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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#1
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064558/a-hyperlexic-like-reading-style-is-associated-with-increased-autistic-features-in-girls-with-adhd
#2
Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Christopher Gillberg, Svenny Kopp
OBJECTIVE: Hyperlexic-like reading (defined as word decoding much better than comprehension) has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we study correlates of a hyperlexic-like reading style (HPL) in ADHD, a condition known to co-occur both with reading difficulties and ASD. METHOD: We compared 10 girls with an ADHD diagnosis plus HPL with 26 with ADHD minus HPL. RESULTS: Girls with HPL scored marginally lower in reading comprehension but did not differ from non-HPL girls in IQ, vocabulary, or in the severity of ADHD ratings...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062515/joint-attention-and-brain-functional-connectivity-in-infants-and-toddlers
#3
Adam T Eggebrecht, Jed T Elison, Eric Feczko, Alexandre Todorov, Jason J Wolff, Sridhar Kandala, Chloe M Adams, Abraham Z Snyder, John D Lewis, Annette M Estes, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Kelly N Botteron, Robert C McKinstry, John N Constantino, Alan Evans, Heather C Hazlett, Stephen Dager, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Guido Gerig, Samir Das, Penelope Kostopoulos, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett
Initiating joint attention (IJA), the behavioral instigation of coordinated focus of 2 people on an object, emerges over the first 2 years of life and supports social-communicative functioning related to the healthy development of aspects of language, empathy, and theory of mind. Deficits in IJA provide strong early indicators for autism spectrum disorder, and therapies targeting joint attention have shown tremendous promise. However, the brain systems underlying IJA in early childhood are poorly understood, due in part to significant methodological challenges in imaging localized brain function that supports social behaviors during the first 2 years of life...
January 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056381/vineland-ii-adaptive-behavior-profile-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-or-specific-learning-disorders
#4
Giulia Balboni, Oriana Incognito, Carmen Belacchi, Sabrina Bonichini, Roberto Cubelli
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of adaptive behavior is informative in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or specific learning disorders (SLD). However, the few investigations available have focused only on the gross level of domains of adaptive behavior. AIMS: To investigate which item subsets of the Vineland-II can discriminate children with ADHD or SLD from peers with typical development. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Student's t-tests, ROC analysis, logistic regression, and linear discriminant function analysis were used to compare 24 children with ADHD, 61 elementary students with SLD, and controls matched on age, sex, school level attended, and both parents' education level...
January 2, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051933/toward-a-social-psychophysics-of-face-communication
#5
Rachael E Jack, Philippe G Schyns
As a highly social species, humans are equipped with a powerful tool for social communication-the face. Although seemingly simple, the human face can elicit multiple social perceptions due to the rich variations of its movements, morphology, and complexion. Consequently, identifying precisely what face information elicits different social perceptions is a complex empirical challenge that has largely remained beyond the reach of traditional methods. In the past decade, the emerging field of social psychophysics has developed new methods to address this challenge, with the potential to transfer psychophysical laws of social perception to the digital economy via avatars and social robots...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044064/asd-and-schizophrenia-show-distinct-developmental-profiles-in-common-genetic-overlap-with-population-based-social-communication-difficulties
#6
B St Pourcain, E B Robinson, V Anttila, B B Sullivan, J Maller, J Golding, D Skuse, S Ring, D M Evans, S Zammit, S E Fisher, B M Neale, R J L Anney, S Ripke, M V Hollegaard, T Werge, A Ronald, J Grove, D M Hougaard, A D Børglum, P B Mortensen, M J Daly, G Davey Smith
Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040991/a-systematic-review-of-research-into-aided-aac-to-increase-social-communication-functions-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Kristy Logan, Teresa Iacono, David Trembath
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions have been shown to be effective in supporting children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to communicate, particularly to request preferred items and activities. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of AAC interventions in supporting children to produce a broader range of communicative functions and determine the extent to which these interventions have been evaluated beyond immediate effectiveness to address maintenance, generalization, and social validity...
