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"Shared attention"

Maxwell J D Ramstead, Samuel P L Veissière, Laurence J Kirmayer
In this paper we outline a framework for the study of the mechanisms involved in the engagement of human agents with cultural affordances. Our aim is to better understand how culture and context interact with human biology to shape human behavior, cognition, and experience. We attempt to integrate several related approaches in the study of the embodied, cognitive, and affective substrates of sociality and culture and the sociocultural scaffolding of experience. The integrative framework we propose bridges cognitive and social sciences to provide (i) an expanded concept of 'affordance' that extends to sociocultural forms of life, and (ii) a multilevel account of the socioculturally scaffolded forms of affordance learning and the transmission of affordances in patterned sociocultural practices and regimes of shared attention...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Robyn Langdon, Kiley Seymour, Tracey Williams, Philip B Ward
Explicit tests of social cognition have revealed pervasive deficits in schizophrenia. Less is known of automatic social cognition in schizophrenia. We used a spatial orienting task to investigate automatic shifts of attention cued by another person's eye-gaze in 29 patients and 28 controls. Central photographic images of a face with eyes shifted left or right, or looking straight-ahead, preceded targets that appeared left or right of the cue. To examine automatic effects, cue-direction was non-predictive of target location...
May 20, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Luis R Manssuer, Ralph Pawling, Amy E Hayes, Steven P Tipper
Gaze direction can be used to rapidly and reflexively lead or mislead others' attention as to the location of important stimuli. When perception of gaze direction is congruent with the location of a target, responses are faster compared to when incongruent. Faces that consistently gaze congruently are also judged more trustworthy than faces that consistently gaze incongruently. However, it's unclear how gaze-cues elicit changes in trust. We measured facial electromyography (EMG) during an identity-contingent gaze-cueing task to examine whether embodied emotional reactions to gaze-cues mediate trust learning...
January 2016: Cognitive Neuroscience
E Oberwelland, L Schilbach, I Barisic, S C Krall, K Vogeley, G R Fink, B Herpertz-Dahlmann, K Konrad, M Schulte-Rüther
Joint attention, the shared attentional focus of at least two people on a third significant object, is one of the earliest steps in social development and an essential aspect of reciprocal interaction. However, the neural basis of joint attention (JA) in the course of development is completely unknown. The present study made use of an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in order to examine the developmental trajectories of JA and the influence of a familiar interaction partner during the social encounter. Our results show that across children and adolescents JA elicits a similar network of "social brain" areas as well as attention and motor control associated areas as in adults...
April 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Tobias Katus, Matthias M Müller
Working memory (WM) recruits neural circuits that also perform perception- and action-related functions. Among the functions that are shared between the domains of WM and perception is selective attention, which supports the maintenance of task-relevant information during the retention delay of WM tasks. The tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA) component of the event-related potential (ERP) marks the attention-based rehearsal of tactile information in somatosensory brain regions. We tested whether the tCDA reflects the competition for shared attention resources between a WM task and a perceptual task under dual-task conditions...
March 2016: NeuroImage
Atif Rahman, Gauri Divan, Syed Usman Hamdani, Vivek Vajaratkar, Carol Taylor, Kathy Leadbitter, Catherine Aldred, Ayesha Minhas, Percy Cardozo, Richard Emsley, Vikram Patel, Jonathan Green
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder affects more than 5 million children in south Asia. Although early interventions have been used for the treatment of children in high-income countries, no substantive trials have been done of the interventions adapted for use in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We therefore assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the parent-mediated intervention for autism spectrum disorder in south Asia (PASS) in India and Pakistan. METHODS: A single-blind randomised trial of the comparison of 12 sessions of PASS (plus treatment as usual) with treatment as usual alone delivered by non-specialist health workers was done at two centres in Goa, India, and Rawalpindi, Pakistan...
February 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Preston P Thakral, Elizabeth A Kensinger, Scott D Slotnick
Explicit memory is widely assumed to reflect the conscious processes of recollection and familiarity. However, familiarity has been hypothesized to be supported by nonconscious processing. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we assessed whether familiarity is mediated by some of the same regions that mediate repetition priming, a form of nonconscious memory. Participants completed an implicit (indirect) memory task and an explicit (direct) memory task during fMRI. During phase I of each task, participants viewed novel abstract shapes with internal colored oriented lines and judged whether each shape was relatively "pleasant" or "unpleasant"...
February 1, 2016: Brain Research
Eric B Spiegel
The relational and psychological functions of attunement, representation, and mentalization are essential components of a secure attachment experience. Psychotherapeutic approaches informed by attachment theory have gained significant empirical and clinical support, particularly in the area of complex trauma. Despite these advances, attachment-informed trauma treatment could benefit greatly from the experiential wealth that clinical hypnosis has to offer. In its utilization of shared attention, tone of voice, pacing, representational imagery, and hypnotic language, clinical hypnosis as a state, relationship, and technique offers psychotherapists a way of introducing a healthy attachment experience and renewing appropriate developmental functioning in patients who are survivors of complex trauma...
2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Takahiko Koike, Hiroki C Tanabe, Shuntaro Okazaki, Eri Nakagawa, Akihiro T Sasaki, Koji Shimada, Sho K Sugawara, Haruka K Takahashi, Kazufumi Yoshihara, Jorge Bosch-Bayard, Norihiro Sadato
During a dyadic social interaction, two individuals can share visual attention through gaze, directed to each other (mutual gaze) or to a third person or an object (joint attention). Shared attention is fundamental to dyadic face-to-face interaction, but how attention is shared, retained, and neutrally represented in a pair-specific manner has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a two-day hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which pairs of participants performed a real-time mutual gaze task followed by a joint attention task on the first day, and mutual gaze tasks several days later...
