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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903629/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-dementia
#1
L Raposo Rodríguez, D J Tovar Salazar, N Fernández García, L Pastor Hernández, Ó Fernández Guinea
OBJECTIVE: To describe and illustrate the key findings on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the most common dementias of neurodegenerative origin: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, variants of frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, variants of multiple system atrophy, Parkinson dementia, and corticobasal degeneration. CONCLUSION: Today the role of MRI is no longer limited to ruling out underlying causes of cognitive deterioration...
June 11, 2018: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898972/diffuse-lewy-body-disease-manifesting-as-corticobasal-syndrome-a-rare-form-of-lewy-body-disease
#2
Koji Kasanuki, Keith A Josephs, Tanis J Ferman, Melissa E Murray, Shunsuke Koga, Takuya Konno, Nobutaka Sakae, Adam Parks, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A Van Gerpen, Neill R Graff-Radford, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics of diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) manifesting as corticobasal syndrome (CBS). METHODS: In 523 autopsy-confirmed cases of DLBD, we identified 11 patients diagnosed with CBS. For comparison, we studied 22 DLBD brains with antemortem presentation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Given previous studies suggesting the importance of pathology in peri-Rolandic cortices in CBS, we used digital pathology to count Lewy bodies and to quantify intracytoplasmic and neuritic α-synuclein and phospho-tau burden in the motor cortex...
June 13, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896411/glucocerebrosidase-mrna-is-diminished-in-brain-of-lewy-body-diseases-and-changes-with-disease-progression-in-blood
#3
Laia Perez-Roca, Cristina Adame-Castillo, Jaume Campdelacreu, Lourdes Ispierto, Dolores Vilas, Ramon Rene, Ramiro Alvarez, Jordi Gascon-Bayarri, Maria A Serrano-Munoz, Aurelio Ariza, Katrin Beyer
Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are Lewy body diseases characterized by abnormal alpha-synuclein deposits and overlapping pathological features in the brain. Several studies have shown that glucocerebrosidase (GBA) deficiency is involved in the development of LB diseases. Here, we aimed to find out if this deficiency starts at the transcriptional level, also involves alternative splicing, and if GBA expression changes in brain are also detectable in blood of patients with LB diseases...
April 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896085/deep-brain-stimulation-a-potential-treatment-for-dementia-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-pdd
#4
REVIEW
Qing Lv, Ailian Du, Wenshi Wei, Yuanyuan Li, Gailing Liu, Xiao Ping Wang
Damage to memory circuits may lead to dementia symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Recently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be a novel means of memory neuromodulation when critical nodes in the memory circuit are targeted, such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and fornix. Potential memory improvements have been observed after DBS in patients with AD and PDD. DBS for the treatment of AD and PDD may be feasible and safe, but it is still preliminary...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889064/clinical-subtypes-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-based-on-the-initial-clinical-presentation
#5
Estrella Morenas-Rodríguez, Isabel Sala, Andrea Subirana, Elba Pascual-Goñi, MaBelén Sánchez-Saudinós, Daniel Alcolea, Ignacio Illán-Gala, María Carmona-Iragui, Roser Ribosa-Nogué, Valle Camacho, Rafael Blesa, Juan Fortea, Alberto Lleó
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a heterogeneous disease in which clinical presentation, symptoms, and evolution widely varies between patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence of clinical subtypes in DLB based on the initial clinical presentation. METHODS: 81 patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable DLB were consecutively included. All patients underwent a neurological evaluation including a structured questionnaire about neuropsychiatric symptoms and sleep, an assessment of motor impairment (Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale subscale III), and a formal neuropsychological evaluation...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888323/circulating-neurotoxic-5-ht2a-receptor-agonist-autoantibodies-in-adult-type-2-diabetes-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Mark B Zimering
Aims: To test whether circulating neurotoxic autoantibodies increase in adult type 2 diabetes mellitus with Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia. To identify the G-protein coupled receptor on neuroblastoma cells mediating neural inhibitory effects in diabetic Parkinson's disease plasma autoantibodies. To determine the mechanism of accelerated neuroblastoma cell death and acute neurite retraction induced by diabetic Parkinson's disease and dementia autoantibodies. Methods: Protein-A eluates from plasma of twelve older adult male diabetic patients having Parkinson's disease (n=10) or dementia (n=2), and eight age-matched control diabetic patients were tested for ability to cause accelerated N2A neuroblastoma cell death and acute neurite retraction...