December 31, 2016: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036004/sensing-technologies-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-screening-and-intervention
#8
John-John Cabibihan, Hifza Javed, Mohammed Aldosari, Thomas W Frazier, Haitham Elbashir
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in sensing technologies that are relevant for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) screening and therapy. This disorder is characterized by difficulties in social communication, social interactions, and repetitive behaviors. It is diagnosed during the first three years of life. Early and intensive interventions have been shown to improve the developmental trajectory of the affected children. The earlier the diagnosis, the sooner the intervention therapy can begin, thus, making early diagnosis an important research goal...
December 27, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009723/adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review-of-outcomes-social-attainment-and-interventions
#9
Kenneth K Poon, Dalvin J K Sidhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the increasing incidence of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, there is a need to develop programs to support them throughout their lifespan but research in adulthood support is still scarce. This article aims to provide an up-to-date review of the research on the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), social attainments, and efforts to improve their outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: The core social communication impairments continue into adulthood among persons with ASD, but the restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior and activities have received less attention...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998262/neurocognitive-considerations-when-assessing-theory-of-mind-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Katie Hamilton, Michelle Hoogenhout, Susan Malcolm-Smith
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterised by poor social competence; and since Theory of Mind (ToM) is a building block for social-communicative skills and successful social integration, these skills are important to assess when preparing and monitoring educational and therapeutic plans. ToM is a complex skill requiring the ability to form mental concepts, to represent complex constructs verbally, to inhibit some mental states in favour of others, and to consider and compare multiple perspectives. It is critical to consider cognitive influences on the ability to develop and convey ToM skills to ensure that deficits in other cognitive domains do not falsely present as ToM deficits...
October 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996329/inhibitory-control-and-traumatic-brain-injury-the-association-between-executive-control-processes-and-social-communication-deficits
#11
Bronte Pearce, Jade Cartwright, Naomi Cocks, Anne Whitworth
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To further examine the proposed relationship between executive impairments in inhibitory control and social communication difficulties reflecting poor inhibition following TBI. METHOD: Inhibitory control was assessed in 14 adults with TBI on the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT). Errors on Part B (failed inhibition) and Part B-Part A response latencies (delayed inhibition) were examined. A relative, friend or frequent communication partner of each participant with TBI completed the La Trobe Communication Questionnaire (LCQ) on the communication difficulties of the person with TBI...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990746/parents-opinions-about-an-intervention-to-manage-repetitive-behaviours-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-qualitative-study
#12
Anna R Hodgson, Victoria Grahame, Deborah Garland, Fiona Gaultier, Jan Lecouturier, Ann Le Couteur
BACKGROUND: Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social communication skills. We report data collected via focus group discussions as part of a feasibility and acceptability pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) about a new parent group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD. METHODS: The focus groups were led by two independent facilitators and followed a semi-structured topic guide with the aim of considering three key topics: experiences of participating in a RCT, opinions about the intervention and the impact of the intervention on the participants, their children and the family...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987063/increased-eye-contact-during-conversation-compared-to-play-in-children-with-autism
#13
Rebecca M Jones, Audrey Southerland, Amarelle Hamo, Caroline Carberry, Chanel Bridges, Sarah Nay, Elizabeth Stubbs, Emily Komarow, Clay Washington, James M Rehg, Catherine Lord, Agata Rozga
Children with autism have atypical gaze behavior but it is unknown whether gaze differs during distinct types of reciprocal interactions. Typically developing children (N = 20) and children with autism (N = 20) (4-13 years) made similar amounts of eye contact with an examiner during a conversation. Surprisingly, there was minimal eye contact during interactive play in both groups. Gaze behavior was stable across 8 weeks in children with autism (N = 15). Lastly, gaze behavior during conversation but not play was associated with autism social affect severity scores (ADOS CSS SA) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974571/socioeconomic-correlations-and-stratification-in-social-communication-networks
#14
Yannick Leo, Eric Fleury, J Ignacio Alvarez-Hamelin, Carlos Sarraute, Márton Karsai
