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carotid intimal thickening

Michael J Osgood, Kevin Sexton, Igor Voskresensky, Kyle Hocking, Jun Song, Padmini Komalavilas, Colleen Brophy, Joyce Cheung-Flynn
BACKGROUND: Intimal hyperplasia remains the primary cause of vein graft failure for the 1 million yearly bypass procedures performed using human saphenous vein (HSV) grafts. This response to injury is caused in part by the harvest and preparation of the conduit. The use of Brilliant Blue FCF (FCF) restores injury-induced loss of function in vascular tissues possibly via inhibition of purinergic receptor signaling. This study investigated whether pretreatment of the vein graft with FCF prevents intimal hyperplasia...
August 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Young-Ae Kim, Dong Gil Lee, Kyu Yang Yi, Byung Ho Lee, Yi-Sook Jung
Urotensin II (UII) is a potent vasoactive peptide and mitogenic agent to induce proliferation of various cells including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we examined the effects of a novel UII receptor (UT) antagonist, KR-36676, on vasoconstriction of aorta and proliferation of aortic SMCs. In rat aorta, UII-induced vasoconstriction was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In primary human aortic SMCs (hAoSMCs), UII-induced cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner...
September 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jiamei Shen, James Stevenson, Xiaokun Geng, Jianjie Yang, Changbin Yin, Fengwu Li, Sainan Wang, Huishan Du, Xunming Ji, Yuchuan Ding
INTRODUCTION: Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is one of the most common causes of stroke worldwide and, in particular, has been implicated as a leading cause of recurrent ischemic stroke. We developed a new rat model to study intracranial atherosclerosis. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control (on a maintain diet) and a high-cholesterol group (on a daily 1% cholesterol diet) for up to 6 weeks. During the first two weeks, NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 3 mg/mL) was added to the drinking water in the high-cholesterol group to induce intimal changes making the rats susceptible to atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Neurological Research
Nicola Ferri, Silvia Marchianò, Gianpaolo Tibolla, Roberta Baetta, Ashish Dhyani, Massimiliano Ruscica, Patrizia Uboldi, Alberico L Catapano, Alberto Corsini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) induces degradation of the low-density lipoprotein-receptor (LDLR). Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in human atherosclerotic plaques and cultured SMCs express PCSK9. The present study aimed at defining the role of PCSK9 on vascular response to injury. METHODS: Carotid neointimal lesions were induced by positioning a non-occlusive collar in PCSK9 knock-out (PCSK9(-/-)) and wild type littermate (PCSK9(+/+)) mice...
October 2016: Atherosclerosis
Yue Li, Lucinda S McRobb, Levon M Khachigian
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention is widely used for the treatment of coronary artery disease; however, significant challenges such as restenosis remain. Key to solving these problems is to inhibit smooth muscle cell activation while enhancing re-endothelialization. Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) is a transcription factor that regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration through its control of an array of downstream genes. METHODS: A "cocktail" of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-D and cyclic RGD was tested for its ability to inhibit neointima formation and accelerate re-endothelialization following balloon injury to carotid arteries of rats...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Gabriel E Pérez Baztarrica, Andrea Iglesias, Tereza Zuñiga Infanta, Ricardo Levin, Rafael Porcile
INTRODUCTION: The carotid ultrasonography could be used to assess the effects of therapeutic pharmacology in the Takayasu's arteritis (TA). CASE PRESENTATION: 21-year-old female with a pulsatile headache and high blood pressure. There were difference in the blood pressure between arms and a bruit over the carotid and subclavian region. The CT angiography demonstrated arterial wall thickening of nearly the whole aorta and its branches. We diagnosed the patient as having AT...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Helen Williams, Carina A E Mill, Bethan A Monk, Sarah Hulin-Curtis, Jason L Johnson, Sarah J George
OBJECTIVE: Increased vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration leads to intimal thickening which acts as a soil for atherosclersosis, as well as causing coronary artery restenosis after stenting and vein graft failure. Investigating factors involved in VSMC migration may enable us to reduce intimal thickening and improve patient outcomes. In this study, we determined whether Wnt proteins regulate VSMC migration and thereby intimal thickening. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Wnt2 mRNA and protein expression were specifically increased in migrating mouse aortic VSMCs...
