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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436545/training-basic-visual-attention-leads-to-changes-in-responsiveness-to-social-communicative-cues-in-9-month-olds
#1
Linda Forssman, Sam V Wass
This study investigated transfer effects of gaze-interactive attention training to more complex social and cognitive skills in infancy. Seventy 9-month-olds were assigned to a training group (n = 35) or an active control group (n = 35). Before, after, and at 6-week follow-up both groups completed an assessment battery assessing transfer to nontrained aspects of attention control, including table top tasks assessing social attention in seminaturalistic contexts. Transfer effects were found on nontrained screen-based tasks but importantly also on a structured observation task assessing the infants' likelihood to respond to an adult's social-communication cues...
April 24, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429618/the-clinician-perspective-on-sex-differences-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Rene Jamison, Somer L Bishop, Marisela Huerta, Alycia K Halladay
Research studies using existing samples of individuals with autism spectrum disorders have identified differences in symptoms between males and females. Differences are typically reported in school age and adolescence, with similarities in symptom presentation at earlier ages. However, existing studies on sex differences are significantly limited, making it challenging to discern if, how, and at what point in development females with autism spectrum disorder actually exhibit a different behavioral presentation than males...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423919/joint-attention-difficulties-in-autistic-adults-an-interactive-eye-tracking-study
#3
Nathan Caruana, Heidi Stieglitz Ham, Jon Brock, Alexandra Woolgar, Nadine Kloth, Romina Palermo, Genevieve McArthur
Joint attention - the ability to coordinate attention with a social partner - is critical for social communication, learning and the regulation of interpersonal relationships. Infants and young children with autism demonstrate impairments in both initiating and responding to joint attention bids in naturalistic settings. However, little is known about joint attention abilities in adults with autism. Here, we tested 17 autistic adults and 17 age- and nonverbal intelligence quotient-matched controls using an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in which participants initiated and responded to joint attention bids with an on-screen avatar...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421695/evaluation-of-an-interview-skills-training-package-for-adolescents-with-speech-language-and-communication-needs
#4
Rachel Mathrick, Tina Meagher, Courtenay Frazier Norbury
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We evaluated a structured intervention programme aimed at preparing adolescents with developmental language disorders for job interviews. Our primary outcome measures included change in ratings of verbal and non-verbal social communication behaviours evident during mock interviews. METHODS & PROCEDURES: In study 1, 12 participants, aged 17-19 years, from a specialist sixth-form college completed the intervention and two mock interviews, one pre- and one post-intervention...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419446/from-autonomy-to-divinity-the-cultural-socialization-of-moral-reasoning-in-an-evangelical-christian-community
#5
Allison DiBianca Fasoli
This study examined moral reasoning in parent-child conversations within a U.S. evangelical Christian community. The goal was to identify social-communicative processes that may promote the development of Divinity in children's moral reasoning. Sixteen parent-child dyads (6-9 years old) discussed hypothetical moral vignettes about failures to help peers in need. Analyses revealed that Divinity typically co-occurred with Autonomy in these conversations and that such co-occurrences typically happened through three distinct social-communicative processes, labeled "align," "scaffold," and "counter...
April 17, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418398/intranasal-oxytocin-enhances-intrinsic-corticostriatal-functional-connectivity-in-women
#6
R A I Bethlehem, M V Lombardo, M-C Lai, B Auyeung, S K Crockford, J Deakin, S Soubramanian, A Sule, P Kundu, V Voon, S Baron-Cohen
Oxytocin may influence various human behaviors and the connectivity across subcortical and cortical networks. Previous oxytocin studies are male biased and often constrained by task-based inferences. Here, we investigate the impact of oxytocin on resting-state connectivity between subcortical and cortical networks in women. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on 26 typically developing women 40 min following intranasal oxytocin administration using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417158/incidence-and-predictive-factors-of-internet-addiction-among-chinese-secondary-school-students-in-hong-kong-a-longitudinal-study
#7
Joseph T F Lau, Danielle L Gross, Anise M S Wu, Kit-Man Cheng, Mason M C Lau
PURPOSE: Internet use has global influences on all aspects of life and has become a growing concern. Cross-sectional studies on Internet addiction (IA) have been reported but causality is often unclear. More longitudinal studies are warranted. METHODS: We investigated incidence and predictors of IA conversion among secondary school students. A 12-month longitudinal study was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese Secondary 1-4 students (N = 8286). Using the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS; cut-off >63), non-IA cases were identified at baseline...
