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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214050/communication-deficits-and-avoidance-of-angry-faces-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Ana García-Blanco, Concepción López-Soler, Máximo Vento, María Carmen García-Blanco, Belén Gago, Manuel Perea
BACKGROUND: Understanding how emotional faces are processed is important to help characterize the social deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). AIMS: We examined: (i) whether attention is modulated by emotional facial expression; (ii) the time course of the attentional preferences (short vs. long stimulus presentation rates); and (iii) the association between attentional biases and autistic symptomatology. METHOD AND PROCEDURES: We applied a dot-probe experiment with emotional faces (happy, sad, and angry)...
February 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213805/an-overview-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-heterogeneity-and-treatment-options
#2
REVIEW
Anne Masi, Marilena M DeMayo, Nicholas Glozier, Adam J Guastella
Since the documented observations of Kanner in 1943, there has been great debate about the diagnoses, the sub-types, and the diagnostic threshold that relates to what is now known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reflecting this complicated history, there has been continual refinement from DSM-III with 'Infantile Autism' to the current DSM-V diagnosis. The disorder is now widely accepted as a complex, pervasive, heterogeneous condition with multiple etiologies, sub-types, and developmental trajectories. Diagnosis remains based on observation of atypical behaviors, with criteria of persistent deficits in social communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior...
February 17, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213292/improving-therapeutic-outcomes-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-enhancing-social-communication-and-sensory-processing-through-the-use-of-interactive-robots
#3
REVIEW
Felippe Sartorato, Leon Przybylowski, Diana K Sarko
For children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), social robots are increasingly utilized as therapeutic tools in order to enhance social skills and communication. Robots have been shown to generate a number of social and behavioral benefits in children with ASD including heightened engagement, increased attention, and decreased social anxiety. Although social robots appear to be effective social reinforcement tools in assistive therapies, the perceptual mechanism underlying these benefits remains unknown...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168003/cognitive-and-adaptive-correlates-of-an-ados-derived-joint-attention-composite
#4
Ashley Johnson Harrison, Zhenqiu Laura Lu, Rebecca L McLean, Stephen J Sheinkopf
Joint attention skills have been shown to predict language outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Less is known about the relationship between joint attention (JA) abilities in children with ASD and cognitive and adaptive abilities. In the current study, a subset of items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), designed to quantify JA abilities, were used to investigate social attention among an unusually large cross-sectional sample of children with ASD (n = 1061). An examination of the association between JA and a range of functional correlates (cognitive and adaptive) revealed JA was significantly related to verbal (VIQ) and non-verbal (NVIQ) cognitive ability as well as all domains of adaptive functioning (socialization, communication, and daily living skills)...
September 2016: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161297/signaling-of-noncomprehension-in-communication-breakdowns-in-fragile-x-syndrome-down-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Gary E Martin, Jamie Barstein, Jane Hornickel, Sara Matherly, Genna Durante, Molly Losh
: The ability to indicate a failure to understand a message is a critical pragmatic (social) language skill for managing communication breakdowns and supporting successful communicative exchanges. The current study examined the ability to signal noncomprehension across different types of confusing message conditions in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). Controlling for nonverbal mental age and receptive vocabulary skills, youth with comorbid FXS and ASD and those with DS were less likely than TD controls to signal noncomprehension of confusing messages...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152327/efficacy-of-low-intensity-therapist-implemented-project-impact-for-increasing-social-communication-skills-in-young-children-with-asd
#6
Brooke R Ingersoll, Allison L Wainer, Natalie I Berger, Katherine M Walton
Project ImPACT is a Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention (NDBI) for young children with ASD. Preliminary research supports its feasibility and efficacy as a parent-mediated intervention; however, its efficacy as a low-intensity, therapist-implemented intervention is unclear. A single-case, multiple-baseline design evaluated the effect of 2 h per week of therapist-implemented Project ImPACT on social engagement, language, and play in nine children with ASD. Language and play skills were targeted separately for five children and together for four children...
