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Early School Leaving

Delphine Theobald, David P Farrington, Maria M Ttofi, Rebecca V Crago
BACKGROUND: Dating violence is an important problem. Evidence suggests that women are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. AIMS: The present study investigates the prevalence of dating violence compared with cohabiting violence in a community sample of men and women and assesses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict this behaviour. A secondary aim is to construct a risk score for dating violence based on the strongest risk factors...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Ian Guyton Munabi, William Buwembo, Ruberwa Joseph, Kawungezi Peter, Francis Bajunirwe, Erisa Sabakaki Mwaka
INTRODUCTION: In this study we used a model of adult learning to explore undergraduate students' views on how to improve the teaching of research methods and biostatistics. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of survey data of 600 undergraduate students from three medical schools in Uganda. The analysis looked at student's responses to an open ended section of a questionnaire on their views on undergraduate teaching of research methods and biostatistics. Qualitative phenomenological data analysis was done with a bias towards principles of adult learning...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
A H Triemstra, C Smit, H M VAN DER Ploeg, E Briët, F R Rosendaal
Four questionnaire surveys were conducted over a period of 20 years to evaluate long-term effects of haemophilia treatment in the Netherlands. The response to the prestructured questionnaires in 1972, 1978, 1985 and 1992 varied between 70% and 84%. Data concerned treatment modalities, bleeding episodes, hospitalization, absenteeism, joint impairment and employment. Results over the period 1972-92 for patients with severe and moderately severe haemophilia showed that the use of prophylaxis had sharply increased (from 21% to 45%), as was the case for home treatment (from 4% to 62%)...
July 1995: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Amanda Klinger, Ramin Asgary
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and early pregnancy are high among adolescents in Madagascar. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach to evaluate perceptions, attitudes, and misconceptions regarding STIs and contraception among female and male adolescents ages 15-19 years (n = 43) in Northern Madagascar in 2014 using focus group discussions with open-ended questions. Data were coded and analyzed for major themes. Participants were in the 6th to 12th grade in school; 53% were female...
April 19, 2016: Women & Health
Alice Cepeda, Kathryn M Nowotny, Jessica Frankeberger, Avelardo Valdez
A longitudinal study (15years) investigates heroin use patterns following precocious transition experiences for gang-affiliated Mexican-American males (n=119) in San Antonio, Texas. Five precocious transitions are examined: cohabitation, early nest leaving, school dropout, teenage parenthood, and unemployment (while not in school). Half of these men used heroin over the follow-up period for an average of under 4years. Findings from a zero-inflated Poisson model indicate that while these transitions do not have a significant effect on initiation of heroin use, they do have an important influence on individual's drug trajectories once they have initiated...
September 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Gregg A Duncan, Angelia Lockett, Leah R Villegas, Sharilyn Almodovar, Jose L Gomez, Sonia C Flores, David S Wilkes, Xenia T Tigno
RATIONALE: Committed to its mission of conducting and supporting research that addresses the health needs of all sectors of the nation's population, the Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (NHLBI/NIH) seeks to identify issues that impact the training and retention of underrepresented individuals in the biomedical research workforce. OBJECTIVES: Early-stage investigators who received grant support through the NIH Research Supplements to Promote Diversity in Health Related Research Program were invited to a workshop held in Bethesda, Maryland in June, 2015, in order to (1) assess the effectiveness of the current NHLBI diversity program, (2) improve its strategies towards achieving its goal, and (3) provide guidance to assist the transition of diversity supplement recipients to independent NIH grant support...
April 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Guni Kadmon, Martina Kadmon
BACKGROUND: Admission to undergraduate medical training in Germany occurs by central and local pathways. Central admission includes two distinct groups: Students with top school-leaving grades (best-SLG group) and students with inferior school-leaving grades who are admitted with a delay of up to seven years (delayed admission group). Students with academic difficulties and early dropouts are present in both groups. Local admission at our university involves the German Test for Medical Studies (TMS) and allows the admission by merit of students with a wide range of school-leaving grades...
2016: GMS Journal for Medical Education
Katri Korpela, Anne Salonen, Lauri J Virta, Riina A Kekkonen, Kristoffer Forslund, Peer Bork, Willem M de Vos
Early-life antibiotic use is associated with increased risk for metabolic and immunological diseases, and mouse studies indicate a causal role of the disrupted microbiome. However, little is known about the impacts of antibiotics on the developing microbiome of children. Here we use phylogenetics, metagenomics and individual antibiotic purchase records to show that macrolide use in 2-7 year-old Finnish children (N=142; sampled at two time points) is associated with a long-lasting shift in microbiota composition and metabolism...
2016: Nature Communications
Álvaro Edgar González-Aragón Pineda, Socorro Aída Borges-Yáñez, Adrian Lussi, María Esther Irigoyen-Camacho, Fernando Angeles Medina
BACKGROUND: Erosive tooth wear is the irreversible loss of dental hard tissue as a result of chemical processes. When the surface of a tooth is attacked by acids, the resulting loss of structural integrity leaves a softened layer on the tooth's surface, which renders it vulnerable to abrasive forces. The authors' objective was to estimate the prevalence of erosive tooth wear and to identify associated factors in a sample of 14- to 19-year-old adolescents in Mexico. METHODS: The authors performed a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample (N = 417) of adolescents in a school in Mexico City, Mexico...
February 2016: Journal of the American Dental Association
Alan Gilchrist
Theories of lightness, like theories of perception in general, can be categorized as high-level, low-level, and mid-level. However, I will argue that in practice there are only two categories: one-stage mid-level theories, and two-stage low-high theories. Low-level theories usually include a high-level component and high-level theories include a low-level component, the distinction being mainly one of emphasis. Two-stage theories are the modern incarnation of the persistent sensation/perception dichotomy according to which an early experience of raw sensations, faithful to the proximal stimulus, is followed by a process of cognitive interpretation, typically based on past experience...
