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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905288/cyclospora-cayetanensis-opportunistic-protozoan-parasite-in-van-province-turkey-a-report-of-seven-cases
#1
Zeynep Taş Cengiz, Yunus Emre Beyhan, Hasan Yılmaz
The aim of this study is to report seven Cyclospora cayetanensis (C.cayetanensis) cases determined in Yuzuncu Yil University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory, Van province, Turkey. In the study native-Lugol, formalin-ethyl acetate and modified acid-fast staining methods were performed to stool samples of the patients sent from outpatient clinics of the hospital. All of the patients infected with C. cayetanensis were older than 15 years. In our cases there were not a history of international travel. Only one of our seven cases was immunosuppressed...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890811/enteric-fever-in-barcelona-changing-patterns-of-importation-and-antibiotic-resistance
#2
Ana Requena-Méndez, Monica Berrocal, Manuel Almela, Alex Soriano, Joaquim Gascón, José Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever's incidence is decreasing among residents of high-income countries, although it's rising in travelers coming from low-resource endemic settings. The study's aim is to describe epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of patients with enteric fever. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of enteric fever cases diagnosed at a Tropical Medicine Unit in Barcelona, 1993-2012. RESULTS: Out of 40 patients, 31(77,5%) were returning travelers, and 70% of them had been in Southern Asia...
November 24, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871064/benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazine-dione-cftr-inhibitor-r-bpo-27-for-anti-secretory-therapy-of-diarrheas-caused-by-bacterial-enterotoxins
#3
Onur Cil, Puay-Wah Phuan, Anne Marie Gillespie, Sujin Lee, Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Jianyi Yin, Ming Tse, Nicholas C Zachos, Ruxian Lin, Mark Donowitz, Alan S Verkman
Secretory diarrheas caused by bacterial enterotoxins, including cholera and traveler's diarrhea, remain a major global health problem. Inappropriate activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel occurs in these diarrheas. We previously reported that the benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazinedione (R)-BPO-27 inhibits CFTR chloride conductance with low-nanomolar potency. Here, we demonstrate using experimental mouse models and human enterocyte cultures the potential utility of (R)-BPO-27 for treatment of secretory diarrheas caused by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins...
November 8, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862959/understanding-zika-virus
#4
John S Murray
PURPOSE: This article describes what pediatric healthcare professionals should know about Zika virus (ZIKV). LITERATURE REVIEW: ZIKV is classified as an arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and genus Flavivirus. ZIKV is not new. The virus was first discovered almost 70 years ago in Uganda. The first isolate of the virus was found in rhesus monkeys in the Zika Forrest, hence the nomenclature. The primary route of ZIKV transmission to humans is through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito-primarily Aedes aegypti...
November 9, 2016: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853120/multiplex-touchdown-pcr-to-simultaneously-detect-cryptosporidium-parvum-giardia-lamblia-and-cyclospora-cayetanensis-the-major-causes-of-traveler-s-diarrhea
#5
Ji-Hun Shin, Sang-Eun Lee, Tong Soo Kim, Da-Won Ma, Jong-Yil Chai, Eun-Hee Shin
This study aimed to develop a multiplex-touchdown PCR method to simultaneously detect 3 species of protozoan parasites, i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Cyclospora cayetanensis, the major causes of traveler's diarrhea and are resistant to standard antimicrobial treatments. The target genes included the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein for C. parvum, Glutamate dehydrogenase for G. lamblia, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) for C. cayetanensis. The sizes of the amplified fragments were 555, 188, and 400 bps, respectively...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810884/enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-heat-stable-toxin-and-heat-labile-toxin-toxoid-fusion-3xstan12s-dmlt-induces-neutralizing-anti-sta-antibodies-in-subcutaneously-immunized-mice
#6
Rahul Nandre, Xiaosai Ruan, Qiangde Duan, Weiping Zhang
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bacteria producing heat-stable toxin (STa) and/or heat-labile toxin (LT) are among top causes of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Currently no vaccines are available for ETEC associated diarrhea. A major challenge in developing ETEC vaccines is the inability to stimulate protective antibodies against the key STa toxin which is potently toxic and also poorly immunogenic. A recent study suggested toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT, which consists of a monomer LT toxoid (LTR192G/L211A) and three copies of STa toxoid STaN12S, may represent an optimal immunogen inducing neutralizing antibodies against STa toxin [IAI 2014, 82(5):1823-32]...
