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One Health AND Antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529864/allograft-bone-as-antibiotic-carrier
#1
REVIEW
Heinz Winkler, Peter Haiden
The treatment of chronic bone and joint infections is characterized by obstinate persistency of the causing microorganisms and resulting long term disability to patients, associated with remarkable costs for the health care system. Difficulties derive from biofilm formed on dead bone and eventual implants, with resistance against immunological defences and antimicrobial substances. Biofilm embedded bacteria require up to 1000 times the antibiotic concentration of planktonic bacteria for elimination. Systemic antibiotic treatment alone cannot provide the concentrations required and surgical intervention is always prerequisite for potentially providing a cure...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526638/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-salmonella-and-shigella-spp-among-children-with-gastroenteritis-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital
#2
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mina Moradzadeh, Hamid Eshaghi, Amitis Ramezani, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Setareh Mamishi
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is one of the leading cause of illnesses through the world, especially in developing countries.Salmonella and Shigella infections are considered as the main public health problems in children. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Shigella spp. among children with gastroenteritis in an Iranian referral hospital. METHODS: During April 2013 to April 2014, all medical records of children with gastroenteritis admitted to a pediatric medical center were evaluated...
May 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513417/carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-hiv-infected-children-in-zimbabwe
#3
S M S Wilmore, K Kranzer, A Williams, B Makamure, A F Nhidza, J Mayini, T Bandason, J Metcalfe, M P Nicol, I Balakrishnan, M J Ellington, N Woodford, S Hopkins, T D McHugh, R A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512606/antimicrobial-activity-of-nigerian-medicinal-plants
#4
REVIEW
Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu, Rosemary Chinazam Okoye
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals...
April 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505331/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-to-alternative-antimicrobials-with-therapeutic-potential
#5
P R S Lagacé-Wiens, H J Adam, N M Laing, M R Baxter, I Martin, M R Mulvey, J A Karlowsky, D J Hoban, G G Zhanel
Background: The prevalence of MDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae is increasing globally and represents a public health emergency. Development and approval of new anti-gonococcal agents may take years. As a concurrent approach to developing new antimicrobials, the laboratory and clinical evaluation of currently licensed antimicrobials not widely used for the treatment of gonorrhoea may provide new options for the treatment of gonococcal infections. Objectives: To determine the in vitro activity of nine alternative, currently licensed and late-development antimicrobials with the potential to treat gonococcal infections against 112 clinical isolates of N...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483962/comparative-analysis-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-ctx-m-65-producing-salmonella-infantis-isolates-from-humans-food-animals-and-retail-chickens-in-the-united-states
#6
Heather Tate, Jason P Folster, Chih-Hao Hsu, Jessica Chen, Maria Hoffmann, Cong Li, Cesar Morales, Gregory H Tyson, Sampa Mukerjee, Allison C Brown, Alice Green, Wanda Wilson, Uday Dessai, Jason Abbott, Lavin Joseph, Jovita Haro, Sherry Ayers, Patrick F McDermott, Shaohua Zhao
We sequenced the genomes of ten Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis containing blaCTX-M-65 isolated from chicken, cattle, and human sources collected between 2012 and 2015 in the United States through routine NARMS surveillance and product sampling programs. We also completely assembled the plasmids from four of the isolates. All isolates had a D87Y mutation in the gyrA gene and harbored between 7 and 10 resistance genes (aph (4)-Ia, aac (3)-IVa, aph(3' )-Ic, blaCTX-M-65, fosA3, floR, dfrA14, sul1, tetA, aadA1) located in two distinct sites of a megaplasmid (∼316-323kb) similar to that described in a blaCTX-M-65-positive S...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483600/phenotypic-and-genotypic-study-of-biofilm-formation-in-enterococci-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections
#7
F Fallah, M Yousefi, M R Pourmand, A Hashemi, A Nazari Alam, D Afshar
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent types of nosocomial and community acquired infections in humans. Management of multidrug-resistant Enterococci UTI due to the limited therapeutic options is a great challenge for physicians and clinical microbiologists. The role of bacterial biofilms in recurrent urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance has great importance for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern as well as the phenotypic and genotypic biofilm formation ability of Enterococci isolates from patients with UTI...