2018: Journal of Endocrinology and Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887768/the-place-of-pet-to-assess-new-therapeutic-effectiveness-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Anne-Claire Dupont, Bérenger Largeau, Denis Guilloteau, Maria Joao Santiago Ribeiro, Nicolas Arlicot
In vivo exploration of neurodegenerative diseases by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has matured over the last 20 years, using dedicated radiopharmaceuticals targeting cellular metabolism, neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, or abnormal protein aggregates (beta-amyloid and intracellular microtubule inclusions containing hyperphosphorylated tau). The ability of PET to characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular levels enables early detection and identification of molecular mechanisms associated with disease progression, by providing accurate, reliable, and longitudinally reproducible quantitative biomarkers...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887346/pooled-dna-target-sequencing-of-parkinson-genes-reveals-novel-phenotypic-associations-in-spanish-population
#8
Monica Diez-Fairen, Bruno A Benitez, Sara Ortega-Cubero, Oswaldo Lorenzo-Betancor, Carlos Cruchaga, Elena Lorenzo, Lluis Samaranch, Maria Carcel, Jose A Obeso, Maria Cruz Rodriguez-Oroz, Miquel Aguilar, Francisco Coria, Maria A Pastor, Pau Pastor
Eighteen loci and several susceptibility genes have been related to Parkinson's disease (PD). However, most studies focus on single genes in small PD series. Our aim was to establish the genetic background of a large Spanish PD sample. Pooled-DNA target sequencing of 7 major PD genes (SNCA, PARK2, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2, GBA, and MAPT) was performed in 562 PD cases. Forty-four variants were found among 114 individuals (20.28%, p<0.05). Among these variants, 30 were found in Mendelian genes (68.18%) and 14 in PD susceptibility genes (31...
May 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887161/lrp10-genetic-variants-in-familial-parkinson-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-genome-wide-linkage-and-sequencing-study
#9
Marialuisa Quadri, Wim Mandemakers, Martyna M Grochowska, Roy Masius, Hanneke Geut, Edito Fabrizio, Guido J Breedveld, Demy Kuipers, Michelle Minneboo, Leonie J M Vergouw, Ana Carreras Mascaro, Ekaterina Yonova-Doing, Erik Simons, Tianna Zhao, Alessio B Di Fonzo, Hsiu-Chen Chang, Piero Parchi, Marta Melis, Leonor Correia Guedes, Chiara Criscuolo, Astrid Thomas, Rutger W W Brouwer, Daphne Heijsman, Angela M T Ingrassia, Giovanna Calandra Buonaura, Janneke P Rood, Sabina Capellari, Annemieke J Rozemuller, Marianna Sarchioto, Hsin Fen Chien, Nicola Vanacore, Simone Olgiati, Yah-Huei Wu-Chou, Tu-Hsueh Yeh, Agnita J W Boon, Susanne E Hoogers, Mehrnaz Ghazvini, Arne S IJpma, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Marco Onofrj, Paolo Barone, David J Nicholl, Andreas Puschmann, Michele De Mari, Anneke J Kievit, Egberto Barbosa, Giuseppe De Michele, Danielle Majoor-Krakauer, John C van Swieten, Frank J de Jong, Joaquim J Ferreira, Giovanni Cossu, Chin-Song Lu, Giuseppe Meco, Pietro Cortelli, Wilma D J van de Berg, Vincenzo Bonifati
BACKGROUND: Most patients with Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies do not carry mutations in known disease-causing genes. The aim of this study was to identify a novel gene implicated in the development of these disorders. METHODS: Our study was done in three stages. First, we did genome-wide linkage analysis of an Italian family with dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease to identify the disease locus. Second, we sequenced the candidate gene in an international multicentre series of unrelated probands who were diagnosed either clinically or pathologically with Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia, or dementia with Lewy bodies...
June 6, 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883833/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-the-link-to-alpha-synucleinopathies
#10
REVIEW
Daniel A Barone, Claire Henchcliffe
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) involves REM sleep without atonia in conjunction with a recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior, with vocalizations such as shouting and screaming, and motor behaviors such as punching and kicking. Secondary RBD is well described in association with neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and other conditions involving brainstem structures such as tumors. However, RBD alone is now considered to be a potential harbinger of later development of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular PD, MSA, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and pure autonomic failure...
May 29, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881370/do-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-exhibit-reduced-cheating-behavior-a-neuropsychological-study
#11
Nobuhito Abe, Iori Kawasaki, Hiroaki Hosokawa, Toru Baba, Atsushi Takeda
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopamine neurons. Since a seminal report was published in the early twentieth century, a growing body of literature has suggested that patients with PD display characteristic personality traits, such as cautiousness and inflexibility. Notably, PD patients have also been described as "honest," indicating that they have a remarkable tendency to avoid behaving dishonestly. In this study, we predicted that PD patients show reduced cheating behavior in opportunities for dishonest gain due to dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879656/oxidation-of-cyanobacterial-neurotoxin-beta-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-with-chlorine-permanganate-ozone-hydrogen-peroxide-and-hydroxyl-radical
#12
Yi-Ting Chen, Wan-Ru Chen, Tsair-Fuh Lin
Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a new cyanobacterial neurotoxin produced by more than 20 genera of cyanobacteria, has been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) or Alzheimer's disease. Although BMAA has been shown to be removed in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), studies regarding the reactions between BMAA and the commonly used oxidants in DWTPs are limited to chlorine under specific conditions. In this study, the reaction kinetics between BMAA and five oxidants commonly used in DWTPs, including chlorine, potassium permanganate, ozone, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical were investigated...
