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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334641/do-clinically-anxious-children-cluster-according-to-their-expression-of-factors-that-maintain-child-anxiety
#1
Samantha Pearcey, Anna Alkozei, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Helen Dodd, Kou Murayama, Suzannah Stuijfzand, Cathy Creswell
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for childhood anxiety disorders, yet a significant proportion of children do not benefit from it. CBT for child anxiety disorders typically includes a range of strategies that may not all be applicable for all affected children. This study explored whether there are distinct subgroups of children with anxiety disorders who are characterized by their responses to measures of the key mechanisms that are targeted in CBT (i...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333196/brief-report-reduced-anxiety-following-pivotal-response-treatment-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Jiedi Lei, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Megan L Braconnier, Pamela Ventola
Up to 40% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit co-occurring anxiety symptoms. Despite recent success in mitigating anxiety symptoms in school-aged children with ASD (mean age >9 years) using adapted versions of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, little is known about potential treatment outcomes for younger children. To address the gap in the literature, this open-label study evaluated change in anxiety following a 16-week open-label trial of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) in children with ASD aged 4-8 years...
November 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329955/longitudinal-predictors-of-early-language-in-infants-with-down-syndrome-a-preliminary-study
#3
Emily Mason-Apps, Vesna Stojanovik, Carmel Houston-Price, Sue Buckley
PURPOSE: Children with Down syndrome (DS) typically have marked delays in language development relative to their general cognitive development, with particular difficulties in expressive compared to receptive language. Although early social communication skills, including gestures and joint attention, have been shown to be related to later language outcomes in DS, knowledge is limited as to whether these factors exclusively predict outcomes, or whether other factors (e.g. perceptual and non-verbal skills) are involved...
January 9, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329513/the-behavioural-phenotype-of-potocki-lupski-syndrome-a-cross-syndrome-comparison
#4
Stacey Bissell, Lucy Wilde, Caroline Richards, Jo Moss, Chris Oliver
BACKGROUND: Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are related genomic disorders, as duplication 17p11.2 (associated with PTLS) is the reciprocal recombination product of the SMS microdeletion. While SMS has a relatively well-delineated behavioural phenotype, the behavioural profile in PTLS is less well defined, despite purported associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the suggestion that some behaviours may be diametric to those seen in SMS. METHODS: Caregivers of individuals with PTLS (N = 34; M age = 12...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321841/reversed-gender-ratio-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-smith-magenis-syndrome
#5
Heidi Elisabeth Nag, Ann Nordgren, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Terje Nærland
Background: A substantial amount of research shows a higher rate of autistic type of problems in males compared to females. The 4:1 male to female ratio is one of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Lately, the interest in studying ASD in genetic disorders has increased, and research has shown a higher prevalence of ASD in some genetic disorders than in the general population.Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare and complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317216/multisensory-temporal-binding-window-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Han-Yu Zhou, Xin-Lu Cai, Michael Weigl, Peter Bang, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Multisensory temporal integration could be compromised in both autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and may play an important role in perceptual and cognitive impairment in these two disorders. This review aimed to quantitatively compare the sensory temporal acuity between healthy controls and the two clinical groups (ASD and SSD). Impairment of sensory temporal integration was robust and comparable in both patients with SSD (Hedges' g=0.91, 95%CI[0.62-1.19]; Z=6.21, p<...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316350/relationships-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty
#7
Roma A Vasa, Nicole L Kreiser, Amy Keefer, Vini Singh, Stewart H Mostofsky
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a dispositional risk factor involving maladaptive responding under conditions of uncertainty. Recent data indicate that IU is likely elevated in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is positively correlated with anxiety. This study examined whether IU may be associated with ASD independent of anxiety. Relationships between anxiety, ASD, and IU were examined in 57 children with ASD without co-occurring intellectual disability and 32 control participants, ages 7-16 years...
January 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316336/enhancing-interactions-during-daily-routines-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-web-based-tutorial-for-parents-of-young-children-with-asd
#8
Lisa V Ibañez, Kenneth Kobak, Amy Swanson, Lisa Wallace, Zachary Warren, Wendy L Stone
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often experience difficulty participating in everyday home routines, such as bed time or bath time. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of an interactive, web-based parenting tutorial for improving children's engagement in daily routines (i.e., proximal outcomes) as well improving children's social communication and parenting efficacy and stress (i.e., broad outcomes). Parents of children with ASD between 18 and 60 months were randomly assigned to the Tutorial group (n = 52) or the Control group (n = 52)...
