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EMT Basic

Ningning Liu, Lailai Li, Xin Zhu, Zhiqiang Ling, Jianguo Feng, Ying Hu, Yi Wang, Lijun Mou, Yi Wang
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem with growing prevalence in developing countries. Renal tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step and key factor in the development of this condition. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a basic pathological change at the later stages of the disease. Therefore, blocking the development of EMT could be a critical factor in curing CKD. We have established a cell-based high-content screening (HCS) method to identify inhibitors of EMT in human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells by automatic acquisition and processing of dual-fluorescent labeled images...
October 10, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aimee Alphonso, Marc Auerbach, Kirsten Bechtel, Kyle Bilodeau, Marcie Gawel, Jeannette Koziel, Travis Whitfill, Gunjan Kamdar Tiyyagura
OBJECTIVES: To develop and provide validity evidence for a performance checklist to evaluate the child abuse screening behaviors of prehospital providers. METHODS: Checklist Development: We developed the first iteration of the checklist after review of the relevant literature and on the basis of the authors' clinical experience. Next, a panel of six content experts participated in three rounds of Delphi review to reach consensus on the final checklist items. Checklist Validation: Twenty-eight emergency medical services (EMS) providers (16 EMT-Basics, 12 EMT-Paramedics) participated in a standardized simulated case of physical child abuse to an infant followed by one-on-one semi-structured qualitative interviews...
October 4, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Nicole Powell-Dunford, Jose F Quesada, Kirby R Gross, Stacy A Shackelford
BACKGROUND: Identify challenges and best practices in the development of an austere air ambulance transfusion program. METHODS: A search of PubMed using combinations of the key terms 'prehospital,' 'blood product,' 'red blood cells,' 'damage control resuscitation,' 'transfusion,' 'air ambulance,' 'medical evacuation,' and 'medevac' yielded 196 articles for further analysis, with 14 articles suitable for addressing the background of prehospital transfusion within a helicopter...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Yuliya I Petrova, Leslayann Schecterson, Barry M Gumbiner
The loss of E-cadherin expression in association with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs frequently during tumor metastasis. However, metastases often retain E-cadherin expression, an EMT is not required for metastasis, and metastases can arise from clusters of tumor cells. We demonstrate that the regulation of the adhesive activity of E-cadherin present at the cell surface by an inside-out signaling mechanism is important in cancer. First we find that the metastasis of an E-cadherin expressing mammary cell line from the mammary gland to the lung depends on reduced E-cadherin adhesive function...
August 31, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Bryan Choi, Nicholas Asselin, Catherine C Pettit, Max Dannecker, Jason T Machan, Derek L Merck, Lisa H Merck, Selim Suner, Kenneth A Williams, Gregory D Jay, Leo Kobayashi
INTRODUCTION: Effective resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients is challenging. Alternative resuscitative approaches using electromechanical adjuncts may improve provider performance. Investigators applied simulation to study the effect of an experimental automation-assisted, goal-directed OHCA management protocol on EMS providers' resuscitation performance relative to standard protocols and equipment. METHODS: Two-provider (emergency medical technicians (EMT)-B and EMT-I/C/P) teams were randomized to control or experimental group...
August 9, 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
Fariz Nurwidya, Sita Andarini, Fumiyuki Takahashi, Elisna Syahruddin, Kazuhisa Takahashi
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) has been intensively investigated in many preclinical studies using cell lines and animal models, and the results have provided important knowledge to help improve the understanding of cancer biology. IGF1R is highly expressed in patients with lung cancer, and high levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), the main ligand for IGF1R, increases the risk of developing lung malignancy in the future. Several phase I clinical trials have supported the potential use of an IGF1R-targeted strategy for cancer, including lung cancer...
May 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
Xian Lin, Baocun Sun, Dongwang Zhu, Xiulan Zhao, Ran Sun, Yanhui Zhang, Danfang Zhang, Xueyi Dong, Qiang Gu, Yanlei Li, Fang Liu
Sphere formation in conditioned serum-free culture medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor (tumorospheres) is considered useful for the enrichment of cancer stem-like cells, also known as tumor-initiating cells. We used a gene expression microarray to investigate the gene expression profile of melanoma cancer stem-like cells (MCSLCs). The results showed that MCSLCs highly expressed the following Notch signaling pathway molecules: Notch3 (NM_008716), Notch4 (NM_010929), Dtx4 (NM_172442), and JAG2 (NM_010588)...
