTIVES: Early-stage investigators who received grant support through the NIH Research Supplements to Promote Diversity in Health Related Research Program were invited to a workshop held in Bethesda, Maryland in June, 2015, in order to (1) assess the effectiveness of the current NHLBI diversity program, (2) improve its strategies towards achieving its goal, and (3) provide guidance to assist the transition of diversity supplement recipients to independent NIH grant support...
April 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26958655/academic-performance-of-students-with-the-highest-and-mediocre-school-leaving-grades-does-the-aptitude-test-for-medical-studies-tms-balance-their-prognoses
#20
Guni Kadmon, Martina Kadmon
BACKGROUND: Admission to undergraduate medical training in Germany occurs by central and local pathways. Central admission includes two distinct groups: Students with top school-leaving grades (best-SLG group) and students with inferior school-leaving grades who are admitted with a delay of up to seven years (delayed admission group). Students with academic difficulties and early dropouts are present in both groups. Local admission at our university involves the German Test for Medical Studies (TMS) and allows the admission by merit of students with a wide range of school-leaving grades...
2016: GMS Journal for Medical Education
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