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One Health AND Antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029149/no-clinical-benefit-of-empirical-antimicrobial-therapy-for-pediatric-diarrhea-in-a-high-usage-high-resistance-setting
#1
Vu Thuy Duong, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Pham Van Minh, James I Campbell, Hoang Le Phuc, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Le Thi Phuong Tu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Le Thi Quynh Nhi, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, Lu Lan Vi, Corinne N Thompson, Guy E Thwaites, Ruklanthi de Alwis, Stephen Baker
Background: Pediatric diarrheal disease presents a major public health burden in low-middle income countries. The clinical benefits of empirical antimicrobial treatment for diarrhea are unclear in settings that lack reliable diagnostics and have high antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Methods: We conducted a prospective multi-center cross-sectional study of pediatric patients hospitalized with diarrhea containing blood and/or mucus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Clinical parameters, including disease outcome and treatment, were measured...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021787/integron-digestive-carriage-in-human-and-cattle-a-one-health-cultivation-independent-approach
#2
Delphine Chainier, Olivier Barraud, Geoffrey Masson, Elodie Couve-Deacon, Bruno François, Claude-Yves Couquet, Marie-Cécile Ploy
Objectives: Dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global issue that requires the adoption of a "One-Health" approach promoting integration of human and animal health. Besides culture-dependent techniques frequently used for AMR surveillance, cultivation-independent methods can give additional insights into the diversity and reservoir of AMR genetic determinants. Integrons are molecular markers that can provide overall and reliable estimation of AMR dissemination. In this study, considering the "One-Health" approach, we have analyzed the integron digestive carriage from stools of humans and cattle living in a same area and exposed to different antibiotic selection pressures...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021600/diagnosing-antimicrobial-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Carey-Ann D Burnham, Jennifer Leeds, Patrice Nordmann, Justin O'Grady, Jean Patel
Antimicrobial resistance constitutes a global burden and is one of the major threats to public health. Although the emergence of resistant microorganisms is a natural phenomenon, the overuse or inappropriate use of antimicrobials has had a great effect on resistance evolution. Rapid diagnostic tests that identify drug-resistant bacteria, determine antimicrobial susceptibility and distinguish viral from bacterial infections can guide effective treatment strategies. Moreover, rapid diagnostic tests could facilitate epidemiological surveillance, as emerging resistant infectious agents and transmission can be monitored...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980926/insufficient-decontamination-in-sewage-treatment-plants-induce-the-risk-of-artificial-selection-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli
#4
A Gundogdu, H Kilic, C Kurekci, E Alp
Quantitative data about extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli (ESBLEC) in the wastewaters are scarce, especially in developing countries. These data could be useful to raise awareness about the potential risk of spreading ESBLEC strains in the community. Water samples were collected weekly over a 10-week period, from one urban sewage treatment plant (STP), one rural STP and one hospital complex's wastewater (HWW) in Turkey. Mean E. coli and ESBLEC loads were determined for each sampling point. For the 580 ESBLEC isolated, antimicrobial resistance profiles, phylogenetic grouping, presence of common beta-lactamese-typesand integrons were studied using PCR...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979150/mycoplasma-genitalium-infections-current-treatment-options-and-resistance-issues
#5
REVIEW
Sunil Sethi, Kamran Zaman, Neha Jain
Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the important causes of non-gonococcal urethritis. Rising incidence and emerging antimicrobial resistance are a major concern these days. The poor clinical outcomes with doxycycline therapy led to the use of azithromycin as the primary drug of choice. Single-dose azithromycin regimen over a period of time was changed to extended regimen following studies showing better clinical cures and less risk of resistance development. However, emerging macrolide resistance, either due to transmission of resistance or drug pressure has further worsened the management of this infection...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974947/fungal-lactamases-their-occurrence-and-function
#6
REVIEW
Minglu Gao, Anthony E Glenn, Alex A Blacutt, Scott E Gold
Fungi are absorptive feeders and thus must colonize and ramify through their substrate to survive. In so doing they are in competition, particularly in the soil, with myriad microbes. These microbes use xenobiotic compounds as offensive weapons to compete for nutrition, and fungi must be sufficiently resistant to these xenobiotics. One prominent mechanism of xenobiotic resistance is through production of corresponding degrading enzymes. As typical examples, bacterial β-lactamases are well known for their ability to degrade and consequently confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, a serious emerging problem in health care...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973027/plant-expressed-pyocins-for-control-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#7
Šarūnas Paškevičius, Urtė Starkevič, Audrius Misiūnas, Astra Vitkauskienė, Yuri Gleba, Aušra Ražanskienė
The emergence, persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant human pathogenic bacteria heralds a growing global health crisis. Drug-resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are especially dangerous and the medical and economic burden they impose underscore the critical need for finding new antimicrobials. Recent studies have demonstrated that plant-expressed bacteriocins of the colicins family can be efficient antibacterials against all major enteropathogenic strains of E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969667/general-practitioner-use-of-a-c-reactive-protein-point-of-care-test-to-help-target-antibiotic-prescribing-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-the-pace-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Janine Bates, Nick A Francis, Patrick White, David Gillespie, Emma Thomas-Jones, Rachel Breen, Nigel Kirby, Kerry Hood, Micaela Gal, Rhiannon Phillips, Gurudutt Naik, Jochen Cals, Carl Llor, Hasse Melbye, Mandy Wootton, Evgenia Riga, Ann Cochrane, Robin Howe, Deborah Fitzsimmons, Bernadette Sewell, Mohammed Fasihul Alam, Christopher C Butler
