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One Health AND Antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230084/highly-potent-antimicrobial-peptides-from-n-terminal-membrane-binding-region-of-e-coli-mreb
#1
Karabi Saikia, Yalavarthi Durga Sravani, Vibin Ramakrishnan, Nitin Chaudhary
Microbial pathogenesis is a serious health concern. The threat escalates as the existing conventional antimicrobials are losing their efficacy against the evolving pathogens. Peptides hold promise to be developed into next-generation antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides adopt amphipathic structures that could selectively bind to and disrupt the microbial membranes. Interaction of proteins with membranes is central to all living systems and we reasoned that the membrane-binding domains in microbial proteins could be developed into efficient antimicrobials...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221925/genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-different-leafy-green-production-systems
#2
Mosimanegape Jongman, Lise Korsten
Foodborne disease outbreaks linked to contaminated irrigation water and fresh produce are a public health concern. The presence of Escherichia coli isolates from irrigation water and leafy green vegetables in different food production systems (large commercial farms, small-scale farms, and homestead gardens) was investigated. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and virulence in these isolates was further assessed, and links between water source and irrigated crops were identified using antimicrobial and genotypic analyses...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221858/genotypic-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-mastitic-milk-in-korea
#3
Jae Won Song, Soo Jin Yang, Sook Shin, Keun Seok Seo, Yong Ho Park, Kun Taek Park
Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiological pathogen for bovine mastitis, foodborne illness, and various clinical infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has been isolated from bovine mastitic milk, and the presence of MRSA in milk is a major public health concern. We investigated the frequency of MRSA isolation from mastitic raw milk in Korea and characterized the patterns of antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and genotypes of the MRSA isolates. A total of 1,222 raw milk samples were collected from 47 dairy farms in Gyeonggi province from 2011 to 2012...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213031/antimicrobial-resistance-and-its-association-with-tolerance-to-heavy-metals-in-agriculture-production
#4
REVIEW
Zhongyi Yu, Lynda Gunn, Patrick Wall, Séamus Fanning
Antimicrobial resistance is a recognized public health challenge that since its emergence limits the therapeutic options available to veterinarians and clinicians alike, when treatment is warranted. This development is further compounded by the paucity of new antibiotics. The agri-food industry benefits from the availability of antimicrobial compounds for food-animal production and crop protection. Nonetheless, their improper use can result in the selection for bacteria that are phenotypically resistant to these compounds...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207079/the-growing-threat-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#5
Jose M Munita, Samuel Shelburne, David E Greenberg, Cesar A Arias
The emergence and widespread dissemination of multidrug-resistant organisms is considered one of the three most important public health threats for humankind in the 21st century and jeopardizes the practice of modern medicine. Failure to tackle this problem in a comprehensive fashion could result in a dire post-antibiotic era, impairing the future development of treatments against important diseases, such as cancer, and transplant medicine, among others. Here, we provide a global perspective of the problem and describe some of the most important antibiotic-resistant organisms affecting the health of our patients...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203289/epidemiological-molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-isolated-from-chicken-farms-in-egypt
#6
Hanem El-Sharkawy, Amin Tahoun, Abd El-Galiel A El-Gohary, Moshira El-Abasy, Fares El-Khayat, Trudi Gillespie, Yukio Kitade, Hafez M Hafez, Heinrich Neubauer, Hosny El-Adawy
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is one of major causes of foodborne outbreaks globally. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence, typing and antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from 41 broiler chicken farms located in Kafr El-Sheikh Province in Northern Egypt during 2014-2015. The clinical signs and mortalities were observed. RESULTS: In total 615 clinical samples were collected from broiler flocks from different organs (liver, intestinal content and gall bladder)...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199151/antimicrobial-resistance-percentages-of-salmonella-and-shigella-in-seafood-imported-to-jordan-higher-percentages-and-more-diverse-profiles-in-shigella
#7
Mohammad M Obaidat, Alaa E Bani Salman