November 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799833/antidiarrheal-activity-of-methanolic-extract-of-the-root-bark-of-cordia-africana
#7
Assefa Belay Asrie, Mohammedbrhan Abdelwuhab, Zewdneh Shewamene, Desalegn Asmelashe Gelayee, Getnet Mequanint Adinew, Eshetie Melese Birru
An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23-25 g) of either sex...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753544/travelers-diarrhea-associated-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-gyra-mutants-and-quinolone-antibiotic-affinity-a-molecular-dynamics-simulation-and-residue-interaction-network-analysis
#8
Kusum Mehla, Jayashree Ramana
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is one of the most important global health issues among international travelers, especially those traveling to developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most frequently isolated pathogen causing TD. Although TD is self-limiting, it is also severely incapacitating. Ciprofloxacin is one of the standard quinolone antibiotics used in patients with TD. However, the alarming levels of antibiotic resistance have necessitated the urgent need to identify new drugs...
October 18, 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747276/extracolonic-findings-with-the-pillcam-colon-is-panendoscopy-with-capsule-endoscopy-closer
#9
Javier Romero-Vázquez, Ángel Caunedo-Álvarez, Alba Belda-Cuesta, Victoria Alejandra Jiménez-García, Francisco Pellicer-Bautista, Juan Manuel Herrerías-Gutiérrez
Background and study aims: Colon capsules display images from the moment they are ingested, making the study of other extracolonic areas possible. The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of these extracolonic findings. Patients and methods: In this single-center, prospective study, 165 patients underwent colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) between September 2009 and October 2012 to rule out colonic pathology. Images were recorded, without interruptions, from the moment the capsule was ingested until its battery ran out...
October 2016: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695355/influence-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745on-the-gut-associated-immune-system
#10
Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (also known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926; in the following S. boulardii) has proven its effectiveness in preventive and therapeutic treatment of many gastrointestinal diseases, especially diseases associated with acute diarrhea. In particular, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, traveller's diarrhea, as well as acute diarrhea due to common viral and bacterial infections in children and adults...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687076/self-reported-illness-among-boston-area-international-travelers-a-prospective-study
#11
Lin H Chen, Pauline V Han, Mary E Wilson, Rhett J Stoney, Emily S Jentes, Christine Benoit, Winnie W Ooi, Elizabeth D Barnett, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The Boston Area Travel Medicine Network surveyed travelers on travel-related health problems. METHODS: Travelers were recruited 2009-2011 during pre-travel consultation at three clinics. The investigation included pre-travel data, weekly during-travel diaries, and a post-travel questionnaire. We analyzed demographics, trip characteristics, health problems experienced, and assessed the relationship between influenza vaccination, influenza prevention advice, and respiratory symptoms...
October 2, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684886/local-mosquito-borne-transmission-of-zika-virus-miami-dade-and-broward-counties-florida-june-august-2016
#12
Anna Likos, Isabel Griffin, Andrea M Bingham, Danielle Stanek, Marc Fischer, Stephen White, Janet Hamilton, Leah Eisenstein, David Atrubin, Prakash Mulay, Blake Scott, Patrick Jenkins, Danielle Fernandez, Edhelene Rico, Leah Gillis, Reynald Jean, Marshall Cone, Carina Blackmore, Janet McAllister, Chalmers Vasquez, Lillian Rivera, Celeste Philip
During the first 6 months of 2016, large outbreaks of Zika virus disease caused by local mosquito-borne transmission occurred in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories, but local mosquito-borne transmission was not identified in the continental United States (1,2). As of July 22, 2016, the Florida Department of Health had identified 321 Zika virus disease cases among Florida residents and visitors, all occurring in either travelers from other countries or territories with ongoing Zika virus transmission or sexual contacts of recent travelers...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672562/aseptic-abscess-syndrome-associated-with-traveler-s-diarrhea-after-a-trip-to-malaysia
#13
Zois Panos, George Giannopoulos, Eymorfia Papangeli, Emmanouil Antalis, Androula Pavli, Aris Spathis, Garyfalia Poulakou, George Dimitriadis, Ioannis Panayiotides, Dimitrios Boumpas, Sotirios Tsiodras
The first, to our knowledge, case of the aseptic abscesses syndrome as a complication of traveler's diarrhea after a trip to Malaysia is presented. The patient failed to respond to several antimicrobials. The diagnosis was histologically confirmed and the patient only responded to immunomodulatory therapy with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Travel physicians should be aware of this entity reviewed herein in the context of traveler's diarrhea.