May 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474847/utilizing-paper-based-devices-for-antimicrobial-resistant-bacteria-detection
#8
Katherine E Boehle, Jake Gilliand, Christopher R Wheeldon, Amethyst Holder, Jaclyn A Adkins, Brian J Geiss, Elizabeth P Ryan, Charles S Henry
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the ability of a bacterial species to resist the action of an antimicrobial drug, has been on the rise due to the widespread use of antimicrobial agents. Per the World Health Organization, AMR has an estimated annual cost of USD 34 billion in the US and is predicted to be the number one cause of death worldwide by 2050. One way AMR bacteria can spread, and by which individuals can contract AMR infections, is through contaminated water. Monitoring AMR bacteria in the environment currently requires that samples be transported to a central laboratory for slow and labor intensive tests...
May 5, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474032/momordica-charantia-a-popular-health-promoting-vegetable-with-multifunctionality
#9
REVIEW
Shuzhen Wang, Zhiliang Li, Guliang Yang, Chi-Tang Ho, Shiming Li
Products derived from edible medicinal plants have been used for centuries to prevent, treat, and even cure multiple diseases. Momordica charantia L., widely cultivated around the world, is a typical one bred for vegetables and medicinal usage. All parts of M. charantia possess important medicinal properties, including antidiabetic, anticancer, hypotensive, anti-obesity, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, anthelmintic, neuro-protective, as well as hepato-protective properties both in vitro and in vivo...
May 5, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473808/the-anti-adhesive-effect-of-curcumin-on-candida-albicans-biofilms-on-denture-materials
#10
Hasanain Alalwan, Ranjith Rajendran, David F Lappin, Emilie Combet, Muhammad Shahzad, Douglas Robertson, Christopher J Nile, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
The use of natural compounds as an alternative source of antimicrobials has become a necessity given the growing concern over global antimicrobial resistance. Polyphenols, found in various edible plants, offers one potential solution to this. We aimed to investigate the possibility of using curcumin within the context of oral health as a way of inhibiting and preventing the harmful development of Candida albicans biofilms. We undertook a series of adsorption experiments with varying concentrations of curcumin, showing that 50 μg/ml could prevent adhesion...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466397/how-does-the-general-public-view-antibiotic-use-in-china-result-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#11
Dan Ye, Jie Chang, Caijun Yang, Kangkang Yan, Wenjing Ji, Muhammad Majid Aziz, Ali Hassan Gillani, Yu Fang
Background Resistance to antibiotics is a major threat to global health and general public play a significant role in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Objective The present study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of the general public towards antibiotic use in China. Setting Randomly selected parks in three cities of western, central and eastern China: Xi'an, Changsha, and Nanjing. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 1400 residents, from January to June 2015...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444242/virulence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-spp-and-escherichia-coli-in-the-beef-jerky-production-line
#12
Fernanda Pereira Fernandes, Flávia Liége Schütz Voloski, Tassiana Ramires, Louise Haubert, Giulia Giugliani Reta, Rafael Gianella Mondadori, Wladimir Padilha da Silva, Rita de Cássia Dos Santos da Conceição, Eduarda Hallal Duval
Intense manipulation during beef jerky production increases the possibility of contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. This study evaluated the contamination by thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., on processing surfaces and raw materials during beef jerky production, as well as in the final product. Thermotolerant coliforms were found on all surfaces tested and in the raw material. Escherichia coli was identified in 6.7% of the surface samples, while Salmonella spp. was found in 3...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438939/emergence-and-evolution-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-with-both-blakpc-and-blactx-m-integrated-in-chromosome
#13
Weihua Huang, Guiqing Wang, Robert Sebra, Jian Zhuge, Changhong Yin, Maria E Aguero-Rosenfeld, Audrey N Schuetz, Nevenka Dimitrova, John T Fallon
The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae represent serious and urgent threats to public health. In a retrospective study of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae, we identified three clinical isolates, CN1, CR14 and NY9, carrying both blaCTX-M and blaKPC genes. The complete genomes of these three K. pneumoniae isolates were de novo assembled by using both short- and long-read whole-genome sequencing. In CR14 and NY9, blaCTX-M and blaKPC were carried on two different plasmids...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410366/brief-educational-interventions-to-improve-performance-on-novel-quality-metrics-in-ambulatory-settings-in-kenya-a-multi-site-pre-post-effectiveness-trial
#14
Robert Ryan Korom, Stephanie Onguka, Peter Halestrap, Maureen McAlhaney, Mary Adam
BACKGROUND: The quality of primary care delivered in resource-limited settings is low. While some progress has been made using educational interventions, it is not yet clear how to sustainably improve care for common acute illnesses in the outpatient setting. Management of urinary tract infection is particularly important in resource-limited settings, where it is commonly diagnosed and associated with high levels of antimicrobial resistance. We describe an educational programme targeting non-physician health care providers and its effects on various clinical quality metrics for urinary tract infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409380/bacterial-thiol-oxidoreductases-from-basic-research-to-new-antibacterial-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Katarzyna M Bocian-Ostrzycka, Magdalena J Grzeszczuk, Anna M Banaś, Elżbieta Katarzyna Jagusztyn-Krynicka
The recent, rapid increase in bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a major public health concern. One approach to generate new classes of antibacterials is targeting virulence rather than the viability of bacteria. Proteins of the Dsb system, which play a key role in the virulence of many pathogenic microorganisms, represent potential new drug targets. The first part of the article presents current knowledge of how the Dsb system impacts function of various protein secretion systems that influence the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria...