February 2, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152081/infants-sensitivity-to-emotion-in-music-and-emotion-action-understanding
#7
Tik-Sze Carrey Siu, Him Cheung
Emerging evidence has indicated infants' early sensitivity to acoustic cues in music. Do they interpret these cues in emotional terms to represent others' affective states? The present study examined infants' development of emotional understanding of music with a violation-of-expectation paradigm. Twelve- and 20-month-olds were presented with emotionally concordant and discordant music-face displays on alternate trials. The 20-month-olds, but not the 12-month-olds, were surprised by emotional incongruence between musical and facial expressions, suggesting their sensitivity to musical emotion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149288/attention-orienting-in-response-to-non-conscious-hierarchical-arrows-individuals-with-higher-autistic-traits-differ-in-their-global-local-bias
#8
Robin Laycock, Daniel Chan, Sheila G Crewther
One aspect of the social communication impairments that characterize autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include reduced use of often subtle non-verbal social cues. People with ASD, and those with self-reported sub-threshold autistic traits, also show impairments in rapid visual processing of stimuli unrelated to social or emotional properties. Hence, this study sought to investigate whether perceptually non-conscious visual processing is related to autistic traits. A neurotypical sample of thirty young adults completed the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire and a Posner-like attention cueing task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132125/does-the-presence-of-anxiety-and-adhd-symptoms-add-to-social-impairment-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Reina S Factor, Sarah M Ryan, Julee P Farley, Thomas H Ollendick, Angela Scarpa
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience internalizing and externalizing problems at higher rates than typically developing children, which could worsen social impairment. The present study compared impairment scores (social responsiveness scale, 2nd edition; SRS-2 scores) in 57 children (3-17 years, 82.5% male) with ASD, either with or without heightened levels of anxiety or ADHD symptoms, all per parent report. Children with heightened anxiety problems showed higher scores on four SRS-2 subscales (Social Cognition, Social Communication, Social Motivation, and Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behavior)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119084/effects-of-amphetamine-on-pro-social-ultrasonic-communication-in-juvenile-rats-implications-for-mania-models
#10
K-Alexander Engelhardt, Eberhard Fuchs, Rainer K W Schwarting, Markus Wöhr
Communication is the act of information transfer between sender and receiver. In rats, vocal communication can be studied through ultrasonic vocalizations (USV). 50-kHz USV occur in appetitive situations, most notably juvenile play, likely expressing the sender׳s positive affective state. Such appetitive 50-kHz USV serve important pro-social communicative functions and elicit social exploratory and approach behavior in the receiver. Emission of 50-kHz USV can be induced pharmacologically by the administration of psychostimulant drugs, such as amphetamine...
January 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119035/autism-spectrum-and-psychosis-risk-in-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-findings-from-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#11
A M Fiksinski, E J Breetvelt, S N Duijff, A S Bassett, R S Kahn, J A S Vorstman
BACKGROUND: Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have a 25% risk for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Some have hypothesized that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) diagnosed in children with 22q11DS may actually represent the social-communicative defects often observed during the early developmental stages of schizophrenia. METHODS: We prospectively studied 89 children with 22q11DS to test this hypothesis. At baseline, the Autism Diagnostic Interview was used to assess ASD, evaluating both current and early childhood behaviors...
January 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114071/design-of-a-physiology-sensitive-vr-based-social-communication-platform-for-children-with-autism
#12
Selvia Kuriakose, Uttama Lahiri
Individuals with autism are often characterized by impairments in communication, reciprocal social interaction and explicit expression of their affective states. In conventional techniques, a therapist adjusts the intervention paradigm by monitoring the affective state e.g., anxiety of these individuals for effective floor-time-therapy. Conventional techniques, though powerful, are observation-based and face resource limitations. Technology-assisted systems can provide a quantitative, individualized rehabilitation platform...