This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of human-specific ( Shigella spp.) and zoonotic ( Salmonella enterica ) foodborne pathogens in internationally traded seafood. Sixty-four Salmonella and 61 Shigella isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from Egypt, Yemen, and India. The pathogens were isolated on selective media, confirmed by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Approximately 79 and 98% of the Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively, exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and 8 and 49% exhibited multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199148/presence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-in-ready-to-eat-foods-in-shaanxi-china
#8
Allah Bux Baloch, Hua Yang, Yuqing Feng, Meili Xi, Qian Wu, Qinhao Yang, Jingsi Tang, Xiangxiang He, Yingping Xiao, Xiaodong Xia
The aim of this study was to determine the presence and characteristics of Escherichia coli in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. A total of 300 RTE foods samples were collected in Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China: 50 samples of cooked meat, 165 samples of vegetable salad, 50 samples of cold noodles, and 35 samples of salted boiled peanuts. All samples were collected during summer (in July to October) 2011 and 2012 and surveyed for the presence of E. coli . E. coli isolates recovered were classified by phylogenetic typing using a PCR assay...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194090/prevalence-and-characterization-of-salmonella-among-humans-in-ghana
#9
Linda Aurelia Andoh, Shabana Ahmed, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Kwasi Obiri-Danso, Mercy Jemima Newman, Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Lisa Barco, Anders Dalsgaard
BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a public health problem worldwide and particularly in Africa with high disease burden. This study characterized Salmonella isolates from humans in Ghana to determine serovar distribution, phage types, and antimicrobial resistance. Further, the clonal relatedness among isolates was determined. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-seven Salmonella isolates (111 clinical and 26 public toilet) were characterized using standard serotyping, phage typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193398/incidence-of-invasive-salmonella-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multicentre-population-based-surveillance-study
#10
Florian Marks, Vera von Kalckreuth, Peter Aaby, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Muna Ahmed El Tayeb, Mohammad Ali, Abraham Aseffa, Stephen Baker, Holly M Biggs, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Robert F Breiman, James I Campbell, Leonard Cosmas, John A Crump, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Jessica Fung Deerin, Denise Myriam Dekker, Barry S Fields, Nagla Gasmelseed, Julian T Hertz, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Justin Im, Anna Jaeger, Hyon Jin Jeon, Leon Parfait Kabore, Karen H Keddy, Frank Konings, Ralf Krumkamp, Benedikt Ley, Sandra Valborg Løfberg, Jürgen May, Christian G Meyer, Eric D Mintz, Joel M Montgomery, Aissatou Ahmet Niang, Chelsea Nichols, Beatrice Olack, Gi Deok Pak, Ursula Panzner, Jin Kyung Park, Se Eun Park, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Tiana Mirana Raminosoa, Tsiriniaina Jean Luco Razafindrabe, Emmanuel Sampo, Heidi Schütt-Gerowitt, Amy Gassama Sow, Nimako Sarpong, Hye Jin Seo, Arvinda Sooka, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Adama Tall, Mekonnen Teferi, Kamala Thriemer, Michelle R Warren, Biruk Yeshitela, John D Clemens, Thomas F Wierzba
BACKGROUND: Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. METHODS: We established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites)...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190700/epidemiology-of-escherichia-coli-bacteraemia-in-england-results-of-an-enhanced-sentinel-surveillance-programme
#11
J Abernethy, R Guy, E A Sheridan, S Hopkins, M Kiernan, M H Wilcox, A P Johnson, R Hope
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli causes more than one-third of the bacteraemia cases in England each year, and the incidence of these infections is increasing. AIM: To determine the underlying risk factors associated with E. coli bacteraemia. METHODS: A three-month enhanced sentinel surveillance study involving 35 National Health Service hospitals was undertaken in the winter of 2012/13 to collect risk factor information and further details on the underlying source of infection to augment data already collected by the English national surveillance programme...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190396/in-vitro-screening-of-an-fda-approved-library-against-eskape-pathogens
#12
Waleed Younis, Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Abdelrahman S Mayhoub, Mohamed N Seleem
Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is an increasingly serious threat to public health worldwide that requires immediate exploration and the development of novel antimicrobial compounds. Drug repurposing is an inexpensive and untapped source of new antimicrobial leads, and it holds many attractive features warranting further attention for antimicrobial drug discovery. In an effort to repurpose drugs and explore new leads in the field of antimicrobial drug discovery, we performed a whole-cell screening assay of 1,600 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae (ESKAPE) pathogens...