July 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yen-Chun Ho, Meng-Ling Wu, Chen-Hsuan Su, Chung-Huang Chen, Hua-Hui Ho, Guan-Lin Lee, Wei-Shiang Lin, Wen-Yu Lin, Yu-Juei Hsu, Cheng-Chin Kuo, Kenneth K Wu, Shaw-Fang Yet
5-Methoxytryptophan (5-MTP), a 5-methoxyindole metabolite of tryptophan metabolism, was recently shown to suppress inflammatory mediator-induced cancer cell proliferation and migration. However, the role of 5-MTP in vascular disease is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether 5-MTP protects against vascular remodeling following arterial injury. Measurements of serum 5-MTP levels in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) showed that serum 5-MTP concentrations were inversely correlated with CAD...
2016: Scientific Reports
Zuhua Gao, Xiasang Qiu, KeKe Tang, Liang Chen, Jinhu Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of CD4+ CD28null T cell on occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 188 patients who were diagnosed as type 2 diabetes in the department of endocrinology were selected in this study.The carotid atherosclerosis was detected using color Doppler ultrasound.The patients with intima-media thickness>1.1 mm or plaques were classified as the carotid atherosclerosis group (95 cases), the others were classified as the control group (93 cases)...
December 19, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Calogera M Simonaro, Shunji Tomatsu, Tracy Sikora, Francyne Kubaski, Michael Frohbergh, Johana M Guevara, Raymond Y Wang, Moin Vera, Jennifer L Kang, Lachlan J Smith, Edward H Schuchman, Mark E Haskins
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of pentosan polysulfate (PPS) in a rat model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI. Reduction of inflammation, reduction of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) storage, and improvement in the skeletal phenotype were shown. Herein, we evaluate the long-term safety and therapeutic effects of PPS in a large animal model of a different MPS type, MPS I dogs. We focused on the arterial phenotype since this is one of the most consistent and clinically significant features of the model...
2016: PloS One
Yue Li, Lucinda S McRobb, Levon M Khachigian
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) is an immediate-early gene that is rapidly and transiently induced by stimuli such as injury, hypoxia and shear stress and is implicated in a range of vascular disorders. Once activated it regulates the expression of a range of genes, instigating a healing response involved in cellular dedifferentiation, proliferation and migration. Knowledge of the mechanisms underpinning the control of Egr-1 is incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition...
June 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Anup J Devasia, Binu Joy, Subhash D Tarey
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to analyse if there is a correlation between carotid intima medial thickening (CIMT) and Hcy in stroke patients. METHODOLOGY: We studied 100 consecutive cases of acute anterior circulation strokes at St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, India. Fasting serum samples for homocysteine were sent within 24 hours of admission and all patients underwent a carotid Doppler scan and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) was estimated on both sides...
January 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Nicholas L DePace, Joy P Mears, Michael Yayac, Joseph Colombo
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major health concern, affecting nearly half the middle-age population and responsible for nearly one-third of all deaths. Clinicians have responsibilities beyond diagnosing CHD, including risk stratification of patients for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), modifying the risks and treating the patient. In this first of a two-part review, identifying risk factors is reviewed, including more potential benefit from autonomic testing. METHODS: Traditional and non-traditional, and modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for MACE where compared, including newer risk factors, such as inflammation, carotid intimal thickening, ankle-brachial index, CT calcium scoring, and autonomic function testing, specifically independent measurement of parasympathetic and sympathetic (P&S) activity...
