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One Health AND Antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346030/antimicrobial-activity-of-eugenol-and-essential-oils-containing-eugenol-a-mechanistic-viewpoint
#1
Anna Marchese, Ramona Barbieri, Erika Coppo, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Morteza Izadi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Marjan Ajami
Eugenol is a hydroxyphenyl propene, naturally occurring in the essential oils of several plants belonging to the Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, and Myristicaceae families. It is one of the major constituents of clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae) oil and is largely used in both foods and cosmetics as a flavoring agent. A large body of recent scientific evidence supports claims from traditional medicine that eugenol exerts beneficial effects on human health. These effects are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
March 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339695/incidence-and-outcomes-of-infections-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-children-2007-2015
#2
Sharon B Meropol, Allison A Haupt, Sara M Debanne
Background.: The escalating incidence of invasive disease caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative enteric Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-GNE) is a global concern. Scant published studies in which the epidemiology of these infections in children is described exist; previous studies focused mainly on adults, described circumscribed populations, or lacked clinical detail. The objective of this study was to examine and describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with MDR-GNE infection in children...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336882/antimicrobial-polymers-in-the-nano-world
#3
REVIEW
Marta Álvarez-Paino, Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla, Marta Fernández-García
Infections are one of the main concerns of our era due to antibiotic-resistant infections and the increasing costs in the health-care sector. Within this context, antimicrobial polymers present a great alternative to combat these problems since their mechanisms of action differ from those of antibiotics. Therefore, the microorganisms' resistance to these polymeric materials is avoided. Antimicrobial polymers are not only applied in the health-care sector, they are also used in many other areas. This review presents different strategies that combine nanoscience and nanotechnology in the polymer world to combat contaminations from bacteria, fungi or algae...
February 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333200/antibiotic-prescribing-frequency-amongst-patients-in-primary-care-a-cohort-study-using-electronic-health-records
#4
Laura Shallcross, Nick Beckley, Greta Rait, Andrew Hayward, Irene Petersen
Background: Reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in primary care is a public health priority. Objectives: We hypothesized that a subset of patients account for the majority of antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. We investigated the relationship between the total amount of antibiotics prescribed, individual-level antibiotic use and comorbidity. Methods: This was a cohort study using electronic health records from 1 948 390 adults registered with 385 primary care practices in the UK in 2011-13...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#5
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314188/pharmaceutical-analysis-of-a-novel-propargyl-linked-antifolate-antibiotic-in-the-mouse
#6
John Hoody, Jeremy B Alverson, Santosh Keshipeddy, Patrick A Barney, Larissa Walker, Amy C Anderson, Dennis L Wright, Nigel D Priestley
Antimicrobial resistance to current antibiotics is a significant public health problem and the need for new antibiotics is a compelling one. We have been developing a new series of antibiotics, propargyl-linked diaminopyrimidines, based on the structure of trimethoprim. To date we have discovered compounds that are effective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (the target of trimethoprim), that are potent antibiotics in vitro against a range of Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and that are non-toxic in mammalian cell culture...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303191/vim-1-carbapenemase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-gulls-from-southern-france
#7
Marion Vittecoq, Chrislène Laurens, Lionel Brazier, Patrick Durand, Eric Elguero, Audrey Arnal, Frédéric Thomas, Salim Aberkane, Nicolas Renaud, Franck Prugnolle, Jérôme Solassol, Hélène Jean-Pierre, Sylvain Godreuil, François Renaud
Acquired carbapenemases currently pose one of the most worrying public health threats related to antimicrobial resistance. A NDM-1-producing Salmonella Corvallis was reported in 2013 in a wild raptor. Further research was needed to understand the role of wild birds in the transmission of bacteria resistant to carbapenems. Our aim was to investigate the presence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in gulls from southern France. In 2012, we collected 158 cloacal swabs samples from two gull species: yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) that live in close contact with humans and slender-billed gulls (Chroicocephalus genei) that feed at sea...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292273/ocular-bacterial-infections-at-quiha-ophthalmic-hospital-northern-ethiopia-an-evaluation-according-to-the-risk-factors-and-the-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-bacterial-isolates
#8
Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Muthupandian Saravanan, Araya Gebreyesus, Dawit Gebreegziabiher
BACKGROUND: External and intraocular infections can lead to visual impairments, which is a major public health problem. Bacteria are the most frequent pathogens affecting ocular structures; the increasing rate of antimicrobial drug resistance is a worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of bacteria in ocular infections, their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and risk factors in bacterial ocular infection. METHODS: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to December 2015 at Quiha Ophthalmic Hospital, Tigray, northern Ethiopia...
