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Gastrointestinal Malignancies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647672/therapeutic-targeting-of-nuclear-export-inhibition-in-lung-cancer
#1
Arjun Gupta, Jessica M Saltarski, Michael A White, Pier P Scaglioni, David E Gerber
Intracellular compartmentalization and trafficking of molecules plays a critical role in complex and essential cellular processes. In lung cancer and other malignancies, aberrant nucleocytoplasmic transport of tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators results in tumorigenesis and inactivation of apoptosis. Pharmacologic targeting of this process, termed selective inhibition of nuclear export (SINE), has demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in preclinical models and human clinical trials. Exportin-1 (XPO1)-which serves as the sole exporter of several tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators, including retinoblastoma (Rb), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), p53, p73, p21, p27, FOXO, STAT3, IKB, topoisomerase II and PAR-4-is the principal focus of SINE drug development...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644590/mutyh-associated-polyposis-the-irish-experience
#2
T P McVeigh, M Duff, C Carroll, R O'Shea, L Bradley, M Farrell, D J Gallagher, C Clabby, A J Green
MUTYH is involved in DNA damage repair. Bi-allelic MUTYH mutations predispose to polyposis and gastrointestinal malignancies, distinct genetically from autosomal dominant familial adenomatous polyposis coli. Two common European MUTYH mutations account for 90% of MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). We aimed to examine the incidence of MAP in Ireland. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Patients undergoing MUTYH testing from 2003-2016 were identified by searching electronic databases using terms "MUTYH" and "MYH"...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644309/the-use-of-a-stylet-in-endoscopic-ultrasound-with-fine-needle-aspiration-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Andrew Lai, Ashley Davis-Yadley, Seth Lipka, Miguel Lalama, Roshanak Rabbanifard, David Bromberg, Roger Nehaul, Ambuj Kumar, Prasad Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the most efficacious way to collect specimens from a solid lesion adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract and is performed with an internal stylet during puncture. However, its reinsertion into the needle is time-consuming. Controversy surrounds whether quality of cytology specimen improves with stylet use. We performed a meta-analysis comparing the use of stylet versus no stylet with EUS-FNA of gastrointestinal-related masses...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643319/-progress-of-the-application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-gastrointestinal-tumor-surgery
#4
Yongsheng Li, Hao Liu, Haipeng Huang, Yu Zhu, Haijun Deng, Jiang Yu, Site Luo, Li Huo, Li Lin, Huikai Xie, Guoxin Li
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time, cross-sectional optical imaging technology. It is analogous to ultrasonography, except that OCT uses light waves instead of sound waves, and can provide three-dimensional morphological images of living tissues with a micrometer resolution. Through the use of endoscopes, needles, catheters and laparoscopes, OCT has demonstrated tremendous imaging potential in tumor surgery. The current studies suggest that OCT has potential for clinical applications in the following fields of gastrointestinal tumor surgery: (1) Early tumor detection and diagnosis: OCT can distinguish differences between polyp tissue, normal tissue and malignant tissue...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641957/kindler-syndrome-complicated-by-invasive-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-palate
#5
H Souldi, M Y Bajja, M Mahtar
INTRODUCTION: Kindler syndrome is a very rare, autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by skin fragility and photosensitivity in infancy with progressive poikiloderma. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a young woman with a history of Kindler syndrome predominantly characterized by extensive involvement of the oropharyngeal mucosa. The patient presented with an ulcerative lesion of the palate. Computed tomography and biopsy concluded on unresectable invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate...
June 19, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638461/current-status-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-gastrointestinal-cancers
#6
REVIEW
Bum Jun Kim, Hyun Joo Jang, Hyeong Su Kim, Jung Han Kim
The expansion of our understanding of tumor immunity and the recent success of new cancer immunotherapy has reignited the hope that we can treat cancer effectively with immunotherapeutic approaches. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown significant efficacy in the treatment of some solid and hematologic malignancies. Encouraged by recent success in some other types of malignancies, many clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638366/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-and-its-role-in-the-enteric-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Bodil Ohlsson
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone orchestrate the reproduction cycle and regulate the sex steroid secretion from the gonads. In mammals, GnRH1 is secreted as a hormone from the hypothalamus, whereas both GnRH1 and GnRH2 are present as neurotransmitters/peptides in various tissues, where the peptides exert many different effects. mRNA coding for GnRH1 and GnRH2 have been described in the human gastrointestinal tract, and GnRH has been found in both submucosal and myenteric neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638176/gallbladder-carcinoma-in-the-united-states-a-population-based-clinical-outcomes-study-involving-22-343-patients-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-result-database-1973-2013
#8
Christine S M Lau, Aleksander Zywot, Krishnaraj Mahendraraj, Ronald S Chamberlain
INTRODUCTION: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract and the third most common gastrointestinal tract malignancy. This study examines a large cohort of GBC patients in the United States in an effort to define demographics, clinical, and pathologic features impacting clinical outcomes. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data on 22,343 GBC patients was abstracted from the SEER database (1973-2013). RESULTS: GBC was presented most often among Caucasian (63...