January 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313178/brief-report-caregiver-strategy-implementation-advancing-spoken-communication-in-children-who-are-minimally-verbal
#9
Stephanie Y Shire, Wendy Shih, Connie Kasari
Research has demonstrated that caregivers' use of intervention strategies can support their children's social engagement and communication. However, it is not clear to what degree caregivers must master the strategies to effectively support gains in social communication, specifically, core challenges such as joint attention language (comments). Twenty-two minimally verbal school-age children with autism received a social communication intervention with caregiver coaching. Through 10 min caregiver-child play interactions at eight time points, significant increase were found in children's spontaneous language...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307039/subgrouping-autism-based-on-symptom-severity-leads-to-differences-in-the-degree-of-convergence-between-core-feature-domains
#10
Allison Whitten, Kathryn E Unruh, Robin L Shafer, James W Bodfish
Existing models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) disagree as to whether the core features should be conceptualized as convergent (related) or divergent (unrelated), and the few previous studies addressing this question have found conflicting results. We examined standardized parent ratings of symptoms from three domains (social, communication, repetitive behaviors) in large samples of typically developing children, children with ASD, and ASD subgroups. Our results suggest that the most evidence for divergence lies in typically developing children and lower severity ASD cases, while more evidence for convergence is found in a subset of cases with more severe impairment on any core feature...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306521/what-can-autism-teach-us-about-the-role-of-sensorimotor-systems-in-higher-cognition-new-clues-from-studies-on-language-action-semantics-and-abstract-emotional-concept-processing
#11
REVIEW
Rachel L Moseley, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions...
December 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298441/impact-of-auditory-integrative-training-ait-on-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-its-effect-on-behavioural-and-social-emotions-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#12
Laila Al-Ayadhi, Abdulrahman Alhowikan, Dost Halepoto
OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of auditory integrative training (AIT) on inflammatory biomarker transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and to assess its effect on social behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study 15 subjects (14 males, I female) with ASD aged 3-12 years were recruited. All subjects were screened for autism by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Plasma levels of TGF-β1 in all subjects were measured using sandwich enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) immediately after the AIT sessions and after 1 and 3 months...
January 3, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297931/mapping-the-distribution-of-language-related-genes-foxp1-foxp2-and-cntnap2-in-the-brains-of-vocal-learning-bat-species
#13
Pedro M Rodenas-Cuadrado, Janine Mengede, Laura Baas, Paolo Devanna, Tobias A Schmid, Michael Yartsev, Uwe Firzlaff, Sonja C Vernes
Genes including FOXP2, FOXP1 and CNTNAP2, have been implicated in human speech and language phenotypes, pointing to a role in the development of normal language-related circuitry in the brain. Although speech and language are unique human phenotypes, a comparative approach is possible by addressing language-relevant traits in animal model systems. One such trait, vocal learning, represents an essential component of human spoken language, and is shared by cetaceans, pinnipeds, elephants, some birds and bats...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291091/laryngeal-airway-reconstruction-indicates-that-rodent-ultrasonic-vocalizations-are-produced-by-an-edge-tone-mechanism
#14
Tobias Riede, Heather L Borgard, Bret Pasch
Some rodents produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) for social communication using an aerodynamic whistle, a unique vocal production mechanism not found in other animals. The functional anatomy and evolution of this sound production mechanism remains unclear. Using laryngeal airway reconstruction, we identified anatomical specializations critical for USV production. A robust laryngeal cartilaginous framework supports a narrow supraglottal airway. An intralaryngeal airsac-like cavity termed the ventral pouch was present in three muroid rodents (suborder Myomorpha), but was absent in a heteromyid rodent (suborder Castorimorpha) that produces a limited vocal repertoire and no documented USVs...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288796/dha-mitigates-autistic-behaviors-accompanied-by-dopaminergic-change-in-a-gene-prenatal-stress-mouse-model
#15
Fumihiro Matsui, Patrick Hecht, Kanji Yoshimoto, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Masafumi Morimoto, Kevin Fritsche, Matthew Will, David Beversdorf
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction, social communication, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Recent work has begun to explore gene x environmental interactions in the etiology of ASD. We previously reported that prenatal stress exposure in stress-susceptible heterozygous serotonin transporter (SERT) KO pregnant dams in a mouse model resulted in autism-like behavior in the offspring (SERT/S mice). The association between prenatal stress and ASD appears to be affected by maternal SERT genotype in clinical populations as well...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279889/association-of-folic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-with-the-risk-of-autistic-traits-in-children-exposed-to-antiepileptic-drugs-in-utero
#16
Marte Bjørk, Bettina Riedel, Olav Spigset, Gyri Veiby, Eivind Kolstad, Anne Kjersti Daltveit, Nils Erik Gilhus
Importance: Strategies to prevent autism in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy are important. Objective: To explore whether folic acid supplementation and folate status in pregnancy are associated with reduced risk of autistic traits owing to in utero AED exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants: The population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study approached Norwegian-speaking women attending routine ultrasonographic examinations from June 1999 through December 31, 2008 (163 844 of 277 702 women refused)...