February 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179629/antimicrobial-resistance-and-antimicrobial-use-animal-monitoring-policies-in-europe-where-are-we
#13
Jorge Pinto Ferreira, Katharina Staerk
The World Health Organization has recognized antimicrobial resistance as one of the top three threats to human health. Any use of antibiotics in animals will ultimately affect humans and vice versa. Appropriate monitoring of antimicrobial use and resistance has been repeatedly emphasized along with the need for global policies. Under the auspices of the European Union research project, EFFORT, we mapped antimicrobial use and resistance monitoring programs in ten European countries. We then compared international and European guidelines and policies...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179249/penicillin-skin-testing-as-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-initiative
#14
Bruce M Jones, Christopher M Bland
PURPOSE: An initiative to determine the effects of penicillin skin testing (PST) from an antimicrobial stewardship perspective is described. SUMMARY: Penicillin allergy is one of the most frequently reported allergies; however, only about 10% of self-reports of penicillin allergy are accurate. Incorrect penicillin allergies are therefore a significant barrier to antimicrobial stewardship, with important clinical and economic implications, including increased antimicrobial resistance, an increased overall cost of care, increased length of stay, and, ultimately, increased mortality...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176839/targeting-the-molecular-chaperone-slyd-to-inhibit-bacterial-growth-with-a-small-molecule
#15
Amit Kumar, Jochen Balbach
Molecular chaperones are essential molecules for cell growth, whereby they maintain protein homeostasis. Because of their central cellular function, bacterial chaperones might be potential candidates for drug targets. Antimicrobial resistance is currently one of the greatest threats to human health, with gram-negative bacteria being of major concern. We found that a Cu(2+) complex readily crosses the bacterial cell wall and inhibits SlyD, which is a molecular chaperone, cis/trans peptidyl prolyl isomerise (PPIase) and involved in various other metabolic pathways...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174307/a-bioengineered-three-dimensional-cell-culture-platform-integrated-with-microfluidics-to-address-antimicrobial-resistance-in-tuberculosis
#16
Magdalena K Bielecka, Liku B Tezera, Robert Zmijan, Francis Drobniewski, Xunli Zhang, Suwan Jayasinghe, Paul Elkington
: Antimicrobial resistance presents one of the most significant threats to human health, with the emergence of totally drug-resistant organisms. We have combined bioengineering, genetically modified bacteria, longitudinal readouts, and fluidics to develop a transformative platform to address the drug development bottleneck, utilizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the model organism. We generated microspheres incorporating virulent reporter bacilli, primary human cells, and an extracellular matrix by using bioelectrospray methodology...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167588/prevalence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-uninfected-children-in-botswana-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#17
Michael J A Reid, Rebecca S B Fischer, Naledi Mannathoko, Charles Muthoga, Erin McHugh, Heather Essigmann, Eric L Brown, Andrew P Steenhoff
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A major risk factor for staphylococcal infection is S. aureus colonization of the anterior nares. We sought to define risk factors for S. aureus carriage and characterize antimicrobial resistance patterns in children in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two clinical sites in southern Botswana. Patients under 18 years of age underwent two nasal swabs and brief interviews, 4 weeks apart...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161174/hot-topic-antilisterial-activity-by-endolysin-plyp100-in-fresh-cheese
#18
Maxwell L Van Tassell, Luis A Ibarra-Sánchez, Garrett P Hoepker, Michael J Miller
Our objective was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of a Listeria bacteriophage endolysin that may address limitations of current antilisterial processes for fresh cheeses. Listeria monocytogenes is highly problematic in the manufacture and processing of ready-to-eat foods due to its environmental persistence and its ability to grow under refrigerated storage. Special care must be taken to prevent listerial contamination during the production of fresh cheeses, as their delicate flavor and texture are incompatible with many of the antimicrobial processes and additives commonly used for other foods...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157581/survival-of-listeria-monocytogenes-with-different-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-to-food-associated-stresses
#19
Norton Komora, Carolina Bruschi, Rui Magalhães, Vânia Ferreira, Paula Teixeira
The ongoing rise of antibiotic resistant microbial pathogens has become one of the major public health threats worldwide. Despite all the effort and actions taken so far, a proliferation of antibiotic resistant (AR) and multi-antibiotic resistant (MAR) strains is still observed, including in foodborne pathogens. This trend has been also noted recently for isolates of Listeria monocytogenes, a species that, although remaining largely sensitive to clinically relevant antimicrobials, has been reported to develop increased tolerance to antibiotics, particularly in isolates recovered from the food-chain...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154560/detection-of-sgi1-pgi1-elements-and-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporins-in-proteae-of-animal-origin-in-france
#20
Eliette Schultz, Axel Cloeckaert, Benoît Doublet, Jean-Yves Madec, Marisa Haenni
Proteae, and especially Proteus mirabilis, are often the cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. They were reported as carriers of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and recently of carbapenemases, mostly carried by the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1). Proteae have also lately become an increasing cause of UTIs in companion animals, but antimicrobial susceptibility data in animals are still scarce. Here, we report the characterization of 468 clinical epidemiologically unrelated Proteae strains from animals collected between 2013 and 2015 in France...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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