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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144845/gastric-vascular-and-motor-responses-to-anaphylactic-hypotension-in-anesthetized-rats-in-comparison-to-those-with-hemorrhagic-or-vasodilator-induced-hypotension
#1
Yuhichi Kuda, Toshishige Shibamoto, Tao Zhang, Wei Yang, Mamoru Tanida, Yasutaka Kurata
Anaphylactic shock is life-threatening, but pathophysiology of the stomach lesion remains unclear. We determined gastric hemodynamics and gastric functions during anaphylactic hypotension, as compared to hypotension induced by hemorrhage or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in anesthetized and ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. Systemic arterial pressure, portal venous pressure, and gastric arterial blood flow were measured, and gastric vascular resistance (GVR) was determined. Separately, the intragastric pressure (IGP) and gastric effluent, as a measure of gastric flux, were continuously measured...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940455/sepsis-for-the-anaesthetist
#2
M E Nunnally
Sepsis is as a dysregulated systemic response to infection. Morbidity and mortality of the syndrome are very high worldwide. Recent definitions have redefined criteria for sepsis. The new definition (Sepsis-3) classifies sepsis as infection with organ dysfunction (the old 'severe sepsis'). Septic patients are at risk for secondary injuries, thus aggressive source control, resuscitation, and antibiotic therapy are the mainstays of management. Central to sepsis physiology is vasodilated shock. Many patients respond to i...
December 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931652/red-blood-cell-transfusion-and-its-effect-on-microvascular-dysfunction-in-shock-states
#3
REVIEW
Jordan A Weinberg, Rakesh P Patel
Among critically ill patients, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is often prescribed for anemia in the absence of active or recent bleeding. The failure of RBC transfusion to improve physiological parameters and clinical outcomes in this setting may be explained by current understanding of the relationship between the RBCs and the microcirculation. It is now evident that the circulating RBCs contribute to microcirculatory hypoxic vasodilation by regulated nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation, thereby facilitating delivery of oxygen to oxygen-deprived tissue...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931651/effects-of-vasodilators-on-haemodynamic-coherence
#4
REVIEW
Christian Fuchs, Christian Ertmer, Sebastian Rehberg
Vasodilators are a potential therapeutic option for patients with persisting microcirculatory disorders despite adequate cardiac output and mean arterial pressure due to conventional haemodynamic stabilization. Venous vasodilation may decrease post-capillary venular pressure and thus increase capillary flow resulting in reduced extravasation and oedema formation. Arteriolar vasodilation may increase microvascular flow by 'opening' the microcirculation. In particular, inodilators that combine vasodilation with positive inotropy may be promising...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904524/integration-of-medical-therapy-and-mechanical-circulatory-support-in-the-management-of-acute-heart-failure
#5
Patrick Horn, Malte Kelm, Ralf Westenfeld
Acute heart failure is still characterized by poor prognosis with high mortality. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and hemodynamic measurements. Early coronary revascularization in cardiogenic shock complicating myocardial infarction improves outcome. The further contemporary therapeutic options in the management of acute heart failure are limited to a merely symptomatic effect with relief of dyspnea, reduction of volume overload and improvement of hemodynamic parameters by vasodilators (in hypertension) or inotropic and vasopressor agents (in hypotension)...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809354/shock-associated-with-endothelial-dysfunction-in-omental-microvessels
#6
Lewis B Somberg, David D Gutterman, Hiroto Miura, Raminder Nirula, Ossama A Hatoum
BACKGROUND: Impaired microvascular function leads to a poor outcome in a variety of medical conditions. Our aim was to determine whether vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (Ach) are impaired in human omental arterioles from patients with severe trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with massive blood loss and severe shock requiring damage control procedures were included. Tissues were collected at the first (FEL) and the second explorative laparotomy (SEL)...
January 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787407/vasodilators-in-septic-shock-resuscitation-a-clinical-perspective
#7
Thiago Domingos Corrêa, Roberto Rabello Filho, Murillo Santucci Cesar Assunção, Eliézer Silva, Alexandre Lima
Microcirculatory abnormalities have been shown to be frequent in patients with septic shock despite "normalization" of systemic hemodynamics. Several studies have explored the impact of vasodilator therapy (prostacyclin, inhaled nitric oxide, topic acetylcholine, and nitroglycerin) on microcirculation and tissue perfusion, with contradictory findings.In this narrative review, we briefly present the pathophysiological aspects of microcirculatory dysfunction, and depict the evidence supporting the use of vasodilators and other therapeutic interventions (fluid administration, blood transfusion, vasopressors, and dobutamine) aiming to improve the microcirculatory flow in septic shock patients...