The uneven distribution of wealth and individual economic capacities are among the main forces, which shape modern societies and arguably bias the emerging social structures. However, the study of correlations between the social network and economic status of individuals is difficult due to the lack of large-scale multimodal data disclosing both the social ties and economic indicators of the same population. Here, we close this gap through the analysis of coupled datasets recording the mobile phone communications and bank transaction history of one million anonymized individuals living in a Latin American country...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959973/false-belief-performance-of-children-adopted-internationally
#15
Deborah A Hwa-Froelich, Hisako Matsuo, Kristal Jacobs
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among adoption, individual, and family variables on false belief performance of children adopted internationally (CAI). Method: Using a quasiexperimental design, thirty-five 4-year-old children adopted from Asian and Eastern European countries before age 2 years were compared with a U.S. group of 33 nonadopted 4-year-old children on a standardized English-language measure, 3 false belief tasks, and a go/no-go inhibition measure...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941813/mhc-dependent-mate-choice-is-linked-to-a-trace-amine-associated-receptor-gene-in-a-mammal
#16
Pablo S C Santos, Alexandre Courtiol, Andrew J Heidel, Oliver P Höner, Ilja Heckmann, Martina Nagy, Frieder Mayer, Matthias Platzer, Christian C Voigt, Simone Sommer
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a pivotal role in vertebrate self/nonself recognition, parasite resistance and life history decisions. In evolutionary terms, the MHC's exceptional diversity is likely maintained by sexual and pathogen-driven selection. Even though MHC-dependent mating preferences have been confirmed for many species, the sensory and genetic mechanisms underlying mate recognition remain cryptic. Since olfaction is crucial for social communication in vertebrates, variation in chemosensory receptor genes could explain MHC-dependent mating patterns...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940872/mind-the-gap-neural-coding-of-species-identity-in-birdsong-prosody
#17
Makoto Araki, M M Bandi, Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama
Juvenile songbirds learn vocal communication from adult tutors of the same species but not from adults of other species. How species-specific learning emerges from the basic features of song prosody remains unknown. In the zebra finch auditory cortex, we discovered a class of neurons that register the silent temporal gaps between song syllables and are distinct from neurons encoding syllable morphology. Behavioral learning and neuronal coding of temporal gap structure resisted song tutoring from other species: Zebra finches fostered by Bengalese finch parents learned Bengalese finch song morphology transposed onto zebra finch temporal gaps...
December 9, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929601/undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-of-the-vocal-fold
#18
Chang-Yeong Jeong, Choung-Soo Kim
Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, previously called malignant fibrous histiocytoma, usually arises in the extremities and retroperitoneum. Primary laryngeal undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma is very rare, with only 63 cases having been reported in the literature as of 2015. The disease has a poor prognosis because of problems with local recurrence and metastasis. Wide resection has been recommended as a treatment modality in previous reports. We report a case of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the vocal fold in a 64-year-old man presenting with rapid growth...
December 2016: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929321/social-communication-questionnaire-scoring-procedures-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-the-prevalence-of-potential-social-communication-disorder-in-asd
#19
Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M Richman, Steven Randall Chesnut, Todd D Little
In analyzing data from the National Database for Autism Research, we utilized Mokken scaling techniques as a means of creating a more effective and efficient screening procedure for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). With a sample of 1,040, approximately 80% (n = 827) of the sample were males while approximately 20% (n = 213) were females. In regard to ethnicity, approximately 68% of the sample were White/Caucasian, while 7% were African American, 16% were Hispanic, 4% were Asian, and 1% were Native American or American Indian...
December 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929316/assessing-understanding-and-supporting-students-with-autism-at-school-contemporary-science-practice-and-policy
#20
Janine P Stichter, T Chris Riley-Tillman, Shane R Jimerson
Over the past 3 decades, there has been an unprecedented increase in students identified as eligible for special education as a result of students meeting criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The increasing number of students with ASD in the schools presents significant challenges to teachers, school psychologists, and other school professionals working with this population. Although there is considerable research addressing assessment, identification, and support services for children with ASD, there is a need for further research focused on these topics within the school context...
December 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
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