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"Shared attention"

Christine E Webb, Maya Rossignac-Milon, E Tory Higgins
Walking has myriad benefits for the mind, most of which have traditionally been explored and explained at the individual level of analysis. Much less empirical work has examined how walking with a partner might benefit social processes. One such process is conflict resolution-a field of psychology in which movement is inherent not only in recent theory and research, but also in colloquial language (e.g., "moving on"). In this article, we unify work from various fields pointing to the idea that walking together can facilitate both the intra- and interpersonal pathways to conflict resolution...
May 2017: American Psychologist
Suzanne Dikker, Lu Wan, Ido Davidesco, Lisa Kaggen, Matthias Oostrik, James McClintock, Jess Rowland, Georgios Michalareas, Jay J Van Bavel, Mingzhou Ding, David Poeppel
The human brain has evolved for group living [1]. Yet we know so little about how it supports dynamic group interactions that the study of real-world social exchanges has been dubbed the "dark matter of social neuroscience" [2]. Recently, various studies have begun to approach this question by comparing brain responses of multiple individuals during a variety of (semi-naturalistic) tasks [3-15]. These experiments reveal how stimulus properties [13], individual differences [14], and contextual factors [15] may underpin similarities and differences in neural activity across people...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Basil Wahn, Peter König
Human information processing is limited by attentional resources. That is, via attentional mechanisms, humans select a limited amount of sensory input to process while other sensory input is neglected. In multisensory research, a matter of ongoing debate is whether there are distinct pools of attentional resources for each sensory modality or whether attentional resources are shared across sensory modalities. Recent studies have suggested that attentional resource allocation across sensory modalities is in part task-dependent...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
Lauren J Taylor, Sara K Johnson, Michael J Nabozny, Jennifer L Tucholka, Nicole M Steffens, Kristine L Kwekkeboom, Karen J Brasel, Toby C Campbell, Margaret L Schwarze
OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize patterns of communication extrinsic to a decision aid that may impede goal-concordant care. BACKGROUND: Decision aids are designed to facilitate difficult clinical decisions by providing better treatment information. However, these interventions may not be sufficient to effectively reveal patient values and promote preference-aligned decisions for seriously ill, older adults. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 31 decision-making conversations between surgeons and frail, older inpatients with acute surgical problems at a single tertiary care hospital...
April 26, 2017: Annals of Surgery
Roger W Strong, George A Alvarez
Cognitive training has become a billion-dollar industry with the promise that exercising a cognitive faculty (e.g., attention) on simple "brain games" will lead to improvements on any task relying on the same faculty. Although this logic seems sound, it assumes performance improves on training tasks because attention's capacity has been enhanced. Alternatively, training may result in attentional expertise-an enhancement of the ability to deploy attention to particular content-such that improvement on training tasks is specific to the features of the training context...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Olivia Kang, Thalia Wheatley
Human social behavior relies on the coupling of minds. Here we show that patterns of pupil dilations reveal mental coupling between speakers and listeners. Speakers were videotaped and eye-tracked as they discussed positive and negative autobiographical memories. An independent group of listeners were then eye-tracked while they watched these videos. As pupillary dilations reflect the dynamics of conscious attention, we computed the morphological similarity of speaker-listener pupillary time-series data as a metric of shared attention...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Vivian M Ciaramitaro, Hiu Mei Chow, Luke G Eglington
We used a cross-modal dual task to examine how changing visual-task demands influenced auditory processing, namely auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds. Observers had to attend to two consecutive intervals of sounds and report which interval contained the auditory stimulus that was modulated in amplitude (Experiment 1) or frequency (Experiment 2). During auditory-stimulus presentation, observers simultaneously attended to a rapid sequential visual presentation-two consecutive intervals of streams of visual letters-and had to report which interval contained a particular color (low load, demanding less attentional resources) or, in separate blocks of trials, which interval contained more of a target letter (high load, demanding more attentional resources)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
A de Gaulmyn, R Miljkovitch, M Montreuil
OBJECTIVES: Symptoms in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder, appear at an early age. Research consensus shows impairments in communication and especially joint attention, defined as the capacity to intentionally share attention between two persons or a person and an object. Recent studies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) focus on infants' processes associated to joint attention, such as visual and auditive regulation, attentional engagement and social motivation. The present research's objective is to examine the role of these factors in joint attention...
March 9, 2017: L'Encéphale
Daniel P Skorich, Tahlia B Gash, Katie L Stalker, Lidan Zheng, S Alexander Haslam
The social difficulties of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are typically explained as a disruption in the Shared Attention Mechanism (SAM) sub-component of the theory of mind (ToM) system. In the current paper, we explore the hypothesis that SAM's capacity to construct the self-other-object relations necessary for shared-attention arises from a self-categorization process, which is weaker among those with more autistic-like traits. We present participants with self-categorization and shared-attention tasks, and measure their autism-spectrum quotient (AQ)...
May 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Heidi L Marsh, Maria Legerstee
We review the literature surrounding the phylogenetic and developmental emergence of goal-oriented behavior, among human and non-human primates. We define goal-oriented awareness as the ability to perceive goals and perceptions in others. We examine empirical literature involving gaze-following, shared attention, distinguishing between actions and intentions, and the ability to generate and understand communicative cues. We conclude that at least a rudimentary awareness of goal-oriented behavior is present from birth in humans, and in adult great apes...
