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Oral contraceptive

Quentin C Karpilow, Adam T Thomas
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have highlighted the need for greater use of long-acting contraception. The most influential of these studies is the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, which was credited with substantially reducing participants' pregnancy risk by increasing their use of long-acting methods such as intrauterine devices and subdermal implants. However, because participants' rates of nonuse and condom use fell to zero at the outset of the intervention, it is possible that sizeable pregnancy reductions could still have been achieved if enrollees had chosen shorter-acting female-controlled methods such as oral contraception...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Robert Krysiak, Małgorzata Gilowska, Bogusław Okopień
BACKGROUND: In unselected reproductive-aged women, use of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive pills has been linked with an increased risk of vascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral contraception on cardiometabolic risk factors in a population of women with hyperandrogenism. METHODS: The study included 16 untreated women with elevated testosterone levels and 15 matched healthy women who were then treated with oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol (30μg) and drospirenone (3mg)...
September 15, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Naomi K Tepper, Monica V Dragoman, Mary E Gaffield, Kathryn M Curtis
BACKGROUND: Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs), containing estrogen and progestin, are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE), compared with non-use. Few studies have examined whether non-oral formulations (including the combined hormonal patch, combined vaginal ring, and combined injectable contraceptives) increase the risk of thrombosis compared with combined oral contraceptives (COCs). OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk of VTE and ATE among women using non-oral CHCs compared to women using COCs...
October 19, 2016: Contraception
Tara C Jatlaoui, Halley E M Riley, Kathryn M Curtis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) by young women and risk of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, Popline and the Cochrane Library for articles from inception of database through December 2015. For outcomes specific to IUD use (IUD expulsion and perforation), we examined effect measures for IUD users generally aged 25 years or younger compared with older IUD users. For outcomes of pregnancy, infection, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and heavy bleeding or anemia, we examined young IUD users compared with young users of other contraceptive methods or no method...
October 19, 2016: Contraception
Susan J Carson, Jacqueline Burns
DesignCohort studyCohort selectionParticipants were recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population with the preferred ages of 35 to 65 years in women and 40 to 65 years in men.Exposure measurementSmoking was assessed using a questionnaire from which pack years of smoking were calculated. Educational attainment, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, alcohol consumption and vitamin or mineral supplements were assessed from measurements and questionnaires. Tooth loss was also assessed by questionnaire returned between 2004 and 2006...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
N Masdoua, L Boublenza, H Hassaine, J Ngou, A Nahet, M Segondy, F Razik, D Regagba, N Sadouki, D Mouhammedi
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize HPV infections and cervical lesions in Western Algeria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 96 cervical samples obtained from women at risk of HPV infection (HIV-1-infected or presenting with a gynecological disease) were analyzed to characterize this infection and search for cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: A total of 60% of women at risk had an HPV infection. The rate of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection among these women was 84...
October 17, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Marta Crous-Bou, Laura B Harrington, Christopher Kabrhel
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors contributes to VTE risk. Within environmental risk factors, some are provoking (e.g., cancer, surgery, trauma or fracture, immobilization, pregnancy and the postpartum period, long-distance travel, hospitalization, catheterization, and acute infection) and others are nonprovoking (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index and obesity, oral contraceptive or hormone therapy use, corticosteroid use, statin use, diet, physical activity, sedentary time, and air pollution)...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Gianni Allais, Chiara Benedetto
Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder, affecting millions of people worldwide. Current guidelines recommend triptans as first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe migraine attacks. Frovatriptan is a second-generation triptan with a longer terminal elimination half-life in blood than other triptans (~26 hours). Three double-blind, randomized crossover preference studies have been recently conducted, assessing efficacy and safety of frovatriptan versus rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, and almotriptan, respectively...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Gavin Low, Harini Dharmana, Samantha Saravana-Bawan, Safwat Girgis
History An asymptomatic 33-year-old woman was referred to the Hepatology Department in 2013 for work-up of indeterminate multifocal liver masses. These lesions were discovered incidentally at multiphase contrast material-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CT) performed in 2004 to investigate right lower quadrant pain. Imaging surveillance at sporadic intervals revealed slow progressive growth of the lesions over time; however, the number of lesions remained constant. There was no history of cancer, nor were there predisposing factors for chronic liver disease or cirrhosis...
