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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661930/the-critical-role-of-zinc-in-a-new-murine-model-of-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-etec-diarrhea
#1
D T Bolick, P H Q S Medeiros, S E Ledwaba, A A M Lima, J P Nataro, E M Barry, R L Guerrant
Enterotoxigenic E. coli are major causes of traveler's diarrhea as well as endemic diarrhea and stunting in children in developing areas. However a small mammal model has been badly needed to better understand and assess mechanisms, vaccines and interventions. We report a murine model of ETEC diarrhea, weight loss and enteropathy, and investigate the role of zinc on the outcomes. LT+ST producing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) given to weaned C57BL/6 mice after antibiotic disruption of normal microbiota cause growth impairment, watery diarrhea, heavy stool shedding and mild to moderate intestinal inflammation, the latter worse with zinc deficiency...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649751/orthogonal-typing-methods-identify-genetic-diversity-among-belgian-campylobacter-jejuni-strains-isolated-over-a-decade-from-poultry-and-cases-of-sporadic-human-illness
#2
Mohamed Elhadidy, Hector Arguello, Avelino Álvarez-Ordóñez, William G Miller, Alexandra Duarte, Delphine Martiny, Marie Hallin, Olivier Vandenberg, Katelijne Dierick, Nadine Botteldoorn
Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen commonly associated with human gastroenteritis. Retail poultry meat is a major food-related transmission source of C. jejuni to humans. The present study investigated the genetic diversity, clonal relationship, and strain risk-analysis of 403 representative C. jejuni isolates from chicken broilers (n = 204) and sporadic cases of human diarrhea (n = 199) over a decade (2006-2015) in Belgium, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), PCR binary typing (P-BIT), and identification of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis locus classes...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615989/intestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-insights-for-vaccine-development
#3
REVIEW
Maricarmen Rojas-Lopez, Ricardo Monterio, Mariagrazia Pizza, Mickaël Desvaux, Roberto Rosini
Diarrheal diseases are one of the major causes of mortality among children under five years old and intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (InPEC) plays a role as one of the large causative groups of these infections worldwide. InPECs contribute significantly to the burden of intestinal diseases, which are a critical issue in low- and middle-income countries (Asia, Africa and Latin America). Intestinal pathotypes such as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are mainly endemic in developing countries, while ETEC strains are the major cause of diarrhea in travelers to these countries...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580065/status-of-rifaximin-a-review-of-characteristics-uses-and-analytical-methods
#4
Ana Carolina Kogawa, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Rifaximin, an oral antimicrobial, has many advantages because it is selective intestine, has minimal adverse effects and is used for the treatment of some diseases such as hepatic encephalopathy, irritable bowel syndrome, travelers' diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, Clostridium difficile and acute diarrhea. Rifaximin in the form of 200 mg tablets is commercially available. The crystalline α form is therapeutically safe and effective. In most of the official compendia, rifaximin has no monograph and in none of them is there a monograph for rifaximin tablets...
March 26, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563849/-ancylostoma-ceylanicum-novel-etiological-agent-for-traveler-s-diarrhea-report-of-four-japanese-patients-who-returned-from-southeast-asia-and-papua-new-guinea
#5
Masahide Yoshikawa, Yukiteru Ouji, Nobuyasu Hirai, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Minoru Yamada, Naoki Arizono, Naoaki Akamatsu, Takaharu Yoh, Daisuke Kaya, Toshiya Nakatani, Eiryo Kikuchi, Yuichi Katanami, Kimitoshi Satoh, Ryosuke Maki, Yusuke Miyazato, Yuichiro Oba, Kei Kasahara, Keiichi Mikasa
Background: Countries in the Southeast Asia region have a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth, such as roundworm, whipworm, and hookworms [ Ancylostoma duodenale , Necator americanus , Ancylostoma ceylanicum ]. Recent molecular-based surveys have revealed that A . ceylanicum , a zoonotic hookworm, is likely the second most prevalent hookworm species infecting humans in that part of the world, while others have noted that this infection is an emerging public health risk not only for indigenous people but also for visitors from other countries...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550142/travel-and-acquisition-of-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#6
REVIEW
L Armand-Lefèvre, A Andremont, E Ruppé
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered a major threat to health. Enterobacteriaceae have increasingly become resistant to antibiotics through the acquisition and dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) that confer resistance to most beta-lactams. While ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were formerly restricted to hospitals, they have now spread to community settings, especially in developing countries. The tremendous expansion of international travels contributed to the importation of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MRE) to low prevalence countries...