2017: HPB Surgery: a World Journal of Hepatic, Pancreatic and Biliary Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637107/malignant-melanoma-of-the-anus-found-during-routine-colonoscopy-in-ulcerative-colitis
#9
Kwang Il Seo, Won Moon, Sung Eun Kim, Moo In Park, Seun Ja Park
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent or chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which results in increased risk of developing cancer. Anorectal malignant melanoma is often misdiagnosed as either hemorrhoids or benign anorectal conditions in inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, the overall prognosis and survival of IBD are poor. To date, the best treatment strategy remains controversial. Only early diagnosis and complete excision yield survival benefit. Here, we report a 64-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis, who was found to have anal malignant melanoma on routine colonoscopy...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634135/outcomes-and-role-of-urgent-endoscopy-in-high-risk-patients-with-acute-nonvariceal-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#10
Soo-Han Cho, Yoon-Seon Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Chang Hwan Sohn, Shin Ahn, Dong-Woo Seo, Won Young Kim, Jae Ho Lee, Kyoung Soo Lim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We investigated clinical outcomes in high-risk patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), and determined if urgent endoscopy is effective. METHODS: Consecutive patients with Glasgow-Blatchford score >7 who underwent endoscopy for acute nonvariceal UGIB at the emergency department from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2014, were included. Urgent (<6 h) and elective (6-48 h) endoscopies were defined according to the time to endoscopy after the initial presentation...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632504/what-is-new-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor
#11
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Adrián Mariño-Enríquez, Jonathan A Fletcher
The classification "gastrointestinal stromal tumor" (GIST) became commonplace in the 1990s and since that time various advances have characterized the GIST lineage of origin, tyrosine kinase mutations, and mechanisms of response and resistance to targeted therapies. In addition to tyrosine kinase mutations and their constitutive activation of downstream signaling pathways, GISTs acquire a sequence of chromosomal aberrations. These include deletions of chromosomes 14q, 22q, 1p, and 15q, which harbor putative tumor suppressor genes required for stepwise progression from microscopic, preclinical forms of GIST (microGIST) to clinically relevant tumors with malignant potential...
June 19, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631728/acg-and-cag-clinical-guideline-management-of-dyspepsia
#12
Paul M Moayyedi, Brian E Lacy, Christopher N Andrews, Robert A Enns, Colin W Howden, Nimish Vakil
We have updated both the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) guidelines on dyspepsia in a joint ACG/CAG dyspepsia guideline. We suggest that patients ≥60 years of age presenting with dyspepsia are investigated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to exclude organic pathology. This is a conditional recommendation and patients at higher risk of malignancy (such as spending their childhood in a high risk gastric cancer country or having a positive family history) could be offered an endoscopy at a younger age...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629367/african-american-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-expression-profile-reveals-dysregulation-of-stress-response-and-detox-networks
#13
Hayriye Verda Erkizan, Kory Johnson, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Deepa Karkera, Gregory Trachiotis, Houtan Adib, Eric P Hoffman, Robert G Wadleigh
BACKGROUND: Esophageal carcinoma is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy worldwide and is largely unresponsive to therapy. African-Americans have an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the subtype that shows marked variation in geographic frequency. The molecular architecture of African-American ESCC is still poorly understood. It is unclear why African-American ESCC is more aggressive and the survival rate in these patients is worse than those of other ethnic groups...
