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travelers' diarrhea

Kusum Mehla, Jayashree Ramana
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is one of the most important global health issues among international travelers, especially those traveling to developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most frequently isolated pathogen causing TD. Although TD is self-limiting, it is also severely incapacitating. Ciprofloxacin is one of the standard quinolone antibiotics used in patients with TD. However, the alarming levels of antibiotic resistance have necessitated the urgent need to identify new drugs...
October 18, 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Javier Romero-Vázquez, Ángel Caunedo-Álvarez, Alba Belda-Cuesta, Victoria Alejandra Jiménez-García, Francisco Pellicer-Bautista, Juan Manuel Herrerías-Gutiérrez
Background and study aims: Colon capsules display images from the moment they are ingested, making the study of other extracolonic areas possible. The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of these extracolonic findings. Patients and methods: In this single-center, prospective study, 165 patients underwent colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) between September 2009 and October 2012 to rule out colonic pathology. Images were recorded, without interruptions, from the moment the capsule was ingested until its battery ran out...
October 2016: Endoscopy International Open
Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (also known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926; in the following S. boulardii) has proven its effectiveness in preventive and therapeutic treatment of many gastrointestinal diseases, especially diseases associated with acute diarrhea. In particular, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, traveller's diarrhea, as well as acute diarrhea due to common viral and bacterial infections in children and adults...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Lin H Chen, Pauline V Han, Mary E Wilson, Rhett J Stoney, Emily S Jentes, Christine Benoit, Winnie W Ooi, Elizabeth D Barnett, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The Boston Area Travel Medicine Network surveyed travelers on travel-related health problems. METHODS: Travelers were recruited 2009-2011 during pre-travel consultation at three clinics. The investigation included pre-travel data, weekly during-travel diaries, and a post-travel questionnaire. We analyzed demographics, trip characteristics, health problems experienced, and assessed the relationship between influenza vaccination, influenza prevention advice, and respiratory symptoms...
October 2, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Anna Likos, Isabel Griffin, Andrea M Bingham, Danielle Stanek, Marc Fischer, Stephen White, Janet Hamilton, Leah Eisenstein, David Atrubin, Prakash Mulay, Blake Scott, Patrick Jenkins, Danielle Fernandez, Edhelene Rico, Leah Gillis, Reynald Jean, Marshall Cone, Carina Blackmore, Janet McAllister, Chalmers Vasquez, Lillian Rivera, Celeste Philip
During the first 6 months of 2016, large outbreaks of Zika virus disease caused by local mosquito-borne transmission occurred in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories, but local mosquito-borne transmission was not identified in the continental United States (1,2). As of July 22, 2016, the Florida Department of Health had identified 321 Zika virus disease cases among Florida residents and visitors, all occurring in either travelers from other countries or territories with ongoing Zika virus transmission or sexual contacts of recent travelers...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Zois Panos, George Giannopoulos, Eymorfia Papangeli, Emmanouil Antalis, Androula Pavli, Aris Spathis, Garyfalia Poulakou, George Dimitriadis, Ioannis Panayiotides, Dimitrios Boumpas, Sotirios Tsiodras
The first, to our knowledge, case of the aseptic abscesses syndrome as a complication of traveler's diarrhea after a trip to Malaysia is presented. The patient failed to respond to several antimicrobials. The diagnosis was histologically confirmed and the patient only responded to immunomodulatory therapy with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Travel physicians should be aware of this entity reviewed herein in the context of traveler's diarrhea.
2016: IDCases
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Jessica M Rosselot, James N Mansfield, Cody R Hill, Nirmala Tumarada, Shane E Sanne, Fred A Lopez
A 54 year-old woman with diabetes mellitus type two and end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis presented to the emergency department with a four day history of generalized malaise, fever, and chills. Her symptoms were also associated with occasional dyspnea without a cough. She reported intermittent chronic diarrhea with hemodialysis which was currently unchanged. On the day of admission, she could not tolerate hemodialysis due to her symptoms. Over the past year she admitted to night sweats and a 40 pound weight loss...
July 2016: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Zeynep Taş Cengiz, Hasan Yılmaz, Mutalip Çiçek, Yunus Emre Beyhan, Ahmet Cumhur Dülger
The aim of this study was to present three cystoisosporiasis cases diagnosed in pediatric patients of the Yuzuncu Yil University Medical Faculty. In the study, stool samples of the patients were evaluated by native-Lugol and modified acid-fast staining methods in the Parasitology Laboratory. The first case was a 4-year-old male child diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It was reported that the patient had abdominal pain, and permanent bloody and mucous diarrhea (8-10 times a day) was present for almost 1 week after the beginning of ALL treatment...
June 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Rani H Shayto, Rachel Abou Mrad, Ala I Sharara
Rifaximin is a broad spectrum oral antibiotic with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. It is poorly absorbed and thus has a highly favorable safety profile. Rifaximin has been shown to be effective in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea, functional bloating and irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and in the prevention of recurrent overt hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, there is emerging evidence for a possible beneficial effect of rifaximin in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease and in the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis...