May 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400212/susceptibility-to-18-drugs-and-multidrug-resistance-of-arcobacter-isolates-from-different-sources-within-the-czech-republic
#16
David Šilha, Marcela Pejchalová, Lucie Šilhová
OBJECTIVES: Arcobacter spp. are considered to be potential foodborne pathogens, and consumption of contaminated food containing these bacteria could endanger human and animal health. Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus are the species most frequently isolated from food of animal origin and from other samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of arcobacters isolated in the Czech Republic. No information about antibiotic susceptibility and multidrug resistance of arcobacters isolated in the Czech Republic is available in the literature before now...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399941/antimicrobial-potential-of-bacteriocins-in-poultry-and-swine-production
#17
REVIEW
Amel Ben Lagha, Bruno Haas, Marcelo Gottschalk, Daniel Grenier
The routine use of antibiotics in agriculture has contributed to an increase in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens in animals that can potentially be transmitted to humans. In 2000, the World Health Organization identified resistance to antibiotics as one of the most significant global threats to public health and recommended that the use of antibiotics as additives in animal feed be phased out or terminated, particularly those used to treat human infections. Research is currently being carried out to identify alternative antimicrobial compounds for use in animal production...
April 11, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392809/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-isolates-to-selected-antimicrobials
#18
Enid Owusu, Mercy J Newman, Kwesi K Addo, Phyllis Addo
Background. The current definitive treatment of Buruli ulcer with antibiotics makes the issue of antimicrobial drug resistance an unavoidable one. This is as a result of drug misuse by health personnel and patients' noncompliance to treatment regimen. Monitoring of these factors and screening for new effective antimicrobials are crucial to effective management of Buruli ulcer disease. This study therefore investigated the inhibitory activity of some antibiotics against isolates of Mycobacterium ulcerans. Methods...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392536/potential-enterotoxicity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-pattern-of-aeromonas-species-isolated-from-pet-turtles-and-their-environment
#19
S H M P Wimalasena, Gee-Wook Shin, Sabrina Hossain, Gang-Joon Heo
To investigate the potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonads from pet turtles as a risk for human infection, one hundred and two Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the feces, skin and rearing environments of pet turtles and identified by biochemical and gyrB sequence analyses. Aeromonas enteropelogenes was the predominant species among the isolates (52.9%) followed by A. hydrophila (32.4%), A. dharkensis (5.9%), A. veronii (4.9%) and A. caviae (3.9%). Their potential enterotoxicities were evaluated by PCR assays for detecting genes encoding cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) and two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389548/effect-of-tetracycline-dose-and-treatment-mode-on-selection-of-resistant-coliform-bacteria-in-nursery-pigs
#20
Kaare Græsbøll, Peter Damborg, Anders Mellerup, Ana Herrero-Fresno, Inge Larsen, Anders Holm, Jens Peter Nielsen, Lasse Engbo Christiansen, Øystein Angen, Shahana Ahmed, Anders Folkesson, John Elmerdahl Olsen
This study describes results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on selection of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4-7 weeks of age) were treated with oxytetracycline against Lawsonia intracellularis induced diarrhea in five pig herds. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with (i) high (20 mg/kg), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg) and (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dosage, (iv) oral-pen-wise (small group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10mg/kg)...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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