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Takuma Iguchi, Noriyo Niino, Satoshi Tamai, Ken Sakurai, Kazuhiko Mori
RT-qPCR is one of the most common methods to assess individual target miRNAs. MiRNAs levels are generally measured relative to a reference sample. This approach is appropriate for examining physiological changes in target gene expression levels. However, absolute quantification using better statistical analysis is preferable for a comprehensive assessment of gene expression levels. Absolute quantification is still not in common use. This report describes a protocol for measuring the absolute levels of plasma miRNA, using RT-qPCR with or without pre-amplification...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tiffany Guess, Hoyin Lai, Serenah E Smith, Linda Sircy, Kirsten Cunningham, David E Nelson, Erin E McClelland
The polysaccharide capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is the primary virulence factor and one of the most commonly studied aspects of this pathogenic yeast. Capsule size can vary widely between strains, has the ability to grow rapidly when introduced to stressful or low nutrient conditions, and has been positively correlated with strain virulence. For these reasons, the size of the capsule is of great interest to C. neoformans researchers. The growth of the C. neoformans capsule is induced during phenotypic testing to help understand the effects of different treatments on the yeast or size differences between strains...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jeffrey B Mason, Kate C Parkinson, Tracy L Habermehl
Ovarian transplantation was first conducted at Utah State University in 1963. In more recent work, heterochronic transplantation of mammalian ovaries is being used to investigate the health-protective effects of young ovaries in young females. The current procedures employ an orthotopic transplantation method, where allogenic ovaries are transplanted back to their original position in the ovarian bursa. This is in contrast to the more commonly used heterotopic transplantation of ovaries/ovarian tissue subcutaneously or under the kidney capsule...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Akile Sarıoğlu Büke, Özlem Sürel Karabilgin Öztürkçü, Yusuf Yılmaz, İskender Sayek
BACKGROUND: Professionalism education is one of the major elements of surgical residency education. AIMS: To evaluate the studies on core professionalism education programs in surgical professionalism education. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: This systematic literature review was performed to analyze core professionalism programs for surgical residency education published in English with at least three of the following features: program developmental model/instructional design method, aims and competencies, methods of teaching, methods of assessment, and program evaluation model or method...
March 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Basma R Damiri, Hisham N Sandouka, Eiad H Janini, Omar N Yaish
BACKGROUND: Substance use has been an increasing problem in the occupied Palestinian territory for decades. The aim of this study was to describe the practice, knowledge, and attitudes associated with substance use by university students in the occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in 2015. Male and female students from four main public universities in the West Bank were recruited to fill out a self-administered questionnaire...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Amir Abukaresh, Rami Al-Abadlah, Bettina Böttcher, Khamis El-Essi
BACKGROUND: In the 2014 Palestinian annual health report, cerebrovascular accident was ranked as the third leading cause of death in the occupied Palestinian territory. Cerebrovascular accident is also one the most common causes of disability worldwide. Good management decreases mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the current management of patients with ischaemic stroke at the Al-Shifa Hospital and to compare this with international guidelines. METHODS: For this clinical audit, we used simple random sampling to select files of patients admitted with the diagnosis of ischaemic stroke to the Al-Shifa Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Tiziana Leone, Diego Alburez-Gutierrez, Rula Gandour, Ernestina Coast, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts can undermine a country's health-care capacity and disrupt the delivery of basic health services. Yet the public health consequences of war remain difficult to quantify, mainly because adequate data do not exist. We hypothesised that the ongoing conflict in the occupied Palestinian territory (including the restrictions on free movement and the strain on health-care services) have had detrimental effects on maternal and child health outcomes. METHODS: We reconstructed data on delivery by caesarean section and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccination with pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys for 2000-14...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Rowa' Al-Ramahi, Hamzeh Al-Zabadi, Ghadeer Al-Shareef
BACKGROUND: Paediatric patients are highly sensitive to drug-related problems such as dosing errors. Some dosing errors are preventable with suitable strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of drug dosing errors in outpatient paediatric patients who attended primary health-care centres in Nablus and to identify possible associated factors. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we reviewed doctors' prescriptions for paediatric patients aged between 1 day and 12 years...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Qusay Abdoh, Lubna Kharraz, Khubaib Ayoub, Jana Khraim, Wafaa Awad, Aysha Sbeah, Safaa Turman
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered the most important determinant of treatment failure. Monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to common antibiotics is therefore of special importance for clinicians. The frequency of resistance to antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori isolates is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of H pylori antibiotic resistance at the An-Najah National University Hospital. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited patients older than 18 year who were admitted to the An-Najah National University Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Mohammed K El-Habil
BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem worldwide and a common cause of patient admissions to emergency departments and intensive care units. The aim of this study was to assess the acute poisoning cases admitted to three hospitals in the Gaza Strip and to assess the need for a poison control and drug information centre in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with acute poisoning between 2010 and 2015 at the emergency departments of Al-Shifa Hospital, European Gaza Hospital, and Al-Nassr Paediatric Hospital in the Gaza Strip were included in this retrospective study...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Majed Hababeh, Wafaa Zeidan, Mariam Abdel El-Kader, Anwar Al Thaher, Nimer Kassim, Elias Habash, Hasan Arab, Ali Khader, Akihiro Seita