March 14, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549036/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-inactivated-vero-cell_derived-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine-ixiaro-%C3%A2-jespect-%C3%A2-in-a-pediatric-population-in-je-non-endemic-countries-an-uncontrolled-open-label-phase-3-study
#7
Tomas Jelinek, Michael A Cromer, Jakob P Cramer, Deborah J Mills, Kenneth Lessans, Anthony W Gherardin, Elizabeth D Barnett, Stefan H F Hagmann, Helena H Askling, Sigrid Kiermayr, Vera Kadlecek, Susanne Eder-Lingelbach, Christian Taucher, Katrin L Dubischar
BACKGROUND: Young travelers to South-East Asia may be at risk for Japanese encephalitis (JE). METHODS: IXIARO® (0.25 ml or 0.5 ml, depending on age) were administrated to 100 travelers aged ≥ 2 months to < 18 years. Solicited AEs were collected for 7 days after each injection, unsolicited adverse events (AEs) for a total of 7 months. JE neutralizing antibodies were assessed in 64 subjects. RESULTS: The most common solicited local AEs were redness (3/12 subjects), induration and tenderness (both 1/12) with 0...
March 13, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528423/a-role-for-salivary-peptides-in-the-innate-defense-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#8
Jeffrey W Brown, Arwa Badahdah, Micah Iticovici, Tim J Vickers, David M Alvarado, Eva J Helmerhorst, Frank G Oppenheim, Jason C Mills, Matthew A Ciorba, James M Fleckenstein, Esther Bullitt
Background: Diarrheal disease from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes significant worldwide morbidity and mortality in young children residing in endemic countries and is the leading cause of traveler's diarrhea. As ETEC enters the body through the oral cavity and cotransits the digestive tract with salivary components, we hypothesized that the antimicrobial activity of salivary proteins might extend beyond the oropharynx into the proximal digestive tract. Results: Here, we show that the salivary peptide histatin-5 binds colonization factor antigen I pili, thereby blocking adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511533/antibiotic-treatment-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Eugenia Bruzzese, Antonietta Giannattasio, Alfredo Guarino
Antibiotic therapy is not necessary for acute diarrhea in children, as rehydration is the key treatment and symptoms resolve generally without specific therapy. Searching for the etiology of gastroenteritis is not usually needed; however, it may be necessary if antimicrobial treatment is considered. The latter is left to the physician evaluation in the absence of clear indications. Antimicrobial treatment should be considered in severely sick children, in those who have chronic conditions or specific risk factors or in specific settings...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503227/characteristics-of-health-problems-in-returned-overseas-travelers-at-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-a-suburban-area-in-japan
#10
Kazuki Hirata, Taku Ogawa, Hiroyuki Fujikura, Yoshihiko Ogawa, Nobuyasu Hirai, Tomoko Nakagawa-Onishi, Kenji Uno, Masahiro Takeyama, Kei Kasahara, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Mitsuru Konishi, Keiichi Mikasa
Few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients who develop physical disorders after overseas travel. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients who visited Nara Medical University Hospital from 2008 to 2016 because of physical problems after traveling abroad. The main travel destinations were Southeast Asia (n = 100), Africa (n = 27), and South Asia (n = 23). The main reasons for the travel were leisure (n = 96), business (n = 51), and volunteer work (n = 19). The most common final diagnosis was gastrointestinal disease (n = 72), followed by febrile disease (n = 59) and respiratory disease (n = 19)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474827/review-on-pathogenicity-mechanism-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-and-vaccines-against-it
#11
REVIEW
Ali Mirhoseini, Jafar Amani, Shahram Nazarian
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of diarrhea in children. Colonization factors (CFs) and LT enterotoxin are the major ETEC candidate vaccines. To cause disease, ETEC must adhere to the epithelium of the small intestine by means of CFs. Watery diarrhea is produced due to the effects of the enterotoxins. Vaccine development against ETEC has been identified as an important primary prevention strategy in developing countries and for travelers to these regions. Mucosal immunization can cause secretory IgA antibody (sIgA) responses that prevents the attachment of bacteria to the intestine and are of particular importance for provide protection against ETEC infection...
April 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463660/novel-segment-and-host-specific-patterns-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-adherence-to-human-intestinal-enteroids
#12
Anubama Rajan, Lucy Vela, Xi-Lei Zeng, Xiaomin Yu, Noah Shroyer, Sarah E Blutt, Nina M Poole, Lily G Carlin, James P Nataro, Mary K Estes, Pablo C Okhuysen, Anthony W Maresso
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important diarrheal pathogen and a cause of both acute and chronic diarrhea. It is a common cause of pediatric bacterial diarrhea in developing countries. Despite its discovery in 1987, the intestinal tropism of the pathogen remains unknown. Cell lines used to study EAEC adherence include the HEp-2, T-84, and Caco-2 lines, but they exhibit abnormal metabolism and large variations in gene expression. Animal models either do not faithfully manifest human clinical symptoms or are cumbersome and expensive...