March 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290221/microbiological-diagnosis-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-profiles-in-diseased-free-living-raptors
#9
Anna Vidal, Laia Baldomà, Rafael A Molina-Lopez, Marga Martin, Laila Darwich
Free-living raptors (birds of prey) can act as reservoirs of potentially zoonotic agents but they also can be affected by microorganisms as target hosts. In this retrospective study, microbiological results (n=663) and antibiotic sensitivity profiles (n=108) of bacterial isolates were analyzed from diseased free-living raptors. Sixty-nine percent of cases (n=457) yielded bacteria: 58% were in pure culture and 42% were of different species. Remarkably, samples from necropsies (47%) had higher percentage of pure isolations than those obtained from clinical (31%) samples (p<0...
March 14, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272566/broad-spectrum-antibiotics-in-norwegian-hospitals
#10
Øyunn Holen, Torunn Alberg, Hege Salvesen Blix, Ingrid Smith, Marion Iren Neteland, Hanne Merete Eriksen
BACKGROUND One of the objectives in the action plan to reduce antimicrobial resistance in the health services in Norway is to reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Norwegian hospitals. This study describes the use of certain broad-spectrum antibiotics mentioned in the action plan in Norwegian hospitals, and assesses prescribing practices in relation to the Norwegian guidelines for antibiotic use in hospitals.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were analysed from a nationwide non-identifiable point prevalence survey in May 2016 where all systemic use of antibiotics was recorded...
March 2017: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264015/mcr-1-identified-in-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-apec
#11
Nicolle Lima Barbieri, Daniel W Nielsen, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Tia Cavender, Ashraf Hussein, Shi-Gan Yan, Lisa K Nolan, Catherine M Logue
Antimicrobial resistance associated with colistin has emerged as a significant concern worldwide threatening the use of one of the most important antimicrobials for treating human disease. Here, we examined a collection (n = 980) of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated from poultry with colibacillosis from the US and internationally for the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2, genes known to encode colistin resistance. Included in the analysis was an additional set of avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) (n = 220) isolates from healthy birds for comparative analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261187/detection-and-genetic-environment-of-pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin-a-resistance-genes-in-staphylococci-isolated-from-pets
#12
Fengru Deng, Huiwen Wang, Yifei Liao, Jun Li, Andrea T Feßler, Geovana B Michael, Stefan Schwarz, Yang Wang
Increasing emergence of staphylococci resistant to pleuromutilins, lincosamides, and streptogramin A (PLSA) and isolated from humans and pets is a growing public health concern worldwide. Currently, there was only one published study regarding one of the PLSA genes, vga(A) detected in staphylococci isolated from cat. In this study, eleven pleuromutilin-resistant staphylococci from pets and two from their owners were isolated and further characterized for their antimicrobial susceptibilities, plasmid profiles, genotypes, and genetic context of the PLSA resistance genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258237/computational-modelling-of-efflux-pumps-and-their-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Venkata Krishnan Ramaswamy, Pierpaolo Cacciotto, Giuliano Malloci, Attilio V Vargiu, Paolo Ruggerone
Antimicrobial resistance is based on the multifarious strategies that bacteria adopt to face antibiotic therapies, making it a key public health concern of our era. Among these strategies, efflux pumps (EPs) contribute significantly to increase the levels and profiles of resistance by expelling a broad range of unrelated compounds - buying time for the organisms to develop specific resistance. In Gram-negative bacteria, many of these chromosomally encoded transporters form multicomponent 'pumps' that span both inner and outer membranes and are driven energetically by a primary or secondary transporter component...
February 28, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258227/development-and-transmission-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-in-animals-and-their-public-health-impact
#14
REVIEW
Shewli Mukerji, Mark O'Dea, Mary Barton, Roy Kirkwood, Terence Lee, Sam Abraham
Gram-negative bacteria are known to cause severe infections in both humans and animals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Gram-negative bacteria is a major challenge in the treatment of clinical infections globally due to the propensity of these organisms to rapidly develop resistance against antimicrobials in use. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria possess highly efficient mechanisms through which the AMR can be disseminated between pathogenic and commensal bacteria of the same or different species. These unique traits of Gram-negative bacteria have resulted in evolution of Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials...