BACKGROUND: UNRWA introduced family planning services in 1994 as an integral part of its expanded maternal and child health-care programme. The main objective of UNRWA's family planning programme is to promote the health of mothers, children, and their families. The aim of this follow-up study was to assess contraceptive practices in the target population 5 years after the 2010 follow-up study and to identify future programme needs. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was a done by trained nurses from June 1 to Dec 31, 2015...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Liana Al-Labadi, Yazan Gammoh, Reham Shehada, Reem Shahin, Walaa Jbarah, Madleen Amro, Hanan Athamny
BACKGROUND: Access to corneal transplantation is limited worldwide because of poor knowledge. Ethical, religious, and cultural barriers contribute to low rates of corneal donation. In the occupied Palestinian territory, limited information is available on factors affecting corneal donation. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and willingness towards corneal donation in Palestinian students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included university students selected through convenience sampling in Nablus in the summer of 2016...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Hendia Abu Nabaa', Nisreen Shelleh
BACKGROUND: The mammogram is considered a life-saving breast cancer screening procedure for women aged 40 years and older, yet uptake of mammography services by Palestinian women is very low. Breast cancer is the most common cancer, comprising 17% of all reported cancer cases, and the second leading cause of death in women in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to understand the barriers to mammography uptake through an exploratory qualitative study in Ramallah and Salfeet...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Enas Alaloul, MohammedRaed Elshami, Khamis Elessi, Israa Awad, Huda Abu Nemer, Esraa Khader, Heba Baraka, Alaa Alhelu
BACKGROUND: Women are usually given two options after a mastectomy. They can either wear a prosthesis or have a breast reconstruction. Unfortunately, many women in the Gaza Strip are unaware of these options. The aim of this study was to shed light on the awareness and sociocultural factors in women who underwent mastectomy before choosing between options. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited patients who underwent mastectomy in the Gaza Strip. All participants completed a face-to-face questionnaire between Aug 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Alhassane Diallo, Heike Jacobi, Arron Cook, Robyn Labrum, Alexandra Durr, Alexis Brice, Perrine Charles, Cecilia Marelli, Caterina Mariotti, Lorenzo Nanetti, Marta Panzeri, Maria Rakowicz, Anna Sobanska, Anna Sulek, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Ludger Schöls, Holger Hengel, Bela Melegh, Alessandro Filla, Antonella Antenora, Jon Infante, José Berciano, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Dagmar Timmann, Sylvia Boesch, Massimo Pandolfo, Jörg B Schulz, Peter Bauer, Paola Giunti, Jun-Suk Kang, Thomas Klockgether, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited progressive ataxia disorders that can lead to premature death. We aimed to study the overall survival of patients with the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6) and to identify the strongest contributing predictors that affect survival. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women, aged 18 years or older, from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries; participants had positive genetic test results for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and progressive, otherwise unexplained, ataxias...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Therese M Lynn, Ena Lynn, Eamon Keenan, Suzi Lyons
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide trend analysis on all deaths among drug users who injected at or around the time of their death in Ireland between 1998 and 2014. METHOD: A review of the data recorded by the National Drug-Related Deaths Index (NDRDI) was conducted to identify individuals who were known to be injecting at or around the time of their death, from 1998 to 2014. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2014, 16,500 deaths were recorded by the NDRDI...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Bich-Tram Huynh, Elsa Kermorvant-Duchemin, Perlinot Herindrainy, Michael Padget, Feno Manitra Jacob Rakotoarimanana, Herisoa Feno, Elisoa Hariniaina-Ratsima, Tanjona Raheliarivao, Awa Ndir, Sophie Goyet, Patrice Piola, Frederique Randrianirina, Benoit Garin, Jean-Marc Collard, Didier Guillemot, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau
Severe bacterial infections are a leading cause of death among neonates in low-income countries, which harbor several factors leading to emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Low-income countries should prioritize interventions to decrease neonatal infections; however, data are scarce, specifically from the community. To assess incidence, etiologies, and antimicrobial drug-resistance patterns of neonatal infections, during 2012-2014, we conducted a community-based prospective investigation of 981 newborns in rural and urban areas of Madagascar...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Christopher A Caulfield, John Stephens, Zarina Sharalaya, Jeffrey P Laux, Carlton Moore, Daniel E Jonas, Edmund A Liles
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) by hospitalist physicians. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study at a tertiary academic medical center. METHODS: We used consultation Current Procedural Technology codes to identify patients discharged from the ED after referral for hospitalist admission from April 2011 to April 2014. We report patient demographics and primary diagnoses...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Xuguang Li, Tong Li, Tong Zhang, Cheng Gu, Shourong Zheng, Haijun Zhang, Wei Chen
Nano-scale titanium dioxide (nTiO2) is one of the most widely used metal oxide nanomaterials. Once released into the environment, nTiO2 may catalyze abiotic transformation of contaminants, and consequently affect their fate and effects. Here, we show that the overall catalytic efficiency of nTiO2 for the dehydrochlorination reaction of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, a commonly used solvent, depends on the crystalline phase and exposed facets of nTiO2, which significantly affect the adsorption capacity and surface catalytic activity of nTiO2...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Taisuke Kato, Naoya Tajima, Katsumasa Kitamura, Yoshihiro Takasato, Iwao Tajima, Manabu Ono, Kazunori Tagami, Kazunori Sakai, Tomoko Furuta, Shiro Sugiura, Komei Ito
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The principal aim of this study was to clarify the clinical profile of pediatric patients with fruit allergies. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We assigned 265 pediatric patients with fruit allergies who were receiving outpatient treatment at Aichi Children's Health and Medical Center and 32 who underwent kiwi or banana oral food chal- lenge (OFC) test to an oral symptom group or a systemic symptom group and retrospectively examined their clinical profiles and prognosis from their medical records...
2018: Arerugī, [Allergy]
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