February 20, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462444/business-travel-associated-illness-a-geosentinel-analysis
#13
Lin H Chen, Karin Leder, Kira A Barbre, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Michael Libman, Jay Keystone, Marc Mendelson, Philippe Gautret, Eli Schwartz, Marc Shaw, Sue MacDonald, Anne McCarthy, Bradley A Connor, Douglas H Esposito, Davidson Hamer, Mary E Wilson
Background: Analysis of a large cohort of business travelers will help clinicians focus on frequent and serious illnesses. We aimed to describe travel-related health problems in business travelers. Methods: GeoSentinel Surveillance Network consists of 64 travel and tropical medicine clinics in 29 countries; descriptive analysis was performed on ill business travelers, defined as persons traveling for work, evaluated after international travel 1 January 1997 through 31 December 2014...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449243/schistosomiasis-in-a-returning-international-traveler-with-cyclic-fevers-and-diarrhea
#14
Emily Greer, Kabir Harricharan Singh, Gregory Blake, M David Stockton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394391/travelers-diarrhea-in-children-a-blind-spot-in-the-expert-panel-guidelines-on-prevention-and-treatment
#15
Stefan H F Hagmann, John C Christenson, Philip R Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394385/use-of-a-multiplex-dna-extraction-pcr-in-the-identification-of-pathogens-in-travelers-diarrhea
#16
Bradley A Connor, Marina Rogova, Olga Whyte
Background: Diarrhea is one of the most common ailments afflicting travelers with attack rates of 30-40% for medium to high-risk destinations. As travelers' diarrhea (TD) is syndromic and caused by a wide range of pathogens, including bacteria, parasites and viruses, multiplex deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology can be useful for determining the etiology of TD pathogens. Objective: The goal of this retrospective study was to produce clinically relevant and useful data on gastrointestinal illness related to travel identified by culture-independent methods of diagnosis-use of the multiplex DNA extraction PCR platform (BioFire FilmArray GI Panel) and to describe the use of this technology in detection of enteric pathogens...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381647/recommendations-for-management-of-endemic-diseases-and-travel-medicine-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-and-donors-latin-america
#17
Wanessa Trindade Clemente, Lígia Camera Pierrotti, Edson Abdala, Michele I Morris, Luiz S Azevedo, Rogelio López-Vélez, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Julian Torre-Cisneros, Eskild Petersen, Luis Fernando A Camargo, Alissa Jade Wright, Nicholas J Beeching, Eduardo Garcia Vilela, Guilherme Santoro-Lopes, Oscar Len, Raquel S B Stucchi, Oriol Manuel, Luciana Costa Faria, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Shirish Huprikar, Israel Molina, Paulo Henrique Orlandi Mourão, Camille N Kotton, José María Aguado
The Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America clinical practice guideline is intended to guide clinicians caring for solid-organ transplant (SOT) donors, candidates and recipients regarding infectious diseases (ID) issues related to this geographical region, mostly located in the tropics. These recommendations are based on both systematic reviews of relevant literature and expert opinion from both transplant ID and travel medicine specialists...
February 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381576/traveler-s-diarrhea-recommendations-for-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-and-donors
#18
Nicholas J Beeching, Jordi Carratalà, Raymund R Razonable, Isabel Oriol, Eduardo Garcia Vilela
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377682/total-synthesis-of-a-densely-functionalized-plesiomonas-shigelloides-serotype-51-aminoglycoside-trisaccharide-antigen
#19
Chunjun Qin, Benjamin Schumann, Xiaopeng Zou, Claney L Pereira, Guangzong Tian, Jing Hu, Peter H Seeberger, Jian Yin
Plesiomonas shigelloides, a pathogen responsible for frequent outbreaks of severe travelers' diarrhea, causes grave extraintestinal infections. Sepsis and meningitis due to P. shigelloides are associated with a high mortality rate as antibiotic resistance increases and vaccines are not available. Carbohydrate antigens expressed by pathogens are often structurally unique and are targets for developing vaccines and diagnostics. Here, we report a total synthesis of the highly functionalized trisaccharide repeating unit 2 from P...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366715/diarrhea-and-related-factors-among-passengers-on-world-cruises-departing-from-japan
#20
Michiyo Yamakawa, Megumi Sasai, Yosuke Kasai, Toshihide Tsuda, Etsuji Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Despite growth in the number of cruises worldwide, evidence about diarrhea experienced by cruise ship passengers remains sparse. We investigated rates of diarrhea and related factors among passengers on world cruises departing from Japan. METHODS: Targeting passengers on five world cruises (n = 4180) from 2012 to 2013 (85-103 travel days), we calculated rates of health seeking behavior for diarrhea by sex, age group, and number of roommates for each cruise...
January 25, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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