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One Health AND Antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454592/effective-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-cost-effective-utilization-of-telavancin-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hospital-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
James A McKinnell, Shelby Corman, Dipen Patel, Grace H Leung, Lynne M Gordon, Thomas P Lodise
PURPOSE: Clinicians and stewardship programs are challenged with positioning of novel, higher priced antibiotic agents for the treatment of clinical infections. We developed a decision-analytic model to describe costs, including drug, total treatment costs, and health care outcomes, associated with telavancin (TLV) compared with vancomycin (VAN) for patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP). METHODS: This decision-analytic model assessed the treatment of SA-HABP with TLV versus VAN...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445861/bovine-neutrophils-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Laura L Bassel, Jeff L Caswell
Bovine neutrophils have similarities to those of other species with respect to mechanisms of their activation and migration into tissue, modulation of immune responses and the balance between microbial killing and host tissue damage. However, bovine neutrophils have biochemical and functional differences from those of other species, which may yield insights about the comparative biology of neutrophils. Neutrophils play protective and harmful roles in the infectious diseases of cattle that occur at times of transition: respiratory disease in beef calves recently arrived to feedlots and mastitis and other diseases of postparturient dairy cows...
February 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444242/in-vitro-activity-of-zoliflodacin-etx0914-against-macrolide-resistant-fluoroquinolone-resistant-and-antimicrobial-susceptible-mycoplasma-genitalium-strains
#3
A C Damião Gouveia, M Unemo, J S Jensen
Background: Mycoplasma genitalium is estimated to be the second most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Europe. It is of increasing public health concern due to the rapid development of resistance to different antimicrobial classes, including the preferred first- and second-line treatments azithromycin and moxifloxacin. Thus, new antimicrobial agents are urgently needed, especially for the treatment of MDR strains. Methods: The in vitro activity of the new spiropyrimidinetrione zoliflodacin against 47 M...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433440/whole-genome-analysis-of-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-community-and-hospital-acquired-bloodstream-infection
#4
Chaitra Shankar, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Laura Eve Buchnan Nabarro, Raji Ravi, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Priscilla Rupali
BACKGROUND: Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp) causes severe community acquired infections, predominantly in Asia. Though initially isolated from liver abscesses, they are now prevalent among invasive infections such as bacteraemia. There have been no studies reported till date on the prevalence and characterisation of hvKp in India. The objective of this study is to characterise the hypervirulent strains isolated from bacteraemic patients for determination of various virulence genes and resistance genes and also to investigate the difference between healthcare associated and community acquired hvKp with respect to clinical profile, antibiogram, clinical outcome and molecular epidemiology...
January 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431570/levofloxacin-loaded-nanoparticles-decrease-emergence-of-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-escherichia-coli
#5
Safy Hadiya, Xiaoqiang Liu, Wegdan Abd El-Hammed, Mahmoud Elsabahy, Sherine A Aly
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global health problem that is developed upon exposure of bacteria to antimicrobial agents, and, thus, reducing or eliminating the ability of the currently available antibacterial drugs to eradicate bacterial infections. The aim of the current study was to encapsulate levofloxacin (third generation fluoroquinolones) into chitosan (CS) nanoparticles, to evaluate the antibacterial potency of the nanosized drug, and to characterize the major genetic mutations associated with the exposure of bacteria to the levofloxacin-loaded nanoparticle versus free levofloxacin...
February 12, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428885/occurrence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-swine-and-swine-workplace-environments-on-industrial-and-antibiotic-free-hog-operations-in-north-carolina-usa-a-one-health-pilot-study
#6
Meghan F Davis, Nora Pisanic, Sarah M Rhodes, Alexis Brown, Haley Keller, Maya Nadimpalli, Andrea Christ, Shanna Ludwig, Carly Ordak, Kristoffer Spicer, David C Love, Jesper Larsen, Asher Wright, Sarah Blacklin, Billy Flowers, Jill Stewart, Kenneth G Sexton, Ana M Rule, Christopher D Heaney
Occupational exposure to swine has been associated with increased Staphylococcus aureus carriage, including antimicrobial-resistant strains, and increased risk of infections. To characterize animal and environmental routes of worker exposure, we optimized methods to identify S. aureus on operations that raise swine in confinement with antibiotics (industrial hog operation: IHO) versus on pasture without antibiotics (antibiotic-free hog operation: AFHO). We associated findings from tested swine and environmental samples with those from personal inhalable air samplers on worker surrogates at one IHO and three AFHOs in North Carolina using a new One Health approach...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421319/antimicrobial-stigmatization-public-health-concerns-about-conventional-pig-farming-and-pig-farmers-experiences-with-stigmatization
#7
Lars Fynbo, Carsten Strøby Jensen
According to the World Health Organization, antimicrobial resistance is one of the most severe threats to public health. Since the 1950's contemporary farming of pigs has been heavily dependent on the use of antibiotics. Recently, concerned experts of public health have become more outspoken, often, criticizing pig farmers for social irresponsibility and gambling with public health. Danish pig farmers are internationally renewed for their relatively low use of antibiotics. Nevertheless, the public criticism aimed at farmers is relatively strong in Denmark...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420460/outbreak-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-campylobacter-jejuni-infections-associated-with-raw-milk-consumption-from-a-herdshare-dairy-colorado-2016
#8
Alexis Burakoff, Kerri Brown, Joyce Knutsen, Christina Hopewell, Shannon Rowe, Christy Bennett, Alicia Cronquist
In August 2016, a local public health agency (LPHA) notified the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) of two culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection among persons who consumed raw (unpasteurized) milk from the same herdshare dairy. In Colorado, the sale of raw milk is illegal; however, herdshare programs, in which a member can purchase a share of a herd of cows or goats, are legal and are not regulated by state or local authorities. In coordination with LPHAs, CDPHE conducted an outbreak investigation that identified 12 confirmed and five probable cases of Campylobacter jejuni infection...