BACKGROUND: Most patients presenting with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in primary care are prescribed an antibiotic, which may not always be appropriate and may cause harm. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase biomarker that can be rapidly measured at the point of care and may predict benefit from antibiotic treatment in AECOPD. It is not clear whether the addition of a CRP point-of-care test (POCT) to clinical assessment leads to a reduction in antibiotic consumption without having a negative impact on COPD health status...
September 29, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966922/new-insights-about-antibiotic-production-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-gene-expression-analysis
#9
Bárbara Gionco, Eliandro R Tavares, Admilton G de Oliveira, Sueli F Yamada-Ogatta, Anderson O do Carmo, Ulisses de Pádua Pereira, Roberta T Chideroli, Ane S Simionato, Miguel O P Navarro, Andreas L Chryssafidis, Galdino Andrade
The bacterial resistance for antibiotics is one of the most important problems in public health and only a small number of new products are in development. Antagonistic microorganisms from soil are a promising source of new candidate molecules. Products of secondary metabolism confer adaptive advantages for their producer, in the competition for nutrients in the microbial community. The biosynthesis process of compounds with antibiotic activity is the key to optimize their production and the transcriptomic study of microorganisms is of great benefit for the discovery of these metabolic pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964562/integrating-human-and-environmental-health-in-antibiotic-risk-assessment-a-critical-analysis-of-protection-goals-species-sensitivity-and-antimicrobial-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Gareth Le Page, Lina Gunnarsson, Jason Snape, Charles R Tyler
Antibiotics are vital in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases but when released into the environment they may impact non-target organisms that perform vital ecosystem services and enhance antimicrobial resistance development with significant consequences for human health. We evaluate whether the current environmental risk assessment regulatory guidance is protective of antibiotic impacts on the environment, protective of antimicrobial resistance, and propose science-based protection goals for antibiotic manufacturing discharges...
September 27, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957012/pilot-study-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-northern-bobwhites-colinus-virginianus
#11
Michael Zhang, Zhenyu Shen, Dale Rollins, William Fales, Shuping Zhang
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important issue for both wildlife conservation and public health. The purpose of this study was to screen for AMR in fecal bacteria isolated from northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), a species that is an ecologically and economically important natural resource in the southern United States. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 45 Escherichia coli isolates, 20 Enterococcus faecalis isolates, and 10 Enterococcus faecium isolates were determined using the Sensititer(TM) microbroth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) plate, AVIAN1F...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955305/antimicrobial-susceptibility-among-urban-wastewater-and-wild-shellfish-isolates-of-non-o1-non-o139-vibrio-cholerae-from-la-rance-estuary-brittany-france
#12
Sandrine Baron, Emeline Larvor, Séverine Chevalier, Eric Jouy, Isabelle Kempf, Sophie A Granier, Jean Lesne
The early 2000s marked the end of the Golden age of the antibiotics and the beginning of the awareness on the potential threat to human health due to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. As a base-line study, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 99 strains of non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolated from wastewater and shellfish in 2000/2001 within La Rance estuary (Brittany, France). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, imipenem, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951073/biofilm-formation-and-multidrug-resistant-aeromonas-spp-from-wild-animals
#13
Carla Dias, Anabela Borges, Maria José Saavedra, Manuel Simões
OBJECTIVES: The "One Health" concept recognizes that the health of humans, animals and the environment are interconnected. Therefore, the knowledge on the behavior of microorganisms from the most diverse environmental niches is important to prevent the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Wild animals are known to carry antimicrobial resistant microorganisms with potential public health impact. However, no data is available on the sessile behavior of bacteria from wild animals, even if antimicrobial resistance is amplified in biofilms...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939607/multidrug-and-mupirocin-resistance-in-environmental-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-collected-from-the-homes-of-people-diagnosed-with-a-community-onset-co-mrsa-infection
#14
J H Shahbazian, P D Hahn, S Ludwig, J Ferguson, P Baron, A Christ, K Spicer, P Tolomeo, A M Torrie, W B Bilker, V C Cluzet, B Hu, K Julian, I Nachamkin, S C Rankin, D O Morris, E Lautenbach, M F Davis
Patients with community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) infections contribute to MRSA contamination of the home environment, and may be re-exposed to MRSA strains from this reservoir. This study evaluates One Health risk factors that focus on the relationship between humans, animals and the environment for increased prevalence of multiple antimicrobial resistant MRSA in the home environment. During a trial of patients with CO-MRSA infection, MRSA was isolated from the household environment at baseline and three months later, following randomization of patients and household members to mupirocin-based decolonization therapy or education control...