September 27, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105548/brief-report-the-preliminary-psychometric-properties-of-the-social-communication-checklist
#13
Allison L Wainer, Natalie I Berger, Brooke R Ingersoll
Despite the expansion of early intervention approaches for young children with ASD, investigators have struggled to identify measures capable of assessing social communication change in response to these interventions. Addressing recent calls for efficient, sensitive, and reliable social communication measures, the current paper outlines the refinement and validation of the Social Communication Checklist (SCC). We discuss two small studies exploring the psychometric properties of the SCC and the SCC-R (revised Social Communication Checklist), including sensitivity to change, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability, in two samples of children with ASD and one sample of typically-developing children...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101829/autism-spectrum-disorders%C3%A2-diagnosis-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Sharmila Banerjee Mukherjee
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder commonly seen in children. It is characterized by age inappropriate, impaired social communication and the presence of stereotypic behavior. This disorder is hypothesized to result from cerebral dysfunction arising from a complex interaction between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. ASD should be suspected in children failing ASD specific screening tests, in the presence of red flags in social, language and/or play domains, in children with developmental or language delay, abnormal behavior, poor school performance or in those who are at high risk...
January 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097516/are-event-related-potentials-to-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-emotion-related-to-individual-differences-in-the-accuracy-of-processing-facial-expressions-and-identity
#15
Guillermo Recio, Oliver Wilhelm, Werner Sommer, Andrea Hildebrandt
Despite a wealth of knowledge about the neural mechanisms behind emotional facial expression processing, little is known about how they relate to individual differences in social cognition abilities. We studied individual differences in the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by dynamic facial expressions. First, we assessed the latent structure of the ERPs, reflecting structural face processing in the N170, and the allocation of processing resources and reflexive attention to emotionally salient stimuli, in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive complex (LPC)...
January 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095617/probing-forebrain-to-hindbrain-circuit-functions-in-xenopus
#16
REVIEW
Darcy B Kelley, Taffeta M Elliott, Ben J Evans, Ian C Hall, Elizabeth C Leininger, Heather J Rhodes, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
The vertebrate hindbrain includes neural circuits that govern essential functions including breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Hindbrain circuits also participate in generating rhythmic motor patterns for vocalization. In most tetrapods, sound production is powered by expiration and the circuitry underlying vocalization and respiration must be linked. Perception and arousal are also linked; acoustic features of social communication sounds-for example, a baby's cry-can drive autonomic responses. The close links between autonomic functions that are essential for life and vocal expression have been a major in vivo experimental challenge...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093239/application-of-technology-to-social-communication-impairment-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Susan W White
Social communication impairment has been implicated in various mental health disorders. The primary aim of this review paper is to summarize the extant research on the development and application of technologies to address social communication deficits, conceptualized according to the four constructs outlined by the NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), transdiagnostically in children and adolescents. An exhaustive and systematic search yielded 69 peer-reviewed articles meeting all inclusion criteria (i.e...
January 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091344/a-comprehensive-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pharmacological-and-dietary-supplement-interventions-in-paediatric-autism-moderators-of-treatment-response-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#18
A Masi, A Lampit, M M DeMayo, N Glozier, I B Hickie, A J Guastella
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are pervasive and multifactorial neurodevelopmental conditions, characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities. Treatment options to ameliorate symptoms of ASDs are limited. Heterogeneity complicates the quest for personalized medicine in this population. Our aim was to investigate if there are baseline characteristics of patients that moderate response or trial design features that impede the identification of efficacious interventions for ASDs...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#19
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064558/a-hyperlexic-like-reading-style-is-associated-with-increased-autistic-features-in-girls-with-adhd
#20
Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Christopher Gillberg, Svenny Kopp
OBJECTIVE: Hyperlexic-like reading (defined as word decoding much better than comprehension) has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we study correlates of a hyperlexic-like reading style (HPL) in ADHD, a condition known to co-occur both with reading difficulties and ASD. METHOD: We compared 10 girls with an ADHD diagnosis plus HPL with 26 with ADHD minus HPL. RESULTS: Girls with HPL scored marginally lower in reading comprehension but did not differ from non-HPL girls in IQ, vocabulary, or in the severity of ADHD ratings...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
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