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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804047/chimpanzee-personality-and-the-arginine-vasopressin-receptor-1a-genotype
#1
V A D Wilson, A Weiss, T Humle, N Morimura, T Udono, G Idani, T Matsuzawa, S Hirata, M Inoue-Murayama
Polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene have been linked to various measures related to human social behavior, including sibling conflict and agreeableness. In chimpanzees, AVPR1a polymorphisms have been associated with traits important for social interactions, including sociability, joint attention, dominance, conscientiousness, and hierarchical personality dimensions named low alpha/stability, disinhibition, and negative emotionality/low dominance. We examined associations between AVPR1a and six personality domains and hierarchical personality dimensions in 129 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) living in Japan or in a sanctuary in Guinea...
November 2, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786527/infants-early-visual-attention-and-social-engagement-as-developmental-precursors-to-joint-attention
#2
Brenda Salley, Stephen J Sheinkopf, A Rebecca Neal-Beevers, Elena J Tenenbaum, Cynthia L Miller-Loncar, Ed Tronick, Linda L Lagasse, Seetha Shankaran, Henrietta Bada, Charles Bauer, Toni Whitaker, Jane Hammond, Barry M Lester
This study examined infants' early visual attention (at 1 month of age) and social engagement (4 months) as predictors of their later joint attention (12 and 18 months). The sample (n = 325), drawn from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a longitudinal multicenter project conducted at 4 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, included high-risk (cocaine-exposed) and matched noncocaine-exposed infants. Hierarchical regressions revealed that infants' attention orienting at 1 month significantly predicted more frequent initiating joint attention at 12 (but not 18) months of age...
November 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760533/randomised-controlled-trial-of-an-ipad-based-early-intervention-for-autism-toby-playpad-study-protocol
#3
Joanna Granich, Alena Dass, Margherita Busacca, Dennis Moore, Angelika Anderson, Svetha Venkatesh, Thi Duong, Pratibha Vellanki, Amanda Richdale, David Trembath, Darin Cairns, Wendy Marshall, Tania Rodwell, Madeleine Rayner, Andrew J O Whitehouse
BACKGROUND: Evidence for early intensive behavioural interventions (EIBI) by therapists as an effective treatment for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is growing. High-intensity and sustained delivery of quality EIBI is expensive. The TOBY (Therapy Outcomes by You) Playpad is an App-based platform delivering EIBI to facilitate learning for young children with ASD, while enabling parents to become co-therapists. Intervention targets include increasing joint attention, imitation and communication of children with ASD...
October 19, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757737/parent-endorsed-sex-differences-in-toddlers-with-and-without-asd-utilizing-the-m-chat
#4
Roald A Øien, Logan Hart, Synnve Schjølberg, Carla A Wall, Elizabeth S Kim, Anders Nordahl-Hansen, Martin R Eisemann, Katarzyna Chawarska, Fred R Volkmar, Frederick Shic
Sex differences in typical development can provide context for understanding ASD. Baron-Cohen (Trends Cogn Sci 6(6):248-254, 2002) suggested ASD could be considered an extreme expression of normal male, compared to female, phenotypic profiles. In this paper, sex-specific M-CHAT scores from N = 53,728 18-month-old toddlers, including n = 185 (32 females) with ASD, were examined. Results suggest a nuanced view of the "extreme male brain theory of autism". At an item level, almost every male versus female disadvantage in the broader population was consistent with M-CHAT vulnerabilities in ASD...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734758/own-age-biases-in-adult-s-and-children-s-joint-attention-biased-face-prioritisation-but-not-gaze-following
#5
Susannah Freebody, Gustav Kuhn
Joint attention forms an essential part of language development and human interaction. Several previous studies have reported own-age biases in younger and older adults in gaze following. We investigated own-age biases in social attentional processes between adults and children by focusing on two aspects of the joint attention process, namely the extent to which people attend towards an individual's face, and the extent to which they fixate objects that are looked at by this person (i.e. gaze following). Participants viewed images that always contained a child and an adult who either looked towards each other or they each looked at an object located to their side...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679567/effects-of-facial-symmetry-and-gaze-direction-on-perception-of-social-attributes-a-study-in-experimental-art-history
#6
Per O Folgerø, Lasse Hodne, Christer Johansson, Alf E Andresen, Lill C Sætren, Karsten Specht, Øystein O Skaar, Rolf Reber
This article explores the possibility of testing hypotheses about art production in the past by collecting data in the present. We call this enterprise "experimental art history". Why did medieval artists prefer to paint Christ with his face directed towards the beholder, while profane faces were noticeably more often painted in different degrees of profile? Is a preference for frontal faces motivated by deeper evolutionary and biological considerations? Head and gaze direction is a significant factor for detecting the intentions of others, and accurate detection of gaze direction depends on strong contrast between a dark iris and a bright sclera, a combination that is only found in humans among the primates...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677050/audience-gaze-while-appreciating-a-multipart-musical-performance