June 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625257/-albumin-corrected-anion-gap-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-long-term-mortality-of-patients-with-sepsis
#14
Xiaoli He, Xuelian Liao, Zhichao Xie, Chao Jiang, Yan Kang
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether albumin corrected anion gap (ACAG) is associated with long-term mortality of sepsis patients. METHODS: Adult patients with a diagnosis of sepsis within the first 24 hours (from December 2013 to December 2014) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included via the Sepsis database of West China Hospital Sichuan University. To record their long-term survival, patients were followed up by telephone interview one year after enrollment...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625143/infection-and-malignancy-risk-in-patients-treated-with-tnf-inhibitors-for-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases
#15
Rui Pereira, Raquel Faria, Paula Lago, Tiago Torres
BACKGROUND: Infectious and malignant events are responsible for morbidity and mortality in patients with Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs). Anti-tumor necrosis factor (Anti-TNF) agents appear to have an impact, however the individual effect of these agents in the different conditions is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to estimate the Incidence Rates (IR) of infections and malignancies in patients treated with anti-TNFs across different IMIDs, as well as potential risk factors...
June 15, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622839/water-lavage-as-an-adjunct-to-cytoreductive-surgery-with-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-crs-hipec
#16
Emmanuel Gabriel, Smit Singla, Minhyung Kim, Daniel Fisher, Colin Powers, Anthony Visioni, Kristopher Attwood, Joseph Skitzki
BACKGROUND: Water lavage (WL) during gastrointestinal cancer surgery has osmotically mediated lytic effects on tumor cells. We investigated the safety and efficacy of WL with CRS-HIPEC. METHODS: This is a retrospective review, 1/2003-7/2014, of a single institution experience with CRS-HIPEC comparing patients who had WL (WL+) to those who did not (WL-). RESULTS: Of 157 CRS-HIPECs, 16 (10.2%) were WL+. WL+ had more PCI scores >20 compared to WL- (56...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621294/endoscopic-ultrasound-with-tissue-sampling-is-accurate-in-the-diagnosis-and-subclassification-of-gastrointestinal-spindle-cell-neoplasms
#17
Dalbir Singh Sandhu, Adrian N Holm, Rami El-Abiad, Carolyn Rysgaard, Chris Jensen, Henning Gerke
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal (spindle cell) neoplasms (SCN) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are an important subtype of subepithelial lesions that need subclassification to assess their malignant potential. Reported success rates of accurate subclassification with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biopsies are variable. Our goal was to analyze our experience using EUS-guided TruCut biopsy (EUS-TCB) in the majority of patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis in patients who underwent EUS with biopsies for suspected SCN at our tertiary referral center between 2004 and 2013...
May 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621291/role-of-endoscopic-ultrasound-and-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-in-endoscopic-biopsy-negative-gastrointestinal-lesions
#18
Hussein Hassan Okasha, Mohamed Naguib, Mohamed El Nady, Reem Ezzat, Emad Al-Gemeie, Waleed Al-Nabawy, Wael Aref, Ahmed Abdel-Moaty, Karim Essam, Ahmed Hamdy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many cases of gastrointestinal (GI) tumors as lymphoma, adenocarcinoma, and most of submucosal tumors (SMT) such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and leiomyoma are difficult to diagnose as they frequently yield negative endoscopic biopsies. We evaluated the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the diagnosis of endoscopic biopsy negative GI tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and nine patients with biopsy negative GI tumors were included in this prospective study...
May 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617328/the-long-term-consumption-of-oats-in-celiac-disease-patients-is-safe-a-large-cross-sectional-study
#19
Katri Aaltonen, Pilvi Laurikka, Heini Huhtala, Markku Mäki, Katri Kaukinen, Kalle Kurppa
A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) can be diversified by non-contaminated oats, but there is a shortage of long-term studies concerning its safety. We compared long-term treatment outcomes and factors associated with the introduction of oats between celiac patients on a GFD with or without oats. Eight hundred sixty-nine previously diagnosed celiac patients were interviewed. The validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires were used to assess symptoms and quality of life, serological tests were performed, and results of histology were confirmed from patient records...
June 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616154/cutaneous-presentation-of-gastrointestinal-adenocarcinoma
#20
Aditi Halder, Artiene Tatian, A Cristina Vargas, Rooshdiya Karim, Mark Latt
Seeding of a central nervous system malignancy to the abdominal cavity is an uncommon but well documented complication of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. However, the metastasis of a primary gastrointestinal cancer to the skin via a VP shunt is extremely rare. We report the clinical case of an 85-year-old male who presented with a right upper quadrant nodule over his shunt, which on histopathology and tumour marker profile was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma of likely upper gastrointestinal origin. This case illustrates the importance of proceeding to biopsy to inform prognosis and management, despite the risks of shunt infection...
June 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
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