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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338883/the-effects-of-oleanolic-acid-on-atherosclerosis-in-different-animal-models
#1
Hanqiong Luo, Jine Liu, Qiong Ouyang, Chunxiao Xuan, Lanlan Wang, Tingting Li, Jun Liu
In the present study, three animal models, including C57BL/6J mice, low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice, and rabbit that mimicked atherosclerosis, were established to investigate the inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on atherosclerosis. In rabbit model, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. Carotid artery lesions were isolated for histological analysis. The red oil O and hematoxylin-eosin staining in liver were examined...
March 4, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285092/visceral-to-subcutaneous-fat-ratio-is-independently-related-to-small-and-large-cerebrovascular-lesions-even-in-healthy-subjects
#2
Satoshi Higuchi, Yusuke Kabeya, Kiyoe Kato
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The severity of obesity is evaluated by visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VS ratio), which may be useful for predicting atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear how VS ratio affects different types of cerebrovascular lesions. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical impact of visceral fat accumulation on the cerebrovascular lesions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 980 apparently healthy Japanese adults who underwent a health check-up program focused toward atherosclerosis, between 2011 and 2014...
March 2, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199358/association-between-carotid-atherosclerosis-and-different-subtypes-of-hypertension-in-adult-populations-a-multiethnic-study-in-xinjiang-china
#3
Yun Wu, Fen Liu, Dilare Adi, Yi-Ning Yang, Xiang Xie, Xiao-Mei Li, Xiang Ma, Zhen-Yan Fu, Ying Huang, Bang-Dang Chen, Chun-Fang Shan, Yi-Tong Ma
BACKGROUND: Ethnic differences in non-invasive measurements of carotid atherosclerosis are being increasingly reported, but the association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations is not fully understood in different ethnicities. We aimed to investigate the association of carotid atherosclerosis with different subtypes of hypertension in different ethnicities in Xinjiang, a northwestern province in China. METHODS: A total of 14,618 participants (5,757 Hans, 4,767 Uygurs, and 4,094 Kazakhs) from 26 villages of seven cities in Xinjiang were randomly selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180006/effects-of-amniotic-epithelial-cell-transplantation-in-endothelial-injury
#4
REVIEW
Gabriella Vácz, Attila Cselenyák, Zsuzsanna Cserép, Rita Benkő, Endre Kovács, Eszter Pankotai, Andrea Lindenmair, Susanne Wolbank, Charlotte M Schwarz, Dénes B Horváthy, Levente Kiss, István Hornyák, Zsombor Lacza
PURPOSE: Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are promising tools for endothelial repair in vascular regenerative medicine. We hypothesized that these epithelial cells are capable of repairing the damaged endothelial layer following balloon injury of the carotid artery in adult male rats. RESULTS: Two days after injury, the transplanted hAECs were observed at the luminal side of the arterial wall. Then, 4 weeks after the injury, significant intimal thickening was observed in both untreated and cell implanted vessels...
December 2016: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173642/a-novel-urotensin-ii-receptor-antagonist-kr-36996-inhibits-smooth-muscle-proliferation-through-erk-ros-pathway
#5
Tae-Ho Kim, Dong Gil Lee, Young-Ae Kim, Byung Ho Lee, Kyu Yang Yi, Yi-Sook Jung
Urotensin II (UII) is a mitogenic and hypertrophic agent that can induce the proliferation of vascular cells. UII inhibition has been considered as beneficial strategy for atherosclerosis and restenosis. However, currently there is no therapeutics clinically available for atherosclerosis or restenosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a newly synthesized UII receptor (UT) antagonist, KR-36996, on the proliferation of SMCs in vitro and neointima formation in vivo in comparison with GSK-1440115, a known potent UT antagonist...
February 6, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042220/internal-carotid-artery-fibromuscular-dysplasia-in-a-child-incidental-postmortem-finding-after-head-injury
#6
Arulselvi Subramanian, Garima Aggarwal, Deepak Agarwal, Sanjeev Lalwani
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare, segmental, nonatheromatous, and noninflammatory arterial disease of unknown etiology. It predominantly involves renal artery (60-75%) followed by extracranial part of the internal carotid artery and vertebral arteries (25-30%). The disease typically affects middle-aged women and involves intermediate-sized arteries throughout the body. There are rare case reports of extracranial FMD compounding a trauma case. A patient was brought to trauma center emergency with a history of fall from height...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815507/suppression-of-neointima-formation-by-targeting-%C3%AE-catenin-tcf-pathway
#7
Helen Williams, Sadie Slater, Sarah Jane George
Coronary artery disease is treated by vein grafting and stent implantation. Late vein graft failure and restenosis of stented arteries reduce the success rates of these approaches and are caused by neointima formation. We have previously shown that Wnt proteins are up-regulated during intimal thickening, and have speculated that these lead to activation of downstream genes with β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-responsive promoters. In the present study, we aimed to provide evidence that β-catenin/TCF signalling promotes neointima formation and assess whether targeting this pathway has potential for reducing neointima formation...