August 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Zeus Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Gerardo E Rodea, Ariadnna Cruz-Córdova, Viridiana Rodríguez-Ramírez, Karina Espinosa-Mazariego, Martín A González-Montalvo, Sara A Ochoa, Bertha González-Pedrajo, Carlos A Eslava-Campos, Edgar O López-Villegas, Rigoberto Hernández-Castro, José Arellano-Galindo, Genaro Patiño-López, Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
S Madison-Antenucci, R F Relich, L Doyle, N Espina, D Fuller, T Karchmer, A Lainesse, J E Mortensen, P Pancholi, W Veros, S M Harrington
Common causes of chronic diarrhea among travelers worldwide include protozoan parasites. The majority of parasitic infections are caused by Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis Similarly, these species cause the majority of parasitic diarrhea acquired in the United States. Detection of parasites by gold standard microscopic methods is time consuming and requires considerable expertise; enzyme immunoassays and direct fluorescent antibody stains (DFA) have lowered hands-on time for testing, but improvements in sensitivity and technical time may be possible with a PCR assay...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Iee Ho Choi, Pyoung Han Hwang, Sam Im Choi, Dae Yeol Lee, Min Sun Kim
Prompt malaria diagnosis is crucial so antimalarial drugs and supportive care can then be rapidly initiated. A 15-year-old boy who had traveled to Africa (South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria between January 3 and 25, 2011) presented with fever persisting over 5 days, headache, diarrhea, and dysuria, approximately 17 days after his return from the journey. Urinalysis showed pyuria and hematuria. Blood examination showed hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and hyperbilirubinemia...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Eshetie Melese Birru, Assefa Belay Asrie, Getnet Mequanint Adinew, Asegedech Tsegaw
BACKGROUND: Till now many of medicinal plants having claimed therapeutic value traditionally are waiting scientific verification of their efficacy and safety. Accordingly this study is conducted to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of hydromethanolic root extract of Indigofera spicata Forssk. in castor oil induced diarrhea model, misoprostol induced secretion model and its antimotility activity using charcoal as a marker. METHODS: In all the three models the animals were randomly allocated into five groups of six animals each and then group I mice were received 1 ml/100 g normal saline, group II were treated with standard drug as a positive control whereas group III, IV and V were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg extract doses, respectively...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Annika Borde, Annelie Ekman, Anette Larsson, Nils Carlin, Jan Holmgren, Joshua Tobias
A promising liquid killed multivalent whole-cell plus enterotoxin B-subunit oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the primary cause of diarrhea among children in low-income countries and travelers to these areas, has recently been developed and tested in pre-clinical and phase-I and phase-II clinical studies. The vaccine contains killed E. coli bacteria over-expressing the main ETEC colonization factors (CFs) CFA/I, CS3, C5 and C6, and a recombinant enterotoxin B subunit protein (LCTBA) given together with a recently developed enterotoxin-derived adjuvant, dmLT...
July 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Betina Hebbelstrup Jensen, Christen R Stensvold, Carsten Struve, Katharina E P Olsen, Flemming Scheutz, Nadia Boisen, Dennis Röser, Bente U Andreassen, Henrik V Nielsen, Kristian Schønning, Andreas M Petersen, Karen A Krogfelt
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been associated with persistent diarrhea, reduced growth acceleration, and failure to thrive in children living in developing countries and with childhood diarrhea in general in industrialized countries. The clinical implications of an EAEC carrier-status in children in industrialized countries warrants clarification. To investigate the pathological significance of an EAEC carrier-state in the industrialized countries, we designed a 1-year dynamic cohort study and performed follow-up every second month, where the study participants submitted a stool sample and answered a questionnaire regarding gastrointestinal symptoms and exposures...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Debbie-Ann Shirley, Shannon Moonah
BACKGROUND: Amebic colitis, caused by intestinal infection with the parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is a common cause of diarrhea worldwide. Fulminant amebic colitis is the most devastating complication of this infection, associated with both high mortality and morbidity. We conducted a review of the English literature to describe cases of fulminant amebic colitis associated with exposure to corticosteroid medications in order to identify the risk factors for poor outcome and determine difficulties in diagnosis and treatment...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
P Grantham
In brief: Traveler's diarrhea is a common and troublesome feature of life for international athletes. About 30% to 60% of traveling groups that have been studied are affected with diarrhea. The most common pathogen is enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Recent experience confirms that doxycycline provides effective prophylaxis against enterotoxigenic E coli infection in many locales. Treatment is aimed at reducing discomfort, increasing stool consistency, and reducing stool frequency.
February 1983: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Ana Carolina Kogawa, Selma Gutierrez Antonio, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Rifaximin is a gut-selective oral antimicrobial that has no systemic adverse effects compared with placebo. It is used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile infection, ulcerative colitis, and acute diarrhea. The crystalline form present in rifaximin, α, has minimal systemic absorption compared to the amorphous form. The objective of this study was to obtain polymorphic forms of rifaximin using recrystallization processes. The forms were characterized and studied by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubility testing...
July 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Daisuke Kaya, Masahide Yoshikawa, Toshiya Nakatani, Fumimasa Tomo-Oka, Yuki Fujimoto, Koji Ishida, Yukihisa Fujinaga, Yosuke Aihara, Shinsaku Nagamatsu, Eijo Matsuo, Masaharu Tokoro, Yukiteru Ouji, Eiryo Kikuchi
Ancylostoma (A.) ceylanicum, one of the most common species of hookworms infecting dogs and cats, also causes patent infections in humans and is now considered to be the second most common hookworm species infecting populations in southeast Asia. A Japanese patient who returned from a visit to Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) was presented with intermittent watery diarrhea with eosinophilia. Hookworm eggs were found in feces samples, and adult worms were confirmed to be present in the jejunum with capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy...
December 2016: Parasitology International
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