September 22, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935553/prevalence-risk-factors-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-test-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-bovine-cross-breed-mastitic-milk-in-and-around-asella-town-oromia-regional-state-southern-ethiopia
#15
Befikadu Seyoum, Hailemariam Kefyalew, Birhanu Abera, Nejash Abdela
A cross sectional study was undertaken from November 2016 to March 2017 in and around Asella town, Oromia regional state, southern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, in Bovine cross breed mastitis milk. A total of 384 lactating dairy cows were screened for mastitis based on clinical examinations and California mastitis test (CMT). Out of 230 lactating crossbred cows with either clinical or subclinical mastitis examined for the involvement of Staphylococcus aureus...
September 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934348/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-poultry-and-livestock-china
#16
Afrah Kamal Yassin, Jiansen Gong, Patrick Kelly, Guangwu Lu, Luca Guardabassi, Lanjing Wei, Xiangan Han, Haixiang Qiu, Stuart Price, Darong Cheng, Chengming Wang
Poultry and livestock are the most important reservoirs for pathogenic Escherichia coli and use of antimicrobials in animal farming is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. The aim of our study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from food animals in Jiangsu, China. The disc diffusion method was used to determine susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents in 862 clinical isolates collected from chickens, ducks, pigs, and cows between 2004 and 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934346/antibacterial-effects-of-carbon-dots-in-combination-with-other-antimicrobial-reagents
#17
Xiuli Dong, Mohamad Al Awak, Nicholas Tomlinson, Yongan Tang, Ya-Ping Sun, Liju Yang
This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of CDots in combination with other antimicrobial reagents, including H2O2, Na2CO3, and AcOH (acetic acid). CDots were synthesized and passivated with 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) (EDA). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CDots was 64 μg/mL on both Gram negative bacteria E.coli cells and Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis cells. When CDots were combined with H2O2, antibacterial synergistic effects were observed based on the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index, and further confirmed by an isobologram analysis and viable cell number counting methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932746/isolation-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-bacteria-associated-with-waterpipe-contaminants-in-selected-area-of-saudi-arabia
#18
Mohammed Alaidarous, Meshal Alanazi, Ahmed Abdel-Hadi
This study highlights the level of microbial contamination of waterpipe components in selected area of Saudi Arabia and the resistance of selected bacteria to different antibiotics was determined. A series of biochemical tests, microscopic examination, and screening on Vitek 2 compact (bioMérieux Inc., USA) system were done to characterize the bacterial isolates. Out of 132 samples investigated, 7 mouthpiece samples and 48 water bowl samples showed positivity on culture. The percentage of contamination rate was higher in water bowl (69...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932389/challenges-facing-the-veterinary-profession-in-ireland-2-on-farm-use-of-veterinary-antimicrobials
#19
Manuel Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Simon J More, David B Morton, Alison J Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in recent years as a significant public health threat, which requires both an ethical and a scientific approach. In a recent Policy Delphi study, on-farm use of antimicrobials was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the second in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring the challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and emergency/casualty slaughter certification) we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and possible opportunities for responsible use of veterinary antimicrobials in Ireland...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929960/-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-and-molecular-characterization-of-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-isolates-the-first-report-on-the-presence-of-hypervirulent-strains-from-turkey
#20
Emrah Salman, Belkıs Levent, Zeynep Ceren Karahan
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
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