July 2014: Heart International
Hai-Jian Sun, Ming-Xia Zhao, Xing-Sheng Ren, Tong-Yan Liu, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Yu-Ming Kang, Jue-Jin Wang, Guo-Qing Zhu
AIMS: Media-to-intima migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is critical to intimal thickening in atherosclerosis and restenosis after coronary angioplasty. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of salusin-β on VSMC migration and intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury and the underlying mechanism. RESULTS: In vitro, salusin-β promoted VSMC migration, which was attenuated by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 inhibition. Inhibition or knockdown of p65-nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB) in VSMCs suppressed salusin-β-induced MMP-9 expression and VSMC migration...
June 20, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Zhexue Qin, Bin Cui, Jun Jin, Mingbao Song, Baoshang Zhou, Hongfeng Guo, Dehui Qian, Yongming He, Lan Huang
AIMS: The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (UBA1, E1), the apex of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, plays a critical role in protein degradation and in pathological processes. Whether UBA1 participates the development of vascular restenosis remains unknown. This study aims to determine the role of UBA1 in the development of balloon injury induced neointimal formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunostaining and western blots were used to examine the expression of the ubiquitinated protein in the injured carotid after angioplasty...
April 2016: Atherosclerosis
Suresh K Verma, Venkata Naga Srikanth Garikipati, Prasanna Krishnamurthy, Mohsin Khan, Tina Thorne, Gangjian Qin, Douglas W Losordo, Raj Kishore
The role of inflammation on atherosclerosis and restenosis is well established. Restenosis is thought to be a complex response to injury, which includes early thrombus formation, acute inflammation and neo-intimal growth. Inflammatory cells are likely contributors in the host response to vascular injury, via cytokines and chemokines secretion, including TNF-alpha (TNF). We have previously shown that IL-10 inhibits TNF and other inflammatory mediators produced in response to cardiovascular injuries. The specific effect of IL-10 on endothelial cell (ECs) biology is not well elucidated...
2016: PloS One
Mehmet Zuhuri Arun, Levent Üstünes, Gülnur Sevin, Erdener Özer
Vitamin C has efficient antioxidant properties and is involved in important physiological processes such as collagen synthesis. As such, vitamin C deficiency leads to serious complications, including vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C treatment on collar-induced intimal thickening. Rabbits were fed a normocholesterolemic diet and a non-occlusive silicon collar was placed around the left carotid artery for 3, 7, and 14 days. The rabbits were treated with or without vitamin C (150 mg/kg/day)...
2015: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Hamed Esmaeili Monir, Hiroshi Yamada, Noriyuki Sakata
To investigate the mechanical effects of tissue responses, such as remodelling, in the arteries of the elderly, it is important to evaluate stress in the intimal layer. In this study, we investigated a novel technique to evaluate the effect of layer-specific characteristics on stress in the arterial wall in an elderly subject. We used finite element analysis of a segment of carotid artery with intimal thickening, incorporating stress-released geometries and the stress-strain relationships for three separate wall layers...
September 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Antoine Millon, Monica Sigovan, Loic Boussel, Jean-Louis Mathevet, Vanessa Louzier, Christian Paquet, Alain Geloen, Nicolas Provost, Zouher Majd, David Patsouris, Andre Serusclat, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic plaque development in the arterial wall is the result of complex interaction between the wall's endothelial layer and blood hemodynamics. However, the interaction between hemodynamic parameters and inflammation in plaque evolution is not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between wall shear stress (WSS) and vessel wall inflammation during atherosclerotic plaque development in a minipig model of carotid stenosis...
2015: PloS One
Daisuke Arai, Akira Ishii, Hideo Chihara, Hiroyuki Ikeda, Susumu Miyamoto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the recently marketed stent retriever thrombectomy devices have demonstrated a high recanalization rate and favorable clinical outcomes, there is a concern about the risks of intimal injuries when pulling out the stent in the unfolded position. In this study, the Solitaire Flow Restoration System and the Trevo retriever were used in a histopathological comparison of vascular injuries caused by stent retriever thrombectomy devices. METHODS: Rabbit carotid arteries were used in the experiments with stent retriever thrombectomy devices...
October 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
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