December 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763268/use-of-brilliant-blue-fcf-during-vein-graft-preparation-inhibits-intimal-hyperplasia
#8
Michael J Osgood, Kevin Sexton, Igor Voskresensky, Kyle Hocking, Jun Song, Padmini Komalavilas, Colleen Brophy, Joyce Cheung-Flynn
BACKGROUND: Intimal hyperplasia remains the primary cause of vein graft failure for the 1 million yearly bypass procedures performed using human saphenous vein (HSV) grafts. This response to injury is caused in part by the harvest and preparation of the conduit. The use of Brilliant Blue FCF (FCF) restores injury-induced loss of function in vascular tissues possibly via inhibition of purinergic receptor signaling. This study investigated whether pretreatment of the vein graft with FCF prevents intimal hyperplasia...
August 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582556/blockade-of-urotensin-ii-receptor-prevents-vascular-dysfunction
#9
Young-Ae Kim, Dong Gil Lee, Kyu Yang Yi, Byung Ho Lee, Yi-Sook Jung
Urotensin II (UII) is a potent vasoactive peptide and mitogenic agent to induce proliferation of various cells including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we examined the effects of a novel UII receptor (UT) antagonist, KR-36676, on vasoconstriction of aorta and proliferation of aortic SMCs. In rat aorta, UII-induced vasoconstriction was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In primary human aortic SMCs (hAoSMCs), UII-induced cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner...
September 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477859/a-new-clinically-relevant-model-for-intracranial-atherosclerosis-in-rats
#10
Jiamei Shen, James Stevenson, Xiaokun Geng, Jianjie Yang, Changbin Yin, Fengwu Li, Sainan Wang, Huishan Du, Xunming Ji, Yuchuan Ding
INTRODUCTION: Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is one of the most common causes of stroke worldwide and, in particular, has been implicated as a leading cause of recurrent ischemic stroke. We developed a new rat model to study intracranial atherosclerosis. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control (on a maintain diet) and a high-cholesterol group (on a daily 1% cholesterol diet) for up to 6 weeks. During the first two weeks, NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 3 mg/mL) was added to the drinking water in the high-cholesterol group to induce intimal changes making the rats susceptible to atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477186/pcsk9-knock-out-mice-are-protected-from-neointimal-formation-in-response-to-perivascular-carotid-collar-placement
#11
Nicola Ferri, Silvia Marchianò, Gianpaolo Tibolla, Roberta Baetta, Ashish Dhyani, Massimiliano Ruscica, Patrizia Uboldi, Alberico L Catapano, Alberto Corsini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) induces degradation of the low-density lipoprotein-receptor (LDLR). Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in human atherosclerotic plaques and cultured SMCs express PCSK9. The present study aimed at defining the role of PCSK9 on vascular response to injury. METHODS: Carotid neointimal lesions were induced by positioning a non-occlusive collar in PCSK9 knock-out (PCSK9(-/-)) and wild type littermate (PCSK9(+/+)) mice...
October 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379921/inhibition-of-intimal-thickening-after-vascular-injury-with-a-cocktail-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-cyclic-arg-gly-asp-peptide
#12
Yue Li, Lucinda S McRobb, Levon M Khachigian
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention is widely used for the treatment of coronary artery disease; however, significant challenges such as restenosis remain. Key to solving these problems is to inhibit smooth muscle cell activation while enhancing re-endothelialization. Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) is a transcription factor that regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration through its control of an array of downstream genes. METHODS: A "cocktail" of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-D and cyclic RGD was tested for its ability to inhibit neointima formation and accelerate re-endothelialization following balloon injury to carotid arteries of rats...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336336/takayasu-s-arteritis-followed-the-effects-of-therapeutic-pharmacology-by-carotid-ultrasonography
#13
Gabriel E Pérez Baztarrica, Andrea Iglesias, Tereza Zuñiga Infanta, Ricardo Levin, Rafael Porcile
INTRODUCTION: The carotid ultrasonography could be used to assess the effects of therapeutic pharmacology in the Takayasu's arteritis (TA). CASE PRESENTATION: 21-year-old female with a pulsatile headache and high blood pressure. There were difference in the blood pressure between arms and a bruit over the carotid and subclavian region. The CT angiography demonstrated arterial wall thickening of nearly the whole aorta and its branches. We diagnosed the patient as having AT...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199447/wnt2-and-wisp-1-ccn4-induce-intimal-thickening-via-promotion-of-smooth-muscle-cell-migration
#14
Helen Williams, Carina A E Mill, Bethan A Monk, Sarah Hulin-Curtis, Jason L Johnson, Sarah J George
OBJECTIVE: Increased vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration leads to intimal thickening which acts as a soil for atherosclersosis, as well as causing coronary artery restenosis after stenting and vein graft failure. Investigating factors involved in VSMC migration may enable us to reduce intimal thickening and improve patient outcomes. In this study, we determined whether Wnt proteins regulate VSMC migration and thereby intimal thickening. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Wnt2 mRNA and protein expression were specifically increased in migrating mouse aortic VSMCs...