2015: Perception
Steindór J Erlingsson
Until recently the British zoologist Lancelot Hogben (1895-1975) has usually appeared as a campaigning socialist, an anti-eugenicist or a popularizer of science in the literature. The focus has mainly been on Hogben after he became a professor of social biology at the London School of Economics in 1930. This paper focuses on Hogben's life in the 1920s. Early in the decade, while based in London, he focused on cytology, but in 1922, after moving to Edinburgh, he turned his focus on experimental zoology, first concentrating on vertebrate endocrinology and later moving over to the comparative physiology of invertebrate muscle...
August 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
Colin J Palmer, Charlotte Connor, Benjamin John Newton, Paul Patterson, Max Birchwood
AIM: This study explores the mental health needs of teachers and how these might impact on their capacity to provide early identification and intervention strategies to support their student's emotional well-being. METHOD: The present study surveyed a sample of UK teachers (N = 320) to explore the impact of work-related stress on their mental health and their ability to provide early intervention support for their students. RESULTS: Our survey showed high levels of work-related stress due to time pressures and excessive workloads; many teachers failed to seek help for their stress often due to stigmatic attitudes and fear of negative response by senior management...
August 21, 2015: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Sándor Kalmár
A quarter of a century ago the change of the political system in Hungary precipitated a serious value-crisis and caused a lot of harmful effects in nurturing and the development of psychiatry. The author establishes that the attack against psychiatry is more intensive than previously but neither the education and health management nor the psychiatric leadership could cope with these difficulties. It can't be denied that the foundation of lifelong mental health begins in the early life years and about 75% of the first Mental Disorder manifests in adolescence and youth...
June 2015: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Klaus Scheuch, Eva Haufe, Reingard Seibt
BACKGROUND: Almost 800,000 teachers were working in Germany in the 2012-13 school year. A determination of the most common medical problems in this large occupational group serves as the basis for measures that help maintain teachers' health and their ability to work in their profession. METHODS: We present our own research findings, a selective review of the literature, and data derived from the German statutory health insurance scheme concerning medical disability, long-term illness, and inability to work among teachers...
May 15, 2015: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Richard Dorsett, Paolo Lucchino
This paper studies the school to work transition in the UK with the aim of achieving a richer understanding of individuals' trajectories in the five years after reaching school leaving age. By applying the technique of 'optimal matching' on data from 1991 to 2008, we group individuals' trajectories post-16, and identify a small number of distinct transition patterns. Our results suggest that while 9 out of 10 young people have generally positive experiences post-16, the remaining individuals exhibit a variety of histories that might warrant policy attention...
December 2014: Advances in Life Course Research
D G Alexander, A B Shuttleworth-Edwards, M Kidd, C M Malcolm
BACKGROUND: Information is scant concerning enduring brain injury effects of participation in the contact sport of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) on early adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The objective was prospectively to investigate differences between young adolescent male rugby players and non-contact sports controls on neurocognitive test performance over 3 years and academic achievement over 6 years. METHOD: A sample of boys from the same school and grade was divided into three groups: rugby with seasonal concussions (n = 45), rugby no seasonal concussions (n = 21) and non-contact sports controls (n = 30)...
2015: Brain Injury: [BI]
Carla Haelermans, Kristof De Witte
This paper explores the impact of residential mobility on educational outcomes. By considering a large Dutch city with substantial internal residential mobility, we examine how residential mobility influences the decision of students to drop out of school. The paper exploits a rich administrative dataset with extensive information on educational, individual, family, housing and moving characteristics of students. It combines a matching design with a multivariate regression analysis, such that the evaluation draws on a well-comparable control group for the treated students...
July 2015: Social Science Research
José Vázquez-Ruiz, Vicente López-Flor, José Eduardo Pérez-Folqués, Marta Aguado-Pérez, José Fernández-Moreno, Diego Mansilla-Molina
BACKGROUND: The use of surgical drains in abdominal surgery is still today controversial. While accepting their role in certain circumstances, their systematic use advocated by other schools, is not fully accepted. We present a case of secondary blind drilling drainage tube perineum following an abdominoperineal amputation of the rectum that forced a surgical repair in a neoplastic patient CLINICAL CASE: This is a patient who underwent abdomino perineal resection for rectal neoplasia...
January 2015: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Ting Chia Weng, Ta Chien Chan, Hsien Tang Lin, Chia Kun Jasper Chang, Wen Wen Wang, Zheng Rong Tiger Li, Hao-Yuan Cheng, Yu-Roo Chu, Allen Wen-Hsiang Chiu, Muh-Yong Yen, Chwan-Chuen King
School children may transmit pathogens with cluster cases occurring on campuses and in families. In response to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Taipei City Government officials developed a School-based Infectious Disease Syndromic Surveillance System (SID-SSS). Teachers and nurses from preschools to universities in all 12 districts within Taipei are required to daily report cases of symptomatic children or sick leave requests through the SID-SSS. The pre-diagnosis at schools is submitted firstly as common pediatric disease syndrome-groups and re-submitted after confirmation by physicians...
2015: PloS One
Mary M Wagner, Lynn A Newman, Harold S Javitz
Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), this study examines the career and technical education (CTE) course taking of high school students with learning disabilities (LD) in the context of the national movement toward higher standards for determining whether students leave high school "college and career ready." Descriptive analyses document the extent of general education CTE course taking overall by students with LD and their engagement in a concentrated program of occupationally specific general education CTE, a level of course taking early research has linked to improved post-high school employment outcomes...
March 16, 2015: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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