#7
Satoshi Kawase, Satoshi Obata
Visual information has been observed to be crucial for audience members during musical performances. The present study used an eye tracker to investigate audience members' gazes while appreciating an audiovisual musical ensemble performance, based on evidence of the dominance of musical part in auditory attention when listening to multipart music that contains different melody lines and the joint-attention theory of gaze. We presented singing performances, by a female duo. The main findings were as follows: (1) the melody part (soprano) attracted more visual attention than the accompaniment part (alto) throughout the piece, (2) joint attention emerged when the singers shifted their gazes toward their co-performer, suggesting that inter-performer gazing interactions that play a spotlight role mediated performer-audience visual interaction, and (3) musical part (melody or accompaniment) strongly influenced the total duration of gazes among audiences, while the spotlight effect of gaze was limited to just after the singers' gaze shifts...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518812/variation-in-infant-eeg-power-across-social-and-nonsocial-contexts
#8
Ashley M St John, Katie Kao, Maitreyi Choksi, Jacqueline Liederman, Philip G Grieve, Amanda R Tarullo
To understand the infant social brain, it is critical to observe functional neural activation during social interaction. Yet many infant electroencephalography (EEG) studies on socioemotional development have recorded neural activity only during a baseline state. This study investigated how infant EEG power (4-6Hz and 6-9Hz) varies across social and nonsocial contexts. EEG was recorded in 12-month-olds across controlled conditions to disentangle the neural bases of social interactions. Four conditions-nonsocial, joint attention, language-only, and social engagement-were designed to tease apart how different environmental inputs relate to infant EEG power...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508932/do-dogs-provide-information-helpfully
#9
Patrizia Piotti, Juliane Kaminski
Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507953/cultural-affordances-scaffolding-local-worlds-through-shared-intentionality-and-regimes-of-attention
#10
Maxwell J D Ramstead, Samuel P L Veissière, Laurence J Kirmayer
In this paper we outline a framework for the study of the mechanisms involved in the engagement of human agents with cultural affordances. Our aim is to better understand how culture and context interact with human biology to shape human behavior, cognition, and experience. We attempt to integrate several related approaches in the study of the embodied, cognitive, and affective substrates of sociality and culture and the sociocultural scaffolding of experience. The integrative framework we propose bridges cognitive and social sciences to provide (i) an expanded concept of 'affordance' that extends to sociocultural forms of life, and (ii) a multilevel account of the socioculturally scaffolded forms of affordance learning and the transmission of affordances in patterned sociocultural practices and regimes of shared attention...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507579/reduced-saccadic-inhibition-of-return-to-moving-eyes-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Tiziana Zalla, Laura Gabriela Fernandez, Marie Pieron, Magali Seassau, Marion Leboyer
Inhibition of Return (IOR) refers to slower reaction time to a target presented at the same location as a preceding stimulus. Here, we examine reflexive attention orienting via the saccadic IOR using a shift in gaze direction (i.e. from averted to direct) in faces presented as a peripheral cue, in upright and inverted orientations, in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and typically developed comparison participants. While both groups showed an IOR in the inverted face condition, this effect was reduced in participants with ASD in the upright face condition, as compared to comparison participants, suggesting that moving eyes do not trigger reflexive exogenous orienting in individuals with ASD...
October 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453721/the-effects-of-embodied-rhythm-and-robotic-interventions-on-the-spontaneous-and-responsive-social-attention-patterns-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Sudha M Srinivasan, Inge-Marie Eigsti, Linda Neelly, Anjana N Bhat
We compared the effects of 8-weeks of rhythm and robotic interventions with those of a comparison, standard-of-care intervention, on the spontaneous and responsive social attention patterns of school-age children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Attention patterns were examined within a standardized pretest/posttest measure of joint attention (JA) and a training-specific social attention measure during early, mid, and late training sessions. The rhythm and comparison groups demonstrated improvements in JA. Social attention was greater in the rhythm followed by the robot and lastly the comparison group...