August 2016: Cancer Science
(no author information available yet)
Aimed at American emergency medical technicians (EMTs), similar to our own paramedics, PHTLS does not attract the usual reviewers' caveat of limited applicability to the UK health care system.
August 1, 1995: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Katarzyna Sobierajska, Katarzyna Wieczorek, Wojciech M Ciszewski, Izabela Sacewicz-Hofman, Marta E Wawro, Magdalena Wiktorska, Joanna Boncela, Izabela Papiewska-Pajak, Pawel Kwasniak, Elzbieta Wyroba, Czeslaw S Cierniewski, Jolanta Niewiarowska
Class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) is a marker of drug resistance expressed in a variety of solid tumors. Originally, it was described as an important element of chemoresistance to taxanes. Recent studies have revealed that TUBB3 is also involved in an adaptive response to a microenvironmental stressor, e.g. low oxygen levels and poor nutrient supply in some solid tumors, independently of the microtubule targeting agent. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that TUBB3 is a marker of biological aggressiveness associated with modulation of metastatic abilities in colon cancer...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kekoa Taparra, Phuoc T Tran, Natasha E Zachara
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved program necessary for orchestrating distant cell migration during embryonic development. Multiple studies in cancer have demonstrated a critical role for EMT during the initial stages of tumorigenesis and later during tumor invasion. Transcription factors (TFs) such as SNAIL, TWIST, and ZEB are master EMT regulators that are aberrantly overexpressed in many malignancies. Recent evidence correlates EMT-related transcriptomic alterations with metabolic reprograming in cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Panshi Zhang, Xiaowei Yang, Qian Yin, Jilin Yi, Wenzhuang Shen, Lu Zhao, Zhi Zhu, Jinwen Liu
Treatments for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are limited; intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK4) channels are closely involved in tumor progression, but little is known about these channels in TNBC. We aimed to investigate whether SK4 channels affect TNBC. First, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting (WB), increased SK4 protein expression in breast tumor tissues was detected relative to that in non-tumor breast tissues, but there was no apparent expression difference between various subtypes of breast cancer (p>0...
2016: PloS One
Amy Dereczyk, Rachel DeWitt
This qualitative study explored the clinical experiences of students in an accelerated physician assistant (PA) program. The participants were either certified nursing assistants (CNAs) or emergency medical technicians-basic (EMTs-B). The study was designed to elicit (1) how the participants perceived their older patients and (2) how the participants' experiences might affect their own future communications, bedside manner, and clinical preparedness as PAs. This study used a focus group to explore students' clinical experiences before the graduate phase of their accelerated PA program...
June 2016: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
Diana Dragoi, Anja Krattenmacher, Vivek K Mishra, Johanna M Schmidt, Uwe J Kloos, Lisa K Meixner, Stefanie M Hauck, Felix Buggenthin, Dennis Schwartz, Carsten Marr, Steven A Johnsen, Christina H Scheel
Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 is a master regulator of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a cellular program implicated in different stages of development as well as metastatic dissemination of carcinomas. Here, we show that Twist1 requires TGF-beta type-I receptor (TGFBR1)-activation to bind an enhancer region of downstream effector ZEB1, thereby inducing ZEB1 transcription and EMT. When TGFBR1-phosphorylation is inhibited, Twist1 generates a distinct cell state characterized by collective invasion, simultaneous proliferation and expression of endothelial markers...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Meijuan Zou, Fang Wang, Rui Gao, Jingjing Wu, Yingwei Ou, Xuguan Chen, Tongshan Wang, Xin Zhou, Wei Zhu, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi, Ting Jiang, Weiwei Wang, Chunyu Li, Jun Chen, Qifang He, Yan Chen
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role on fibrogenesis in heart disease. MicroRNAs have exhibited as crucial regulators of cardiac homeostasis and remodeling in various heart diseases. MiR-19a-3p/19b-3p expresses with low levels in the plasma of heart failure patients. The purpose of our study is to determine the role of MiR-19a-3p/19b-3p in regulating autophagy-mediated fibrosis of human cardiac fibroblasts. We elucidate our hypothesis in clinical samples and human cardiac fibroblasts (HCF) to provide valuable basic information...
