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EMT Basic

Judith Brenner, Jeffrey Bird, Samara B Ginzburg, Thomas Kwiatkowski, Vincent Papasodero, William Rennie, Elisabeth Schlegel, Olle Ten Cate, Joanne M Willey
BACKGROUND: Two dominant themes face medical education: developing integrated curricula and improving the undergraduate medical education (UME) to graduate medical education (GME) transition. An innovative solution to both of these challenges at the Zucker School of Medicine has been the application of the cognitive apprenticeship framework in requiring emergency medical technician (EMT) certification during the first course in medical school as the core on which to build an integrated curriculum and provide entrustable clinical skills...
March 8, 2018: Medical Teacher
Juan A March, Theresa E Tassey, Noel B Resurreccion, Roberto C Portela, Stephen E Taylor
BACKGROUND: When working in a tactical environment there are several different airway management options that exist. One published manuscript suggests that when compared to endotracheal intubation, the King LT laryngotracheal airway (KA) device minimizes time to successful tube placement and minimizes exposure in a tactical environment. However, comparison of two different blind insertion supraglottic airway devices in a tactical environment has not been performed. This study compared the I-Gel airway (IGA) to the KA in a simulated tactical environment, to determine if one device is superior in minimizing exposure and minimizing time to successful tube placement...
January 24, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Hung-Yi Liu, Murray Korc, Chien-Chi Lin
The tumor microenvironment (TME) governs all aspects of cancer progression and in vitro 3D cell culture platforms are increasingly developed to emulate the interactions between components of the stromal tissues and cancer cells. However, conventional cell culture platforms are inadequate in recapitulating the TME, which has complex compositions and dynamically changing matrix mechanics. In this study, we developed a dynamic gelatin-hyaluronic acid hybrid hydrogel system through integrating modular thiol-norbornene photopolymerization and enzyme-triggered on-demand matrix stiffening...
January 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Xiaoxuan Ning, Kun Zhang, Qingfeng Wu, Minna Liu, Shiren Sun
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pathological process that occurs in a variety of diseases, including organ fibrosis. Twist1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is involved in EMT and plays significant roles in various fibrotic diseases. Suppression of the EMT process represents a promising approach for the treatment of fibrotic diseases. In this review, we discuss the roles and the underlying molecular mechanisms of Twist1 in fibrotic diseases, including those affecting kidney, lung, skin, oral submucosa and other tissues...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Viola Cheung, Madeline L McCarthy, Mark X Cicero, John M Leventhal, Carol Weitzman
OBJECTIVES: Because of the high prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and wandering behavior, emergency medical responders (EMRs) will likely encounter children and adolescents with ASD. The objectives were to describe interactions between EMRs and children and adolescents with ASD, to evaluate EMRs' ability to recognize ASD in a simulated trauma setting, and to determine if EMRs' demographic characteristics affected their interactions with ASD youth. METHODS: A study of 75 videos of a simulated school bus crash was performed...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Sunwang Xu, Ming Zhan, Jian Wang
Gallbladder cancer (GBC), with late diagnosis, rapid disease progression and early metastasis, is a highly aggressive malignant tumor found worldwide. Patients with GBC have poor survival, low curative resection rates and early recurrence. For such a lethal tumor, uncovering the mechanisms and exploring new strategies to prevent tumor progression and metastasis are critically important. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a prominent role in the early steps of tumor progression and metastasis by initiating polarized epithelial cell transition into motile mesenchymal cells...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
Andrea Nicolini, Paola Ferrari, Lucrezia Diodati, Angelo Carpi
This review describes recent advances in the comprehension of signaling pathways involved in breast cancer progression. Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), caveolae signaling, signaling referred to hypoxia-inducing factors and disturbances in the apoptotic machinery are related to more general biological mechanisms and are considered first. The others refer to signaling pathways of more specific biological mechanisms, namely the heparin/heparin-sulfate interactome, over-expression of miRNA-378a-5p, restriction of luminal and basal epithelial cells, fatty-acid synthesis, molecular pathways related to epithelial to mesenchimal transition (EMT), HER-2/neu gene amplification and protein expression, and the expression of other members of the epithelial growth factor receptor family...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luyuan Zhang, Wei Min
Study of metabolic changes during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells is important for basic understanding and therapeutic management of cancer progression. We here used metabolic labeling and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a strategy of bioorthogonal chemical imaging, to directly visualize changes in anabolic metabolism during cancer EMT at a single-cell level. MCF-7 breast cancer cell is employed as a model system. Four types of metabolites (amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, and choline) are labeled with either deuterium or alkyne (C≡C) tag...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Kenichi Harada
Biliary atresia (BA) is histologically characterized by a progressive, sclerosing cholangitis and the obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts. In terms of the etiology and pathogenesis of BA, several viral infections consisting of dsRNA, including Reoviridae, have been implicated. Human biliary epithelial cells (BECs) possess an innate immune system consisting of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). BECs have negative regulatory mechanisms of TLR tolerance to avoid an excessive inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 ligand; however, they lack the tolerance to poly(I:C) (a synthetic analog of viral dsRNA), a TLR3 ligand...