April 17, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413687/what-we-have-changed-our-minds-about-part-1-borderline-personality-disorder-as-a-limitation-of-resilience
#8
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten, Elizabeth Allison, Chloe Campbell
This paper sets out a recent transition in our thinking in relation to psychopathology associated with personality disorder, in an approach that integrates our thinking about attachment, mentalizing (understanding ourselves and others in terms of intentional mental states) and epistemic trust (openness to the reception of social communication that is personally relevant and of generalizable significance) with recent findings on the structure of both adult and child psychopathology and resilience. In this paper - the first of two parts - we review evidence suggesting that a general psychopathology or p factor underlies vulnerability for psychopathology...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405338/what-we-have-changed-our-minds-about-part-2-borderline-personality-disorder-epistemic-trust-and-the-developmental-significance-of-social-communication
#9
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten, Elizabeth Allison, Chloe Campbell
In Part 1 of this paper, we discussed emerging evidence suggesting that a general psychopathology or 'p' factor underlying the various forms of psychopathology should be conceptualized in terms of the absence of resilience, that is, the absence of positive reappraisal mechanisms when faced with adversity. These impairments in the capacity for positive reappraisal seem to provide a comprehensive explanation for the association between the p factor and comorbidity, future caseness, and the 'hard-to-reach' character of many patients with severe personality pathology, most notably borderline personality disorder (BPD)...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401739/the-social-communication-questionnaire-for-adults-with-intellectual-disability-scq-aid
#10
Olivia Derks, Manuel Heinrich, Whitney Brooks, Paula Sterkenburg, Jane McCarthy, Lisa Underwood, Tanja Sappok
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently co-occurs with intellectual disability (ID) and often remains undiagnosed until adulthood. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a widely used measure to screen for ASD. To improve the utility of the SCQ for adults with ID, the aim of this study was to develop an ID-specific and adult appropriate algorithm for the SCQ using a core set of valid items. These items were identified in one sample (N = 226) and further cross-validated in a second, independent sample (N = 225) from Germany, England and the U...
April 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395297/observed-and-parent-report-measures-of-social-communication-in-toddlers-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-across-race-ethnicity
#11
Sheri T Stronach, Amy M Wetherby
Purpose: This study investigated whether measures of early social communication vary among young children of diverse racial/ethnic status with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Participants were 364 toddlers between ages 18 and 36 months with a diagnosis of ASD confirmed (n = 195) or ruled out (n = 169), from 3 racial/ethnic categories: non-Hispanic White (n = 226), non-Hispanic Black (n = 74), and Hispanic (n = 64). Group differences in social communication were examined using an observational measure-the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Behavior Sample (CSBS-BS; Wetherby & Prizant, 2002)-and a parent-report measure, the Early Screening for Autism and Communication Disorders (Wetherby, Woods, & Lord, 2007)...
April 9, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393745/correlation-of-reduced-social-communicational-and-interactional-skills-with-regional-grey-matter-volumes-in-schizophrenia-patients
#12
Miho Ota, Junko Matsuo, Noriko Sato, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroaki Hori, Kotaro Hattori, Yoko Kamio, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have detected similarities between autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We investigated structural abnormalities associated with autistic-like traits in patients with schizophrenia by voxel-based morphometry. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects were evaluated by the adult version of the social responsiveness scale (SRS-A), which is sensitive to autistic traits and symptoms even under subthreshold conditions, and magnetic resonance imaging...