March 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776076/extracellular-elevation-of-adrenomedullin-a-gene-associated-with-schizophrenia-suppresses-heat-shock-protein-1a-1b-mrna
#8
Zhilei Zhao, Seiichiro Jinde, Chihiro Kakiuchi, Kiyoto Kasai
Several recent gene expression studies on schizophrenia, including one using monozygotic twins discordant for the disease, have reported the upregulation of adrenomedullin (ADM), which was initially identified as a vasodilator hormone. It has been hypothesized that upregulation of ADM may be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia, although the exact role of ADM in the central nervous system remains unclear. In this study, we used a microarray analysis to investigate the changes in global gene expression induced by the administration of exogenous ADM in SK-N-SH cells, which allowed us to evaluate the effects of elevated ADM on the central nervous system...
October 21, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770520/changes-of-endothelin-1-content-and-blood-rheological-properties-in-crush-syndrome
#9
N Gamkrelidze, N Pavliashvili, R Otarashvili
This study describes hematocrit values and quantitative changes in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels according to the severity of crush syndrome (CS) compression and decompression periods. The experiments were carried out on 50 randomly selected 200-250 gr mass Wistar rats with the use of the standard crush syndrome modeling method. The plasma level of ET-1 was determined by the immuneenzyme method with the use of ELISA REDEAR URIT 660. Hematocrit was determined using the standard method and measured according to tube column divisions...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760056/experimental-study-on-the-efficacy-of-site-specific-pegylated-human-serum-albumins-in-resuscitation-from-hemorrhagic-shock
#10
Xinlei Song, Shu Zhang, Yanna Cheng, Ting Zhao, Qianqian Lian, Lu Lu, Fengshan Wang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the resuscitative efficacy and the effect on reperfusion injury of two site-specific PEGylated human serum albumins modified with linear or branched PEG20kDa, compared with saline, 8% human serum albumin and 25% human serum albumin, in a hemorrhagic shock model. SETTING: Laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male Wistar rats. DESIGN: Prospective study. INTERVENTIONS: Rats were bled to hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock and resuscitated with different resuscitation fluids...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713887/new-role-of-biomarkers-mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin-the-biomarker-of-organ-failure
#11
REVIEW
Francisco Valenzuela-Sánchez, Blanca Valenzuela-Méndez, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Ángel Estella-García, María Ángela González-García
Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) has a good biomarker profile: its half-life is several hours, and its plasma concentrations can be determined in clinical practice, it is essentially irrelevant, but proportionally represents the levels and activity of adrenomedullin (ADM). ADM synthesis is widely distributed in tissues, including bone, adrenal cortex, kidney, lung, blood vessels and heart. Its fundamental biological effects include vasodilator, positive inotropic, diuretic, natriuretic and bronchodilator...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638027/takotsubo-syndrome-scientific-basis-for-current-treatment-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Elmir Omerovic
Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is characterized by severe reversible left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormality in the absence of explanatory coronary lesion. Despite an increasing number of patients diagnosed with TS worldwide, there are no randomized clinical trials. In mild cases, no treatment or a short course of limited anticoagulation therapy may be sufficient. Positive inotropic and vasodilating agents should be avoided. In severe cases with refractory cardiogenic shock, early treatment with mechanical support using venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or a LV assist device should be considered...
October 2016: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614253/bacterial-toxins-activation-of-abbreviated-urea-cycle-in-porcine-cerebral-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#13
Rajesh G Mishra, Tzu-Ling Tseng, Mei-Fang Chen, Po-Yi Chen, Tony J-F Lee
Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in vasodilatory shock in sepsis, leading to septic encephalopathy and accelerating cerebral ischemic injury. An abbreviated urea-cycle (l-citrulline-l-arginine-NO cycle) has been demonstrated in cerebral perivascular nitrergic nerves and endothelial cells but not in normal cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (CVSMC). This cycle indicates that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) catalyzes l-citrulline (l-cit) conversion to form argininosuccinate (AS), and subsequent AS cleavage by argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) forms l-arginine (l-arg), the substrate for NO synthesis...