July 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146795/a-novel-protective-function-of-5-methoxytryptophan-in-vascular-injury
#15
Yen-Chun Ho, Meng-Ling Wu, Chen-Hsuan Su, Chung-Huang Chen, Hua-Hui Ho, Guan-Lin Lee, Wei-Shiang Lin, Wen-Yu Lin, Yu-Juei Hsu, Cheng-Chin Kuo, Kenneth K Wu, Shaw-Fang Yet
5-Methoxytryptophan (5-MTP), a 5-methoxyindole metabolite of tryptophan metabolism, was recently shown to suppress inflammatory mediator-induced cancer cell proliferation and migration. However, the role of 5-MTP in vascular disease is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether 5-MTP protects against vascular remodeling following arterial injury. Measurements of serum 5-MTP levels in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) showed that serum 5-MTP concentrations were inversely correlated with CAD...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122209/-relationship-between-cd4-cd28null-t-cell-and-atherosclerosis-progression-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Zuhua Gao, Xiasang Qiu, KeKe Tang, Liang Chen, Jinhu Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of CD4+ CD28null T cell on occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 188 patients who were diagnosed as type 2 diabetes in the department of endocrinology were selected in this study.The carotid atherosclerosis was detected using color Doppler ultrasound.The patients with intima-media thickness>1.1 mm or plaques were classified as the carotid atherosclerosis group (95 cases), the others were classified as the control group (93 cases)...
December 19, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27064989/pentosan-polysulfate-oral-versus-subcutaneous-injection-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i-dogs
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Calogera M Simonaro, Shunji Tomatsu, Tracy Sikora, Francyne Kubaski, Michael Frohbergh, Johana M Guevara, Raymond Y Wang, Moin Vera, Jennifer L Kang, Lachlan J Smith, Edward H Schuchman, Mark E Haskins
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of pentosan polysulfate (PPS) in a rat model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI. Reduction of inflammation, reduction of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) storage, and improvement in the skeletal phenotype were shown. Herein, we evaluate the long-term safety and therapeutic effects of PPS in a large animal model of a different MPS type, MPS I dogs. We focused on the arterial phenotype since this is one of the most consistent and clinically significant features of the model...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057945/microrna-mir-191-targets-the-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-egr-1-and-suppresses-intimal-thickening-after-carotid-injury
#18
Yue Li, Lucinda S McRobb, Levon M Khachigian
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) is an immediate-early gene that is rapidly and transiently induced by stimuli such as injury, hypoxia and shear stress and is implicated in a range of vascular disorders. Once activated it regulates the expression of a range of genes, instigating a healing response involved in cellular dedifferentiation, proliferation and migration. Knowledge of the mechanisms underpinning the control of Egr-1 is incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition...
June 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011628/serum-homocysteine-as-a-risk-factor-for-carotid-intimal-thickening-in-acute-stroke-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#19
Anup J Devasia, Binu Joy, Subhash D Tarey
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to analyse if there is a correlation between carotid intima medial thickening (CIMT) and Hcy in stroke patients. METHODOLOGY: We studied 100 consecutive cases of acute anterior circulation strokes at St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, India. Fasting serum samples for homocysteine were sent within 24 hours of admission and all patients underwent a carotid Doppler scan and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) was estimated on both sides...
January 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004097/cardiac-autonomic-testing-and-diagnosing-heart-disease-a-clinical-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Nicholas L DePace, Joy P Mears, Michael Yayac, Joseph Colombo
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major health concern, affecting nearly half the middle-age population and responsible for nearly one-third of all deaths. Clinicians have responsibilities beyond diagnosing CHD, including risk stratification of patients for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), modifying the risks and treating the patient. In this first of a two-part review, identifying risk factors is reviewed, including more potential benefit from autonomic testing. METHODS: Traditional and non-traditional, and modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for MACE where compared, including newer risk factors, such as inflammation, carotid intimal thickening, ankle-brachial index, CT calcium scoring, and autonomic function testing, specifically independent measurement of parasympathetic and sympathetic (P&S) activity...
July 2014: Heart International
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