December 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
Aparna Jayachandran, Ritu Shrestha, Bijay Dhungel, I-Tao Huang, Marianna Yumi Kawashima Vasconcelos, Brian J Morrison, Charmaine A Ramlogan-Steel, Jason C Steel
AIM: To establish a model to enrich and characterize stem-like cells from murine normal liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and to further investigate stem-like cell association with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). METHODS: In this study, we utilized a stem cell conditioned serum-free medium to enrich stem-like cells from mouse HCC and normal liver cell lines, Hepa 1-6 and AML12, respectively. We isolated the 3-dimensional spheres and assessed their stemness characteristics by evaluating the RNA levels of stemness genes and a cell surface stem cell marker by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR)...
September 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
Huizhu Liu, Xueying Zhao, Jing Xiang, Jie Zhang, Chao Meng, Jinjin Zhang, Minge Li, Xiaodong Song, Changjun Lv
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), play increasingly important roles in pathological processes involved in disease development. However, whether mRNAs interact with miRNAs and lncRNAs to form an interacting regulatory network in diseases remains unknown. In this study, the interaction of coexpressed mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs during tumor growth factor‑β1‑activated (TGF‑β1) epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) was systematically analyzed in human alveolar epithelial cells...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sameera Nallanthighal, Kristine M Elmaliki, Ramune Reliene
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have become an important target population in cancer therapy and prevention due to their ability to self-renew, initiate tumors, and resist therapy. We examined whether pomegranate extract (PE) alters characteristics of breast CSCs. Ability to grow as mammospheres is a hallmark of breast CSCs. PE inhibited mammosphere formation in two different cell lines, neoplastic mammary epithelial HMLER and breast cancer Hs578T. In addition, mammosphere-derived cells from PE treatment groups showed reduced mammosphere formation for at least two serial passages...
October 4, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Tao Wan, Tianwei Zhang, Xiaoying Si, Yanming Zhou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical relevance of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression has been highlighted during the last decade. The zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB) family, the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor (SNAI) family, and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (Twist) family, known as the prominent EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs), played a crucial role in the process of EMT. Here, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of EMT-TFs high expression in patients with HCC after hepatectomy...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Michael Polymenis
The varied nature of human cancers is recapitulated, at least to some extent, in the diverse NCI-60 panel of human cancer cell lines. Here, I used a basic, continuous variable of proliferating cells, their doubling time, to stratify the proteome across the NCI-60 cell lines. Among >7000 proteins quantified in the NCI-60 panel previously, the levels of 84 proteins increase in cells that proliferate slowly. This set overlapped with the hallmark molecular signature "epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)" (p value = 1...
2017: Cell Division
Zoi Piperigkou, Marco Franchi, Martin Götte, Nikos K Karamanos
Even though the role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the modulation of breast cancer cells' behavior is thoroughly studied, the biological functions of its isoform, ERβ, are less elucidated. The suppression of ERβ in the aggressive ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and major changes in the basic functional properties and expression levels of certain matrix components of breast cancer cells. This arrest in metastatic potential of breast cancer cells suggests the contribution of ERβ in the induction of a more aggressive phenotype in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells...
December 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Jinchang Lu, Chunling Du, Junxia Yao, Bo Wu, Yanhong Duan, Lei Zhou, Donghui Xu, Feng Zhou, Liang Gu, Hong Zhou, Yingxin Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that plays essential roles in tumor progression. Although decreased or absent C/EBPα expression in many cancers suggests a possible role for C/EBPα as a tumor suppressor, the functions of C/EBPα in lung adenocarcinoma remain unclear. METHODS: Here, C/EBPα expression levels in 26 lung adenocarcinoma and para-carcinoma tissue samples were detected by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Wenqiu Huang, Chenguang Zhang, Mengtian Cui, Jing Niu, Wei Ding
BACKGROUND/AIM: Bevacizumab (BV) has been used for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. However, it also induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in glioblastoma cells, which compromises its efficacy. BATF2 (basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 2), a multi-target transcriptional repressor, has been found to suppress cancer development partly through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin singling. The roles of BATF2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in BV-induced EMT in glioblastoma cells were investigated in this study...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
Ferdinando Mirarchi, Christopher Cammarata, Timothy E Cooney, Kristin Juhasz, Stanley A Terman
OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to assess the clarity of Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) or Living Will (LW) documents alone or in combination with a video message/testimonial (VM). METHODS: Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel responded to survey questions about the meaning of stand-alone POLST and LW documents and those used in conjunction with emergent care scenarios. Personnel were randomized to receive documents only or documents with VM...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
Tao Wan, Tianwei Zhang, Xiaoying Si, Yanming Zhou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical relevance of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression has been highlighted during the last decade. The zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB) family, the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor (SNAI) family, and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (Twist) family, known as the prominent EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs), played a crucial role in the process of EMT. Here, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of EMT-TFs high expression in patients with HCC after hepatectomy...
June 2, 2017: Oncotarget
Songwei He, Jinlong Chen, Yixin Zhang, Mengdan Zhang, Xiao Yang, Yuan Li, Hao Sun, Lilong Lin, Ke Fan, Lining Liang, Chengqian Feng, Fuhui Wang, Xiao Zhang, Yiping Guo, Duanqing Pei, Hui Zheng
Direct neuronal conversion can be achieved with combinations of small-molecule compounds and growth factors. Here, by studying the first or induction phase of the neuronal conversion induced by defined 5C medium, we show that the Sox2-mediated switch from early epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to late mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) within a high proliferation context is essential and sufficient for the conversion from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to TuJ(+) cells. At the early stage, insulin and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced cell proliferation, early EMT, the up-regulation of Stat3 and Sox2, and the subsequent activation of neuron projection...
2017: Cell Discovery
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