April 10, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393350/randomised-trial-of-a-parent-mediated-intervention-for-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism-longitudinal-outcomes-to-age-3%C3%A2-years
#13
J Green, A Pickles, G Pasco, R Bedford, M W Wan, M Elsabbagh, V Slonims, T Gliga, E J H Jones, C H M Cheung, T Charman, M H Johnson
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in the potential for pre-emptive interventions in the prodrome of autism, but little investigation as to their effect. METHODS: A two-site, two-arm assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a 12-session parent-mediated social communication intervention delivered between 9 and 14 months of age (Intervention in the British Autism Study of Infant Siblings-Video Interaction for Promoting Positive Parenting), against no intervention...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392908/shared-genetic-influences-between-dimensional-asd-and-adhd-symptoms-during-child-and-adolescent-development
#14
Evie Stergiakouli, George Davey Smith, Joanna Martin, David H Skuse, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Susan M Ring, Angelica Ronald, David E Evans, Simon E Fisher, Anita Thapar, Beate St Pourcain
BACKGROUND: Shared genetic influences between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms have been reported. Cross-trait genetic relationships are, however, subject to dynamic changes during development. We investigated the continuity of genetic overlap between ASD and ADHD symptoms in a general population sample during childhood and adolescence. We also studied uni- and cross-dimensional trait-disorder links with respect to genetic ADHD and ASD risk...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392323/long-term-beneficial-effect-of-neurotrophic-factors-secreting-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplantation-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism
#15
Nisim Perets, Hadar Segal-Gavish, Yael Gothelf, Ran Barzilay, Yael Barhum, Natalie Abramov, Stav Hertz, Darya Morozov, Michael London, Daniel Offen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disabilities characterized by severe impairment in social communication skills and restricted, repetitive behaviors. We have previously shown that a single transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the cerebral lateral ventricles of BTBR autistic-like mice resulted in an improvement across all diagnostic criteria of ASD. We suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein which supports the survival and regeneration of neurons secreted by MSC, largely contributed to the beneficial behavioral effect...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386711/helping-and-sharing-in-preschool-children-with-autism
#16
Markus Paulus, Bibiana Rosal-Grifoll
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social-cognitive and social-communicative behaviors. Yet, little is known about the extent to which children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) engage in prosocial action. We assessed helping and sharing behaviors in 3- to 6-year-old neurotypically (NT) developing children and children diagnosed with ASD. Children with ASD were more inclined to show spontaneous helping in the absence of the helpee than NT children. In the sharing task, NT children shared the resources equally between themselves and the recipients...
April 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384509/brain-responses-to-biological-motion-predict-treatment-outcome-in-young-adults-with-autism-receiving-virtual-reality-social-cognition-training-preliminary-findings
#17
Y J Daniel Yang, Tandra Allen, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Kevin A Pelphrey, Fred R Volkmar, Sandra B Chapman
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by remarkable heterogeneity in social, communication, and behavioral deficits, creating a major barrier in identifying effective treatments for a given individual with ASD. To facilitate precision medicine in ASD, we utilized a well-validated biological motion neuroimaging task to identify pretreatment biomarkers that can accurately forecast the response to an evidence-based behavioral treatment, Virtual Reality-Social Cognition Training (VR-SCT). In a preliminary sample of 17 young adults with high-functioning ASD, we identified neural predictors of change in emotion recognition after VR-SCT...
June 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383173/the-childhood-autism-spectrum-test-cast-spanish-adaptation-and-validation
#18
Paula Morales-Hidalgo, Joana Roigé-Castellví, Andreu Vigil-Colet, Josefa Canals Sans
The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST; Scott et al. Autism 2002; 6:9-31) has proved to be a good test for screening autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and social communication problems. This study provides evidence on the statistical properties of the CAST, specifically its validity, factorial structure and discriminative capacity as an ASD screening test, in a Spanish sample of 4-12 year-old children from community and clinical settings. The study concludes that the test was valid and reliable for ASD screening in Spanish clinical and community populations and allowed us to create a new abbreviated version...
April 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378499/autologous-cord-blood-infusions-are-safe-and-feasible-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-results-of-a-single-center-phase-i-open-label-trial
#19
Geraldine Dawson, Jessica M Sun, Katherine S Davlantis, Michael Murias, Lauren Franz, Jesse Troy, Ryan Simmons, Maura Sabatos-DeVito, Rebecca Durham, Joanne Kurtzberg
Despite advances in early diagnosis and behavioral therapies, more effective treatments for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are needed. We hypothesized that umbilical cord blood-derived cell therapies may have potential in alleviating ASD symptoms by modulating inflammatory processes in the brain. Accordingly, we conducted a phase I, open-label trial to assess the safety and feasibility of a single intravenous infusion of autologous umbilical cord blood, as well as sensitivity to change in several ASD assessment tools, to determine suitable endpoints for future trials...
April 5, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374929/age-related-differences-in-prevalence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents-with-costello-syndrome
#20
David D Schwartz, Jennifer M Katzenstein, Eric J Highley, Deborah L Stabley, Katia Sol-Church, Karen W Gripp, Marni E Axelrad
Dysregulation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in Costello syndrome (CS) may contribute to increased risk for autism-spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined prevalence of ASD symptoms in 14 individuals (six females) age 1-18 years with molecularly confirmed CS. Caregivers completed the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for ages 0-4 years (n = 7), and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) for ages 4 and older (n = 7). Age was associated with meeting ASD criteria: 5/7 (71...
May 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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