November 2016: Radiology
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Clare Barnett, Christine Hagemann, Jürgen Dinger, Thai Do Minh, Klaas Heinemann
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the real-use contraceptive effectiveness of the combined oral contraceptive containing dienogest and estradiol valerate (DNG/EV) and whether DNG/EV compared to other combined oral contraceptives (oCOC) has a negative effect on return to fertility. METHODS: Transatlantic, prospective, non-interventional cohort study conducted in the USA and seven European countries with two main exposure groups and one exposure subgroup: new users of DNG/EV and other COC (oCOC), particularly levonorgestrel-containing COCs (LNG)...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Sabina Cauci, Cinzia Buligan, Micaela Marangone, Maria Pia Francescato
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. METHODS: Italian sportswomen (n = 144; mean age 23.4 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.2 ± 2.2 kg m(-2); sport activity 9.2 ± 4.1 h week(-1)) were analyzed; 48 % were volleyball players, 12.5 % soccer players, 10.4 % track-and-field sports, and followed by other disciplines' athletes...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Helen S Pentikis, Nikki Adetoro, Carol J Braun
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a serious infection that is the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing potential. SYM-1219 is a novel, granule formulation containing 2 g of secnidazole that is being developed as a single, oral dose to treat women with BV. Because many of the women diagnosed with BV use hormonal contraception, the effect of SYM-1219 on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of commonly prescribed oral contraceptive drugs, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), and norethindrone (NET) was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: Advances in Therapy
Jong-Wook Seo, Dong-Yun Lee, Byung-Koo Yoon, DooSeok Choi
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Young age is a possible risk factor of endometriosis recurrence after surgery. However, the efficacy of postoperative medical treatment has not been well addressed in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether postoperative medical treatment is as effective in adolescents as it is in adults in the prevention of endometrioma recurrence. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study SETTING: Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 176 reproductive-aged women who underwent conservative laparoscopic surgery for pathology-confirmed endometrioma...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Shira Dunsiger, Heather H Swales, Gerard P Aurigemma, Ira Ockene, Lindsey Rosman, Ilan S Wittstein
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women, suggesting a possible role of reproductive and hormonal factors in the pathophysiology of this condition. Yet reproductive characteristics of women with TC have received limited attention. This prospective case-control study sought to explore reproductive characteristics associated with TC. Incident TC cases and myocardial infarction (MI) controls were recruited among consecutive women presenting at the emergency departments of 2 large medical centers in Massachusetts and Connecticut...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Carolina A Moreira, John P Bilezikian
CONTEXT: Stress fractures are repetitive use injuries in which recurrent strains lead to material fatigue and microarchitectural discontinuities. Stress fractures account for up to 20% of athletic injuries, more commonly sustained by women and in those who engage in track-and-field events. The pathogenesis of stress fractures is multifactorial. Although most stress fracture are reported among women who may experience menstrual disturbances, low body mass index, low energy intake and sometimes low bone mass, these individuals do not regularly seek endocrinological attention...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kunyan Zhou, Jing Zhang, Liangzhi Xu, Taixiang Wu, Chi Eung Danforn Lim
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities, and affects 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age. Western medicines, such as oral contraceptives, insulin sensitizers and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD), have been used to treat PCOS. Recently, many studies have been published that consider Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of CHM for subfertile women with PCOS...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hamed Khalili, Martin Neovius, Anders Ekbom, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Johan Askling, Andrew T Chan, Ola Olen
OBJECTIVES: Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been consistently linked to increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Nonetheless, a specific role of OC in the natural history of ulcerative colitis (UC) is unknown. METHODS: We identified 6,104 incident female UC cases aged 16-51 years at diagnosis from the Swedish National Patient Register starting in January of 2003. Information on current OC use was obtained from the Prescribed Drug Register starting in July of 2005...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Amy L Shafrir, Megan S Rice, Mamta Gupta, Kathryn L Terry, Bernard A Rosner, Rulla M Tamimi, Jonathan L Hecht, Shelley S Tworoger
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between reproductive and hormonal factors and ovarian cancer incidence characterized by estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. METHODS: Tissue microarrays were used to assess ERα and PR expression among 197 Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 42 NHSII and 76 New England Case-Control Study (NECC) ovarian cancer cases. NHS/NHSII cases were matched to up to 4 controls (n=954) on diagnosis date and birth year...
October 5, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Tasuku Harada, Mikio Momoeda
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an ultra-low-dose oral contraceptive (NPC-01; 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethisterone) in subjects with dysmenorrhea. DESIGN: Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. SETTING: Clinical trial sites. PATIENT(S): Two hundred fifteen subjects with dysmenorrhea. INTERVENTION(S): Subjects were randomly assigned to receive NPC-01, placebo, or IKH-01 (0...
October 4, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
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