February 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414607/frequency-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-integron-gene-cassettes-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-in-china
#9
Wencheng Zou, Caiwu Li, Xin Yang, Yongxiang Wang, Guangyang Cheng, Jinxin Zeng, Xiuzhong Zhang, Yanpeng Chen, Run Cai, Qianru Huang, Lan Feng, Hongning Wang, Desheng Li, Guiquan Zhang, Yanxi Chen, Zhizhong Zhang, Heming Zhang
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is considered as a common opportunistic pathogen, which causes seriously intestinal infections to giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other animals. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E. coli isolated from the faeces of giant pandas in China. A total of 89 E. coli were isolated, after diagnosis of isolates and genomes were extracted. All the isolates were screened for the presence of related drug-resistance genes and integron gene cassettes through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402306/sustainable-reduction-of-antibiotic-induced-antimicrobial-resistance-arena-in-german-ambulatory-care-study-protocol-of-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#10
Martina Kamradt, Petra Kaufmann-Kolle, Edith Andres, Tonia Brand, Anja Klingenberg, Katharina Glassen, Regina Poß-Doering, Lorenz Uhlmann, Katharina Hees, Dorothea Weber, Andreas Gutscher, Veit Wambach, Joachim Szecsenyi, Michel Wensing
BACKGROUND: Despite many initiatives to enhance the rational use of antibiotics, there remains substantial room for improvement. The overall aim of this study is to optimise the appropriate use of antibiotics in German ambulatory care in patients with acute non-complicated infections (respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis and otitis media), community-acquired pneumonia and non-complicated cystitis, in order to counter the advancing antimicrobial resistance development...
February 5, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401283/expansion-of-the-antibiotic-guardian-one-health-behavioural-campaign-across-europe-to-tackle-antibiotic-resistance-pilot-phase-and-analysis-of-amr-knowledge
#11
Sophie Newitt, Sibyl Anthierens, Samuel Coenen, Danilo Lo Fo Wong, Cristiana Salvi, Richard Puleston, Diane Ashiru-Oredope
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health threat. The UK Antibiotic Guardian (AG) behavioural change campaign developed to tackle AMR was expanded across Europe through translation into Russian, Dutch and French. Demographics and knowledge of AGs were analyzed between 01 November 2016 and 31 December 2016. A total of 367 pledges were received with the majority from the public and health care professionals. The pilot has significantly increased the proportion of pledges from Europe (excluding UK) (χ2 = 108...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397576/threats-to-global-antimicrobial-resistance-control-centrally-approved-and-unapproved-antibiotic-formulations-sold-in-india
#12
Patricia McGettigan, Peter Roderick, Abhay Kadam, Allyson Pollock
Rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health crisis. India has among the highest resistance rates and antibiotic consumption internationally. Extensive use of fixed dose combination (FDC) antibiotics and of unapproved formulations are claimed contributory factors but there has been no systematic examination of formulations or volumes sold. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory approval status and sales volumes of systemic antibiotics marketed in India. METHODS: This was an ecological study using regulatory records in India, the UK and US to determine the approval status in each country of systemic antibiotic FDC and single drug formulations (SDFs) marketed in India...
February 4, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384025/failure-of-a-best-practice-alert-to-reduce-antibiotic-prescribing-rates-for-acute-sinusitis-across-an-integrated-health-system-in-the-midwest
#13
Megan J Hansen, Paul J Carson, David D Leedahl, Nathan D Leedahl
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing concern, and in recent years, there has been increased interest in ambulatory antimicrobial stewardship. Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is one of the most common outpatient diagnoses that results in an antibiotic prescription. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a best practice alert (BPA) will affect the percentage of oral antibiotic prescriptions for adults with ARS. METHODS: A prospective, pre/post study was initiated to evaluate the percentage of oral antibiotic prescriptions for ARS in 117 primary care clinics in the Midwest...