January 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Garriy Shteynberg
Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior...
September 2015: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Miriam Rennung, Anja S Göritz
Collective gatherings foster group cohesion through providing occasion for emotional sharing among participants. However, prior studies have failed to disentangle two processes that are involved in emotional sharing: 1) focusing shared attention on the same emotion-eliciting event and 2) actively sharing one's experiences and disclosing one's feelings to others. To date, it has remained untested if shared attention influences group cohesion independent of active emotional sharing. Our experiment investigated the effect of shared versus individual attention on cohesion in groups of strangers...
2015: PloS One
Jennifer E Arnold, Shin-Yi C Lao
Pronoun comprehension is facilitated for referents that are focused in the discourse context. Discourse focus has been described as a function of attention, especially shared attention, but few studies have explicitly tested this idea. Two experiments used an exogenous capture cue paradigm to demonstrate that listeners' visual attention at the onset of a story influences their preferences during pronoun resolution later in the story. In both experiments trial-initial attention modulated listeners' transitory biases while considering referents for the pronoun, whether it was in response to the capture cue or not...
August 2015: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
S Gareth Edwards, Lisa J Stephenson, Mario Dalmaso, Andrew P Bayliss
Here, we report a novel social orienting response that occurs after viewing averted gaze. We show, in three experiments, that when a person looks from one location to an object, attention then shifts towards the face of an individual who has subsequently followed the person's gaze to that same object. That is, contrary to 'gaze following', attention instead orients in the opposite direction to observed gaze and towards the gazing face. The magnitude of attentional orienting towards a face that 'follows' the participant's gaze is also associated with self-reported autism-like traits...
August 7, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Julie D Golomb
Spatial attention is thought to play a critical role in feature binding. However, often multiple objects or locations are of interest in our environment, and we need to shift or split attention between them. Recent evidence has demonstrated that shifting and splitting spatial attention results in different types of feature-binding errors. In particular, when two locations are simultaneously sharing attentional resources, subjects are susceptible to feature-mixing errors; that is, they tend to report a color that is a subtle blend of the target color and the color at the other attended location...
November 2015: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alexis Lafleur, Victor J Boucher
Experiments involving verbal self-monitoring show that memory for spoken words varies with types of sensory feedback: memory is better when words are spoken aloud than when they are lip-synched or covertly produced. Such effects can be explained by the Central Monitoring Theory (CMT) via a process that matches a forward model reflecting expected sensory effects of practiced forms and sensory information during speech. But CMT oversees factors of shared attention as achieved by speaker-listener gaze, and implies that sensory feedback may not affect the learning of unpracticed forms (non-words)...
November 2015: Consciousness and Cognition
Louise Giraudet, Marie-Eve St-Louis, Sébastien Scannella, Mickaël Causse
An analysis of airplane accidents reveals that pilots sometimes purely fail to react to critical auditory alerts. This inability of an auditory stimulus to reach consciousness has been coined under the term of inattentional deafness. Recent data from literature tends to show that tasks involving high cognitive load consume most of the attentional capacities, leaving little or none remaining for processing any unexpected information. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence for a shared attentional capacity between vision and hearing...
2015: PloS One
Anat Ninio
Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the 'here-and-now'. We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives produced by parents to children, children to peers, and children to parents. Of 391 English-speaking parents, 88% generated attention-directives, mostly Look!, See!, and Watch! Of 15 children (2;10-3;7) engaging in dyadic peer-interaction, only 26% produced such utterances...
January 2016: Journal of Child Language
Giorgia Committeri, Simona Cirillo, Marcello Costantini, Gaspare Galati, Gian Luca Romani, Tiziana Aureli
Pointing is a communicative gesture, commonly used for expressing two main intentions: imperative, to obtain a desired object/action from the other, or declarative, to share attention/interest about a referent with the other. Previous neuroimaging research on adults examined pointing almost exclusively as a reaching-like motor act rather than as a communicative gesture. Here, we used fMRI to record brain activity while 16 participants produced either imperative or declarative pointing gestures within a communicative context...
April 1, 2015: NeuroImage
Seungyeon Annie Yoon, Gwendolyn A Kelso, Anna Lock, Karlen Lyons-Ruth
The normative development of infant shared attention has been studied extensively, but few studies have examined the impact of disorganized attachment and disturbed maternal caregiving on mother-infant shared attention. The authors examined both maternal initiations of joint attention and infants' responses to those initiations during the reunion episodes of the Strange Situation Procedure at 12 and 18 months of infant age. The mothers' initiations of joint attention and three forms of infant response, including shunning, simple joint attention, and sharing attention, were examined in relation to infant disorganized attachment and maternal disrupted communication...
September 2014: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Dana Raveh, Nilli Lavie
High perceptual load in a task is known to reduce the visual perception of unattended items (e.g., Lavie, Beck, & Konstantinou, 2014). However, it remains an open question whether perceptual load in one modality (e.g., vision) can affect the detection of stimuli in another modality (e.g., hearing). We report four experiments that establish that high visual perceptual load leads to reduced detection sensitivity in hearing. Participants were requested to detect a tone that was presented during performance of a visual search task of either low or high perceptual load (varied through item similarity)...
February 2015: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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