July 2016: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450099/communication-in-the-second-and-third-year-of-life-relationships-between-nonverbal-social-skills-and-language
#13
Hélène Cochet, Richard W Byrne
We aimed to investigate developmental continuities between a range of early social and communicative abilities (including gestural communication) and language acquisition in children aged between 11 and 41 months. Initiation of joint attention and imitation were strongly correlated to language comprehension and production. Moreover, the analysis of different communicative gestures revealed significant relationships between language development and the production of symbolic gestures, declarative pointing (declarative informative pointing in particular), and head nodding...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429539/progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-after-acute-kidney-injury
#14
Prasad Devarajan, John Lynn Jefferies
The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children and adults is increasing. Cardiologists have become indispensable members of the care provider team for children with CKD. This is partly due to the high incidence of CKD in children and adults with congenital heart disease, with current estimates of 30-50%. In addition, the high incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) due to cardiac dysfunction or following pediatric cardiac surgery that may progress to CKD is also well documented. It is now apparent that AKI and CKD are uniquely intertwined as interconnected syndromes...
June 2016: Progress in Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359225/joint-attention-enhances-visual-working-memory
#15
Samantha E A Gregory, Margaret C Jackson
Joint attention-the mutual focus of 2 individuals on an item-speeds detection and discrimination of target information. However, what happens to that information beyond the initial perceptual episode? To fully comprehend and engage with our immediate environment also requires working memory (WM), which integrates information from second to second to create a coherent and fluid picture of our world. Yet, no research exists at present that examines how joint attention directly impacts WM. To investigate this, we created a unique paradigm that combines gaze cues with a traditional visual WM task...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199777/goliah-a-gaming-platform-for-home-based-intervention-in-autism-principles-and-design
#16
Valentina Bono, Antonio Narzisi, Anne-Lise Jouen, Elodie Tilmont, Stephane Hommel, Wasifa Jamal, Jean Xavier, Lucia Billeci, Koushik Maharatna, Mike Wald, Mohamed Chetouani, David Cohen, Filippo Muratori
Children with Autism need intensive intervention and this is challenging in terms of manpower, costs, and time. Advances in Information Communication Technology and computer gaming may help in this respect by creating a nomadically deployable closed-loop intervention system involving the child and active participation of parents and therapists. An automated serious gaming platform enabling intensive intervention in nomadic settings has been developed by mapping two pivotal skills in autism spectrum disorder: Imitation and Joint Attention (JA)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187230/disentangling-the-initiation-from-the-response-in-joint-attention-an-eye-tracking-study-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
L Billeci, A Narzisi, G Campatelli, G Crifaci, S Calderoni, A Gagliano, C Calzone, C Colombi, G Pioggia, F Muratori
Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2)...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158270/identification-of-a-distinct-developmental-and-behavioral-profile-in-children-with-dup15q-syndrome
#18
Charlotte DiStefano, Amanda Gulsrud, Scott Huberty, Connie Kasari, Edwin Cook, Lawrence T Reiter, Ronald Thibert, Shafali Spurling Jeste
BACKGROUND: One of the most common genetic variants associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are duplications of chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1 (Dup15q syndrome). To identify distinctive developmental and behavioral features in Dup15q syndrome, we examined the social communication, adaptive, and cognitive skills in clinic-referred subjects and compared the characteristics of children with Dup15q syndrome to age/IQ-matched children with non-syndromic ASD. Behavior and development were also analyzed within the Dup15q group for differences related to copy number or epilepsy...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133869/the-social-origins-of-sustained-attention-in-one-year-old-human-infants
#19
Chen Yu, Linda B Smith
The ability to sustain attention is a major achievement in human development and is generally believed to be the developmental product of increasing self-regulatory and endogenous (i.e., internal, top-down, voluntary) control over one's attention and cognitive systems [1-5]. Because sustained attention in late infancy is predictive of future development, and because early deficits in sustained attention are markers for later diagnoses of attentional disorders [6], sustained attention is often viewed as a constitutional and individual property of the infant [6-9]...
May 9, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132009/validation-of-the-pictorial-infant-communication-scale-for-preschool-aged-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Christine S Ghilain, Meaghan V Parlade, Matthew T McBee, Drew C Coman, Taylor Owen, Anibal Gutierrez, Brian Boyd, Samuel Odom, Michael Alessandri
Joint attention, or the shared focus of attention between objects or events and a social partner, is a crucial milestone in the development of social communication and a notable area of deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder. While valid parent-report screening measures of social communication are available, the majority of these measures are designed to assess a wide range of behaviors. Targeted assessment of joint attention and related skills is primarily limited to semi-structured, examiner-led interactions, which are time-consuming and laborious to score...
April 30, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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