February 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382822/bismuth-antimicrobial-drugs-serve-as-broad-spectrum-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors
#14
Runming Wang, Tsz-Pui Lai, Peng Gao, Hongmin Zhang, Pak-Leung Ho, Patrick Chiu-Yat Woo, Guixing Ma, Richard Yi-Tsun Kao, Hongyan Li, Hongzhe Sun
Drug-resistant superbugs pose a huge threat to human health. Infections by Enterobacteriaceae producing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), e.g., New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are very difficult to treat. Development of effective MBL inhibitors to revive the efficacy of existing antibiotics is highly desirable. However, such inhibitors are not clinically available till now. Here we show that an anti-Helicobacter pylori drug, colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), and related Bi(III) compounds irreversibly inhibit different types of MBLs via the mechanism, with one Bi(III) displacing two Zn(II) ions as revealed by X-ray crystallography, leading to the release of Zn(II) cofactors...
January 30, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366323/yeast-based-synthetic-biology-platform-for-antimicrobial-peptide-production
#15
Jicong Cao, Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Rui Wen Ou, Marcelo Der Torossian Torres, Santosh G Pande, Anthony J Sinskey, Timothy K Lu
Antibiotic resistance is one of the most challenging global health threats in our society. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics for the treatment of drug-resistant infections. However, they are limited by their high manufacturing cost. Engineering living organisms represents a promising approach to produce such molecules in an inexpensive manner. Here, we genetically modified the yeast Pichia pastoris to produce the prototypical AMP apidaecin Ia using a fusion protein approach that leverages the beneficial properties (e...
February 12, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362234/are-phage-lytic-proteins-the-secret-weapon-to-kill-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
REVIEW
Diana Gutiérrez, Lucía Fernández, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most threatening microorganisms for global human health. The current strategies to reduce the impact of S. aureus include a restrictive control of worldwide antibiotic use, prophylactic measures to hinder contamination, and the search for novel antimicrobials to treat human and animal infections caused by this bacterium. The last strategy is currently the focus of considerable research. In this regard, phage lytic proteins (endolysins and virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases [VAPGHs]) have been proposed as suitable candidates...
January 23, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352087/subtype-specific-selection-for-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-but-not-to-tetracyclines-occurs-in-campylobacter-jejuni-from-beef-cattle-in-confined-feeding-operations-in-southern-alberta-canada
#17
Andrew L Webb, L Brent Selinger, Eduardo N Taboada, G Douglas Inglis
Campylobacter jejuni was longitudinally isolated from beef cattle housed in four confined feeding operations (CFOs) in southern Alberta over 18 months. All of the cattle were administered a variety of antimicrobial agents (AMAs) non-therapeutically and metaphylactically during their time in the CFOs. In total, 7966 C. jejuni isolates were recovered from cattle. More animals were colonized by the bacterium after >60 days in the CFO (i.e. interim) compared to individuals upon entry at the CFO (i.e. arrival)...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351202/antimicrobial-peptides-diversity-mechanism-of-action-and-strategies-to-improve-the-activity-and-biocompatibility-in-vivo
#18
REVIEW
Prashant Kumar, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Suzana K Straus
Antibiotic resistance is projected as one of the greatest threats to human health in the future and hence alternatives are being explored to combat resistance. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown great promise, because use of AMPs leads bacteria to develop no or low resistance. In this review, we discuss the diversity, history and the various mechanisms of action of AMPs. Although many AMPs have reached clinical trials, to date not many have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to issues with toxicity, protease cleavage and short half-life...
January 19, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340148/reducing-unnecessary-culturing-a-systems-approach-to-evaluating-urine-culture-ordering-and-collection-practices-among-nurses-in-two-acute-care-settings
#19
Robert Redwood, Mary Jo Knobloch, Daniela C Pellegrini, Matthew J Ziegler, Michael Pulia, Nasia Safdar
Background: Inappropriate ordering and acquisition of urine cultures leads to unnecessary treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). Treatment of ASB contributes to antimicrobial resistance particularly among hospital-acquired organisms. Our objective was to investigate urine culture ordering and collection practices among nurses to identify key system-level and human factor barriers and facilitators that affect optimal ordering and collection practices. Methods: We conducted two focus groups, one with ED nurses and the other with ICU nurses...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339745/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-asian-honeybee-apis-cerana-provides-novel-insights-into-honeybee-biology
#20
Qingyun Diao, Liangxian Sun, Huajun Zheng, Zhijiang Zeng, Shengyue Wang, Shufa Xu, Huoqing Zheng, Yanping Chen, Yuanyuan Shi, Yuezhu Wang, Fei Meng, Qingliang Sang, Lianfei Cao, Fang Liu, Yongqiang Zhu, Wenfeng Li, Zhiguo Li, Congjie Dai, Minjun Yang, Shenglu Chen, Runsheng Chen, Shaowu Zhang, Jay D Evans, Qiang Huang, Jie Liu, Fuliang Hu, Songkun Su, Jie Wu
The Asian honeybee Apis cerana is one of two bee species that have been commercially kept with immense economic value. Here we present the analysis of genomic sequence and transcriptomic exploration for A. cerana as well as the comparative genomic analysis of the Asian honeybee and the European honeybee A. mellifera. The genome and RNA-seq data yield new insights into the behavioral and physiological resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa the evolution of antimicrobial peptides, and the genetic basis for labor division in A...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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