2016: Scientific Reports
Aradhana Rani, Roseanna Greenlaw, Richard A Smith, Christine Galustian
Hairy and enhancer of split homolog-1 (HES1) is a part of an extensive family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins and plays a crucial role in the control and regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, cell differentiation, survival and apoptosis in neuronal, endocrine, T-lymphocyte progenitors as well as various cancers. HES1 is a transcription factor which is regulated by the NOTCH, Hedgehog and Wnt signalling pathways. Aberrant expression of these pathways is a common feature of cancerous cells. There appears to be a fine and complicated crosstalk at the molecular level between the various signalling pathways and HES1, which contributes to its effects on the immune response and cancers such as leukaemia...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Johann Lebon, Francis Fournier, François Bégin, Denise Hebert, Richard Fleet, Guilaume Foldes-Busque, Alain Tanguay
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of the subcutaneous route of fentanyl administration by Basic Life Support-Emergency Medical Technicians (BLS-EMT) in a rural and suburban region, with the support of an online pain management medical control center. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients who received subcutaneous fentanyl and were transported by BLS-EMT to the emergency department (ED) of an academic hospital between July 1, 2013 and January 1, 2014, inclusively...
September 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Yunyan Wu, Qiang Liu, Xu Yan, Yukio Kato, Makiko Tanaka, Sadaki Inokuchi, Tadashi Yoshizawa, Satoko Morohashi, Hiroshi Kijima
Podoplanin is reported involved in the collective cell invasion, another tumor invasion style which is distinct from the single cell invasion, so-called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we investigated the correlation between podoplanin and EMT-related markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and evaluated its linkage with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor differentiated embryonic chondrocyte (DEC) 1 and DEC2. Three ESCC cell lines and human squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells were subjected to western blot analyses for podoplanin and EMT markers, as well as the expression of DEC1 and DEC2...
June 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Raffaele Strippoli, Roberto Moreno-Vicente, Cecilia Battistelli, Carla Cicchini, Valeria Noce, Laura Amicone, Alessandra Marchetti, Miguel Angel Del Pozo, Marco Tripodi
Peritoneal dialysis is a form of renal replacement alternative to the hemodialysis. During this treatment, the peritoneal membrane acts as a permeable barrier for exchange of solutes and water. Continual exposure to dialysis solutions, as well as episodes of peritonitis and hemoperitoneum, can cause acute/chronic inflammation and injury to the peritoneal membrane, which undergoes progressive fibrosis, angiogenesis, and vasculopathy, eventually leading to discontinuation of the peritoneal dialysis. Among the different events controlling this pathological process, epithelial to mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells plays a main role in the induction of fibrosis and in subsequent functional deterioration of the peritoneal membrane...
2016: Stem Cells International
Ingrid Garajová, Tessa Y S Le Large, Elisa Giovannetti, Geert Kazemier, Guido Biasco, Godefridus J Peters
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common cause of cancer death and has the worst prognosis of any major malignancy, with less than 5 % of patients alive 5-years after diagnosis. The therapeutic options for metastatic PDAC have changed in the past few years from single agent gemcitabine treatment to combination regimens. Nowadays, FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel are new standard combinations in frontline metastatic setting in PDAC patients with good performance status. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small, noncoding RNA molecules affecting important cellular processes such as inhibition of apoptosis, cell proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastases, and resistance to common cytotoxic and anti-signaling therapy in PDAC...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hashem Khanbabaei, Ali Teimoori, Milad Mohammadi
Twist1 (also known as Twist) is a transcription factor that belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins. It functions as a negative regulator of epithelial gene expression and a positive regulator of mesenchymal gene expression, thereby leading to induction of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process in which epithelial cells acquire the motile and migratory characteristics of mesenchymal cells. In addition to regulating the expression of protein-coding genes, Twist1 regulates the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), adding a regulatory layer to EMT induction...
June 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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