2016: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650823/origin-of-the-zika-virus-revealed-a-historical-journey-across-the-world
#14
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598899/clinical-case-of-the-month-a-54-year-old-woman-with-fever-and-chills-of-four-days-duration
#15
Jessica M Rosselot, James N Mansfield, Cody R Hill, Nirmala Tumarada, Shane E Sanne, Fred A Lopez
A 54 year-old woman with diabetes mellitus type two and end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis presented to the emergency department with a four day history of generalized malaise, fever, and chills. Her symptoms were also associated with occasional dyspnea without a cough. She reported intermittent chronic diarrhea with hemodialysis which was currently unchanged. On the day of admission, she could not tolerate hemodialysis due to her symptoms. Over the past year she admitted to night sweats and a 40 pound weight loss...
July 2016: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594292/cystoisospora-sp-infection-determined-in-immunosuppressed-and-immunocompetent-children-three-cases-report
#16
Zeynep Taş Cengiz, Hasan Yılmaz, Mutalip Çiçek, Yunus Emre Beyhan, Ahmet Cumhur Dülger
The aim of this study was to present three cystoisosporiasis cases diagnosed in pediatric patients of the Yuzuncu Yil University Medical Faculty. In the study, stool samples of the patients were evaluated by native-Lugol and modified acid-fast staining methods in the Parasitology Laboratory. The first case was a 4-year-old male child diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It was reported that the patient had abdominal pain, and permanent bloody and mucous diarrhea (8-10 times a day) was present for almost 1 week after the beginning of ALL treatment...
December 0: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547007/use-of-rifaximin-in-gastrointestinal-and-liver-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Rani H Shayto, Rachel Abou Mrad, Ala I Sharara
Rifaximin is a broad spectrum oral antibiotic with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. It is poorly absorbed and thus has a highly favorable safety profile. Rifaximin has been shown to be effective in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea, functional bloating and irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and in the prevention of recurrent overt hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, there is emerging evidence for a possible beneficial effect of rifaximin in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease and in the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis...
August 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536289/effects-of-lng-mutations-on-lnga-expression-processing-and-cs21-assembly-in-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-e9034a
#18
Zeus Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Gerardo E Rodea, Ariadnna Cruz-Córdova, Viridiana Rodríguez-Ramírez, Karina Espinosa-Mazariego, Martín A González-Montalvo, Sara A Ochoa, Bertha González-Pedrajo, Carlos A Eslava-Campos, Edgar O López-Villegas, Rigoberto Hernández-Castro, José Arellano-Galindo, Genaro Patiño-López, Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535690/multi-center-evaluation-of-the-bd-max%C3%A2-enteric-parasite-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-giardia-duodenalis-cryptosporidium-hominis-and-c-parvum-and-entamoeba-histolytica
#19
S Madison-Antenucci, R F Relich, L Doyle, N Espina, D Fuller, T Karchmer, A Lainesse, J E Mortensen, P Pancholi, W Veros, S M Harrington
Common causes of chronic diarrhea among travelers worldwide include protozoan parasites. The majority of parasitic infections are caused by Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis Similarly, these species cause the majority of parasitic diarrhea acquired in the United States. Detection of parasites by gold standard microscopic methods is time consuming and requires considerable expertise; enzyme immunoassays and direct fluorescent antibody stains (DFA) have lowered hands-on time for testing, but improvements in sensitivity and technical time may be possible with a PCR assay...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510397/delayed-diagnosis-of-falciparum-malaria-with-acute-kidney-injury
#20
Iee Ho Choi, Pyoung Han Hwang, Sam Im Choi, Dae Yeol Lee, Min Sun Kim
Prompt malaria diagnosis is crucial so antimalarial drugs and supportive care can then be rapidly initiated. A 15-year-old boy who had traveled to Africa (South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria between January 3 and 25, 2011) presented with fever persisting over 5 days, headache, diarrhea, and dysuria, approximately 17 days after his return from the journey. Urinalysis showed pyuria and hematuria. Blood examination showed hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and hyperbilirubinemia...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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