December 26, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274502/subtyping-cognitive-profiles-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-a-random-forest-algorithm
#17
E Feczko, N Balba, O Miranda-Dominguez, M Cordova, S L Karalunas, L Irwin, D V Demeter, A P Hill, B H Langhorst, J Grieser Painter, J Van Santen, E J Fombonne, J L Nigg, D A Fair
DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) comprises a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests, and may both affect and be affected by multiple cognitive mechanisms. This study attempts to identify and characterize cognitive subtypes within the ASD population using a random forest (RF) machine learning classification model. We trained our model on measures from seven tasks that reflect multiple levels of information processing...
December 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262472/-structural-change-of-the-corpus-callosum-fibers-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-two-year-follow-up
#18
C Chang, N N Qiu, T Xiao, X Xiao, K K Chu, Y Li, Q R Wu, H Fang, X Y Ke
Objective: To conduct a follow-up investigation of structural changes of the corpus callosum fibers of toddlers (2 to 5 years of age) with autism spectrum disorder(ASD) and to explore the associations with clinical symptoms. Method: In this prospective randomized controlled study, ASD children who were diagnosed in the Child Mental Health Research Center, Nanjing Brain Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from May 2011 to November 2012 were included in the ASD group, and developmentally delayed children were included in the control group (DD group)...
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259892/transition-from-early-intervention-program-to-primary-school-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Valsamma Eapen, Rachel Grove, Elizabeth Aylward, Annette V Joosten, Scott I Miller, Gerdamari Van Der Watt, Kathryn Fordyce, Cheryl Dissanayake, Jacqueline Maya, Madonna Tucker, Antonia DeBlasio
AIM: To evaluate the characteristics that are associated with successful transition to school outcomes in preschool aged children with autism. METHODS: Twenty-one participants transitioning from an early intervention program were assessed at two time points; at the end of their preschool placement and approximately 5 mo later following their transition to school. Child characteristics were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, Social Communication Questionnaire and the Repetitive Behaviour Scale...
November 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251830/patterns-of-altered-neural-synchrony-in-the-default-mode-network-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-revealed-with-magnetoencephalography-meg-relationship-to-clinical-symptomatology
#20
Renée Lajiness-O'Neill, Jonathan R Brennan, John E Moran, Annette E Richard, Ana-Mercedes Flores, Casey Swick, Ryan Goodcase, Tiffany Andersen, Kaitlyn McFarlane, Kenneth Rusiniak, Ioulia Kovelman, Neelima Wagley, Maggie Ugolini, Jeremy Albright, Susan M Bowyer
Disrupted neural synchrony may be a primary electrophysiological abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), altering communication between discrete brain regions and contributing to abnormalities in patterns of connectivity within identified neural networks. Studies exploring brain dynamics to comprehensively characterize and link connectivity to large-scale cortical networks and clinical symptoms are lagging considerably. Patterns of neural coherence within the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Salience Network (SN) during resting state were investigated in 12 children with ASD (MAge  = 9...
December 18, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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