February 28, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253847/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-escherichia-coli-o157-in-beef-at-butcher-shops-and-restaurants-in-central-ethiopia
#15
Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Akafete Teklu Fite, Ephrem Tora, Asdesach Tafese, Tadele Genu, Tamirat Kaba, Tariku Jibat Beyene, Takele Beyene, Mesula Geloye Korsa, Fanos Tadesse, Lieven De Zutter, Bruno Maria Goddeeris, Eric Cox
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia bears the largest burden of foodborne diseases in Africa, and diarrheal diseases are the second leading causes of premature deaths. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 causes an asymptomatic infection to severe diarrhea and/or hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. METHODS: A total of 440 beef carcass and in-contact surface swabs from 55 butcher shops and 85 minced beef samples from 40 restaurants in central Ethiopia were collected and examined for the presence of E...
March 3, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249582/characteristics-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-fecal-samples-of-piglets-with-diarrhea-in-central-and-southern-taiwan-in-2015
#16
Wan-Chen Lee, Kuang-Sheng Yeh
BACKGROUND: The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to the commonly used beta-lactam antimicrobials and ESBL-producing bacteria render treatment difficulty in human and veterinary medicine. ESBL-producing bacteria have emerged in livestock in recent years, which may raise concerns regarding possible transfer of such bacteria through the food chain. The swine industry is important in Taiwan, but investigations regarding the status of ESBL in swine are limited...
March 1, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249575/first-report-on-bla-ndm-1-producing-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-three-clinical-isolates-from-ethiopia
#17
Michael Pritsch, Ahmed Zeynudin, Maxim Messerer, Simon Baumer, Gabriele Liegl, Soeren Schubert, Thomas Löscher, Michael Hoelscher, Tefara Belachew, Andrea Rachow, Andreas Wieser
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are recognized as one of the major threats to global health. In this study, we describe for the first time bla NDM-1 gene carrying organisms from Ethiopia consisting of three Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from patients in Jimma. METHODS: Besides phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular strain typing and sequencing was performed to describe the phylogenetic relation of the Ethiopian isolates in detail in relation to published isolates from all over the globe...
March 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243225/prevalence-and-molecular-characteristics-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diarrheic-patients-in-china
#18
Li Bai, Lili Wang, Xiaorong Yang, Juan Wang, Xin Gan, Wei Wang, Jin Xu, Qian Chen, Ruiting Lan, Séamus Fanning, Fengqin Li
Background: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance has become a major global public health concern. A component element of this is the spread of the plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) genes, conferring resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of ESBL-encoding genes identified in Escherichia coli cultured from diarrheic patients in China from 2013 to 2014. Materials and Methods: A total of 51 E. coli were confirmed as ESBL producers by double-disk synergy testing of 912 E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238505/rapid-diagnosis-of-sexually-transmitted-infections
#19
Luis Otero-Guerra, Ana Fernández-Blázquez, Fernando Vazquez
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are responsible for an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, millions of cases of STIs, such as syphilis, chlamydia, or gonorrhoea occur every year, and there is now an increase in antimicrobial resistance in pathogens, such as gonococcus. Delay in diagnosis is one of the factors that justifies the difficulty in controlling these infections. Rapid diagnostic tests allow the introduction of aetiological treatment at the first visit, and also leads to treating symptomatic and asymptomatic patients more effectively, as well as to interrupt the epidemiological transmission chain without delay...
February 23, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236177/virulence-genes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-lactose-negative-and-lactose-positive-strains-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-pregnant-women-and-neonates
#20
Agnieszka Kaczmarek, Krzysztof Skowron, Anna Budzyńska, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
Escherichia coli can cause serious infections in the neonates and pregnant women. Although E. coli is widely studied, E. coli lactose-negative (lac-) strains have been rarely described before. So, the aim of this study was to compare lac- and lactose-positive (lac+) E. coli strains in respect of antimicrobial susceptibility and the frequency of virulence genes (VGs). The study included 58 lac+ and 58 lac- E. coli strains isolated from pregnant women and neonates. Culture and the results of biochemical reactions were conducted for lac- and lac+ E...
February 24, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
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