August 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
Maxwell J D Ramstead, Samuel P L Veissière, Laurence J Kirmayer
In this paper we outline a framework for the study of the mechanisms involved in the engagement of human agents with cultural affordances. Our aim is to better understand how culture and context interact with human biology to shape human behavior, cognition, and experience. We attempt to integrate several related approaches in the study of the embodied, cognitive, and affective substrates of sociality and culture and the sociocultural scaffolding of experience. The integrative framework we propose bridges cognitive and social sciences to provide (i) an expanded concept of 'affordance' that extends to sociocultural forms of life, and (ii) a multilevel account of the socioculturally scaffolded forms of affordance learning and the transmission of affordances in patterned sociocultural practices and regimes of shared attention...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Robyn Langdon, Kiley Seymour, Tracey Williams, Philip B Ward
Explicit tests of social cognition have revealed pervasive deficits in schizophrenia. Less is known of automatic social cognition in schizophrenia. We used a spatial orienting task to investigate automatic shifts of attention cued by another person's eye gaze in 29 patients and 28 controls. Central photographic images of a face with eyes shifted left or right, or looking straight ahead, preceded targets that appeared left or right of the cue. To examine automatic effects, cue direction was non-predictive of target location...
August 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Luis R Manssuer, Ralph Pawling, Amy E Hayes, Steven P Tipper
Gaze direction can be used to rapidly and reflexively lead or mislead others' attention as to the location of important stimuli. When perception of gaze direction is congruent with the location of a target, responses are faster compared to when incongruent. Faces that consistently gaze congruently are also judged more trustworthy than faces that consistently gaze incongruently. However, it's unclear how gaze-cues elicit changes in trust. We measured facial electromyography (EMG) during an identity-contingent gaze-cueing task to examine whether embodied emotional reactions to gaze-cues mediate trust learning...
January 2016: Cognitive Neuroscience
E Oberwelland, L Schilbach, I Barisic, S C Krall, K Vogeley, G R Fink, B Herpertz-Dahlmann, K Konrad, M Schulte-Rüther
Joint attention, the shared attentional focus of at least two people on a third significant object, is one of the earliest steps in social development and an essential aspect of reciprocal interaction. However, the neural basis of joint attention (JA) in the course of development is completely unknown. The present study made use of an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in order to examine the developmental trajectories of JA and the influence of a familiar interaction partner during the social encounter. Our results show that across children and adolescents JA elicits a similar network of "social brain" areas as well as attention and motor control associated areas as in adults...
April 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Tobias Katus, Matthias M Müller
Working memory (WM) recruits neural circuits that also perform perception- and action-related functions. Among the functions that are shared between the domains of WM and perception is selective attention, which supports the maintenance of task-relevant information during the retention delay of WM tasks. The tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA) component of the event-related potential (ERP) marks the attention-based rehearsal of tactile information in somatosensory brain regions. We tested whether the tCDA reflects the competition for shared attention resources between a WM task and a perceptual task under dual-task conditions...
March 2016: NeuroImage
Atif Rahman, Gauri Divan, Syed Usman Hamdani, Vivek Vajaratkar, Carol Taylor, Kathy Leadbitter, Catherine Aldred, Ayesha Minhas, Percy Cardozo, Richard Emsley, Vikram Patel, Jonathan Green
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder affects more than 5 million children in south Asia. Although early interventions have been used for the treatment of children in high-income countries, no substantive trials have been done of the interventions adapted for use in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We therefore assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the parent-mediated intervention for autism spectrum disorder in south Asia (PASS) in India and Pakistan. METHODS: A single-blind randomised trial of the comparison of 12 sessions of PASS (plus treatment as usual) with treatment as usual alone delivered by non-specialist health workers was done at two centres in Goa, India, and Rawalpindi, Pakistan...
February 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Preston P Thakral, Elizabeth A Kensinger, Scott D Slotnick
Explicit memory is widely assumed to reflect the conscious processes of recollection and familiarity. However, familiarity has been hypothesized to be supported by nonconscious processing. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we assessed whether familiarity is mediated by some of the same regions that mediate repetition priming, a form of nonconscious memory. Participants completed an implicit (indirect) memory task and an explicit (direct) memory task during fMRI. During phase I of each task, participants viewed novel abstract shapes with internal colored oriented lines and judged whether each shape was relatively "pleasant" or "unpleasant"...
February 1, 2016: Brain Research
Eric B Spiegel
The relational and psychological functions of attunement, representation, and mentalization are essential components of a secure attachment experience. Psychotherapeutic approaches informed by attachment theory have gained significant empirical and clinical support, particularly in the area of complex trauma. Despite these advances, attachment-informed trauma treatment could benefit greatly from the experiential wealth that clinical hypnosis has to offer. In its utilization of shared attention, tone of voice, pacing, representational imagery, and hypnotic language, clinical hypnosis as a state, relationship, and technique offers psychotherapists a way of introducing a healthy attachment experience and renewing appropriate developmental functioning in patients who are survivors of complex trauma...
2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Takahiko Koike, Hiroki C Tanabe, Shuntaro Okazaki, Eri Nakagawa, Akihiro T Sasaki, Koji Shimada, Sho K Sugawara, Haruka K Takahashi, Kazufumi Yoshihara, Jorge Bosch-Bayard, Norihiro Sadato
During a dyadic social interaction, two individuals can share visual attention through gaze, directed to each other (mutual gaze) or to a third person or an object (joint attention). Shared attention is fundamental to dyadic face-to-face interaction, but how attention is shared, retained, and neutrally represented in a pair-specific manner has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a two-day hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which pairs of participants performed a real-time mutual gaze task followed by a joint attention task on the first day, and mutual gaze tasks several days later...
January 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Garriy Shteynberg
Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior...
September 2015: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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