December 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600825/25-hydroxycholesterol-impairs-endothelial-function-and-vasodilation-by-uncoupling-and-inhibiting-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase
#14
Zhi-Jun Ou, Jing Chen, Wei-Ping Dai, Xiang Liu, Yin-Ke Yang, Yan Li, Ze-Bang Lin, Tian-Tian Wang, Ying-Ying Wu, Dan-Hong Su, Tian-Pu Cheng, Zhi-Ping Wang, Jun Tao, Jing-Song Ou
Endothelial dysfunction is a key early step in atherosclerosis. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) is found in atherosclerotic lesions. However, whether 25-OHC promotes atherosclerosis is unclear. Here, we hypothesized that 25-OHC, a proinflammatory lipid, can impair endothelial function, which may play an important role in atherosclerosis. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were incubated with 25-OHC. Endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) production and superoxide anion generation were determined...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599454/cardiac-catheterization-in-children-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Matsuura
Cardiac catheterization of childhood pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is used to assess the severity of the disease as well as prognosis, selection of the most adequate pulmonary vasodilators, and evaluation of effectiveness. Sudden deterioration of cardiovascular hemodynamics, however, can be easily induced by pain, patient agitation, catheter manipulation, and by vasodilator provocation tests; these could trigger a pulmonary hypertension crisis, vagotony, respiratory distress, and hemoptysis resulting in critical complications, including death...
January 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545736/anaphylaxis
#16
REVIEW
Lorenzo Hernandez, Sarah Papalia, George G A Pujalte
Anaphylaxis is an acute, systemic reaction mediated by immunoglobulin E hypersensitivity. Release of bioactive factors causes vasodilation and bronchiole constriction that can lead to hypotensive shock and asphyxiation. Differential diagnosis includes acute asthma, localized angioedema, syncope, and anxiety/panic attacks. Diagnostic tests lack specificity. Clinical diagnosis is based on demonstration of specific airway or cardiovascular compromise within proximity of allergen exposure. Treatment includes epinephrine, antihistamines, fluid resuscitation, and airway management...
September 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365878/using-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support-preoperatively-and-postoperatively-as-a-successful-bridge-to-recovery-in-a-patient-with-a-large-infarct-induced-ventricular-septal-defect
#17
Samuel Jacob, Mitesh J Patel, Brian Lima, Joost Felius, Rajasekhar S Malyala, Themistokles Chamogeorgakis, Juan C MacHannaford, Gonzalo V Gonzalez-Stawinski, Aldo E Rafael
Rupture of the ventricular septum during acute myocardial infarction usually occurs within the first week. The event is usually followed by low cardiac output, heart failure, and multiorgan failure. Despite the many advances in the nonoperative treatment of heart failure and cardiogenic shock, including the intra-aortic balloon pump and a multitude of new inotropic agents and vasodilators, these do not supplant the need for operative intervention in these critically ill patients. This article describes the successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support as a bridge to recovery postoperatively in a patient with a large infarct-produced ventricular septal defect...
July 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315070/-cardiac-hemodynamics-during-shock-management-in-daily-clinical-routine
#18
A Kersten
In caring for critically ill patients, a sophisticated approach to treating hemodynamic instability in acute circulatory failure is a major concern of modern critical care. Depending on the form of shock-distributive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic or obstructive, with the possibility of overlapping forms of shock-preload, afterload, cardiac output, and contractility are altered in various ways. Modern critical care uses hemodynamic monitoring and bedside echocardiography in addition to clinical evaluation to treat the underlying cause and sequelae of shock...
October 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282767/adrenomedullin-and-endothelin-1-are-associated-with-myocardial-injury-and-death-in-septic-shock-patients
#19
Oscar H M Lundberg, Lill Bergenzaun, Jörgen Rydén, Mari Rosenqvist, Olle Melander, Michelle S Chew
BACKGROUND: Adrenomedullin and endothelin-1 are hormones with opposing effects on the cardiovascular system. Adrenomedullin acts as a vasodilator and seems to be important for the initiation and continuation of the hyperdynamic circulatory response in sepsis. Endothelin-1 is a vasoconstrictor and has been linked to decreased cardiac performance. Few studies have studied the relationship between adrenomedullin and endothelin-1, and morbidity and mortality in septic shock patients. High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTNT) is normally used to diagnose acute cardiac injury but is also prognostic for outcome in intensive care...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196698/a-systematic-analysis-of-methylene-blue-for-drug-induced-shock
#20
Brandon J Warrick, Anita Paula Tataru, Susan Smolinske
CONTEXT: Pharmacologically induced shock can be refractory to standard resuscitation. Methylene blue (MB) acts to prevent nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation and may be a potential treatment for refractory shock. OBJECTIVE: A systematic analysis of the literature to evaluate MB in pharmacologically induced shock. Primary outcome was survival and secondary outcome was hemodynamic improvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of MedLine/PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, TOXLINE, Google Scholar and Google was performed 10 August 2015 using a combination of text words and keywords related to MB, shock and specific drugs...
August 2016: Clinical Toxicology
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