May 31, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876274/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-pattern-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#13
Ryan A Townley, Hugo Botha, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Bradley F Boeve, Ronald C Petersen, Matthew L Senjem, David S Knopman, Val Lowe, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is an important and treatable cause of neurologic impairment. Diagnosis is complicated due to symptoms overlapping with other age related disorders. The pathophysiology underlying iNPH is not well understood. We explored FDG-PET abnormalities in iNPH patients in order to determine if FDG-PET may serve as a biomarker to differentiate iNPH from common neurodegenerative disorders. Methods: We retrospectively compared 18 F-FDG PET-CT imaging patterns from seven iNPH patients (mean age 74 ± 6 years) to age and sex matched controls, as well as patients diagnosed with clinical Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD), and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876270/resting-state-connectivity-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-is-there-potential-for-an-imaging-biomarker
#14
REVIEW
Christian Hohenfeld, Cornelius J Werner, Kathrin Reetz
Biomarkers in whichever modality are tremendously important in diagnosing of disease, tracking disease progression and clinical trials. This applies in particular for disorders with a long disease course including pre-symptomatic stages, in which only subtle signs of clinical progression can be observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers hold particular promise due to their relative ease of use, cost-effectiveness and non-invasivity. Studies measuring resting-state functional MR connectivity have become increasingly common during recent years and are well established in neuroscience and related fields...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875629/rna-editing-and-retrotransposons-in-neurology
#15
REVIEW
Heinz Krestel, Jochen C Meier
Compared to sites in protein-coding sequences many more targets undergoing adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing were discovered in non-coding regions of human cerebral transcripts, particularly in genetic transposable elements called retrotransposons. We review here the interaction mechanisms of RNA editing and retrotransposons and their impact on normal function and human neurological diseases. Exemplarily, A-to-I editing of retrotransposons embedded in protein-coding mRNAs can contribute to protein abundance and function via circular RNA formation, alternative splicing, and exonization or silencing of retrotransposons...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872382/into-the-moment-does-mindfulness-affect-biological-pathways-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Barbara Willekens, Gaetano Perrotta, Patrick Cras, Nathalie Cools
Mindfulness was introduced in the Western world by Jon Kabat-Zinn in 1979. He defined it as "awareness that arises through paying attention, on purpose, in the present moment, non-judgmentally." Since then, research on mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) has increased exponentially both in health and disease, including in patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Parkinson's disease. Research on the effect of mindfulness and multiple sclerosis (MS) only recently gained interest...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871867/risk-of-suicidal-thinking-in-caregivers-of-people-with-dementia-should-be-assessed-and-monitored-by-health-professionals
#17
Ben Parkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869713/is-lewy-pathology-in-the-human-nervous-system-chiefly-an-indicator-of-neuronal-protection-or-of-toxicity
#18
REVIEW
Suzanne Chartier, Charles Duyckaerts
Misfolded α-synuclein accumulates in histological inclusions constituting "Lewy pathology" found in idiopathic Parkinson disease, Parkinson disease dementia and dementia with Lewy body. The mechanism inducing α-synuclein misfolding is still unknown. The misfolded molecules form oligomers that organize into fibrils. α-Synuclein fibrils, in vitro, are capable of initiating an auto-replicating process, transforming normal molecules into misfolded molecules that aggregate. Fibrils can cross the neuronal membrane and recruit α-synuclein molecules in connected neurons...
June 5, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866706/interrogating-cortical-function-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-insights-from-neurodegenerative-disease-and-stroke
#19
REVIEW
Smriti Agarwal, Giacomo Koch, Argye E Hillis, William Huynh, Nick S Ward, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an accessible, non-invasive technique to study cortical function in vivo. TMS studies have provided important pathophysiological insights across a range of neurodegenerative disorders and enhanced our understanding of brain reorganisation after stroke. In neurodegenerative disease, TMS has provided novel insights into the function of cortical output cells and the related intracortical interneuronal networks. Characterisation of cortical hyperexcitability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and altered motor cortical function in frontotemporal dementia, demonstration of cholinergic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are key examples where TMS has led to advances in understanding of disease pathophysiology and potential mechanisms of propagation, with the potential for diagnostic applications...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866443/in-vivo-staging-of-pathology-in-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder-a-multimodality-imaging-case-control-study
#20
Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, Allan K Hansen, Michael Sommerauer, Marit Otto, Kristina B Svendsen, Adjmal Nahimi, Morten G Stokholm, Nicola Pavese, Christoph P Beier, David J Brooks, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that α-synuclein aggregates-a defining pathology of Parkinson's disease-display cell-to-cell transmission. α-synuclein aggregation is hypothesised to start in autonomic nerve terminals years before the appearance of motor symptoms, and subsequently spread via autonomic nerves to the spinal cord and brainstem. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated sympathetic, parasympathetic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic innervation in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder, a prodromal phenotype of Parkinson's disease...
June 1, 2018: Lancet Neurology
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