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Oral contraceptive

Li-Ping Hou, Hongxing Chen, Chang-En Tian, Ye Liang, Rong-Rong Wu, Xing-Mei Zhang, Xu-Wen Fang, Cui-Ping Zhang, Jun-Jie Hu, Li-Ying Song, Yan-Qiu Liang, Daniel Schlenk, Lingtian Xie
Synthetic hormones in wastewater effluents released into the aquatic environments may interfere with the normal endocrine systems of fish in receiving streams. Norgestrel (NGT) is a synthetic progestin widely used in oral contraceptives and frequently detected in wastewater effluents. In this study, adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were exposed to three environmentally relevant concentrations of norgestrel (NGT) (i.e., 3.6, 35.8, and 368.0 ng L-1) for 42 d, fin morphology, histology of the ovary, and reproductive behaviors were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Joyce H Park, Amanda Bienenfeld, Seth J Orlow, Arielle R Nagler
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how dermatologists prescribe hormonal antiandrogen acne treatment (HAAT). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate dermatologists' HAAT-prescribing habits and HAAT's impact on systemic antibiotic use in women with acne. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study at an academic medical center of female patients receiving HAAT (combined oral contraceptive [COC], spironolactone) for acne from January 2005 to October 2015...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Milena Bastos Brito, Juliana Socorro Casqueiro, Fernanda Scoppetta Sampaio Alves, Jade Braga Lopes, Renata Dantas Monteiro Santana Alves, Mittermayer Santiago
This was a cross-sectional study of women of reproductive age with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) being treated at Bahiana School Rheumatology Service in Brazil. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of contraceptive counselling and use. An interview was performed, and the results were analysed before and after the SLE diagnosis. Eighty-five women were included; the mean age of the group was 32.98 ± 8.39 years. Before SLE diagnosis, most of the patients had used some contraceptive method; mainly oral contraceptives (54%) or hormone injections (21%)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Raffaele Nuzzi, Simona Scalabrin, Alice Becco, Giancarlo Panzica
Aim: Gonadal hormones are essential for reproductive function, but can act on neural and other organ systems, and are probably the cause of the large majority of known sex differences in function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide evidence for this hypothesis in relation to eye disorders and to retinopathies in particular. Methods: Epidemiological studies and research articles were reviewed. Results: Analysis of the biological basis for a relationship between eye diseases and hormones showed that estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors are present throughout the eye and that these steroids are locally produced in ocular tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Paolo Vercellini, Paola Viganò, Laura Buggio, Sofia Makieva, Giovanna Scarfone, Fulvia Milena Cribiù, Fabio Parazzini, Edgardo Somigliana
In women with endometriosis, the lifetime risk of ovarian cancer is increased from 1.4% to about 1.9%. The risk of clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer is, respectively, tripled and doubled. Atypical endometriosis, observed in 1-3% of endometriomas excised in premenopausal women, is the intermediate precursor lesion linking typical endometriosis and clear cell/endometrioid tumors. Prolonged oral contraceptive use is associated with a major reduction in ovarian cancer risk among women with endometriosis...
February 15, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Richard Godin, Geneviève Roy, James Douketis
Women who are receiving an oral anticoagulant appear to be at higher risk of developing bleeding-related adverse events than men. Physiological bleeding related to the ovulatory cycle poses an ongoing risk for bleeding complications during anticoagulant therapy. Abnormal uterine bleeding and hemorrhagic ovarian cysts are risks specific to women of reproductive age who are treated with anticoagulants. The use of combined oral contraceptives can help minimize such adverse events and would also mitigate the risks of obstetrical complications related to thrombosis and anticoagulation, in addition to avoiding fetal exposure to potentially teratogenic anticoagulants...
March 8, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Ashley H Snyder, Carol S Weisman, Guodong Liu, Douglas Leslie, Cynthia H Chuang
OBJECTIVES: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) contraceptive coverage mandate issued in August 2012 requires most private health insurance plans to cover all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptive methods without cost sharing. We evaluate the impact of this policy on out-of-pocket costs and use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and other prescription methods through 2014. METHODS: Data from Truven Health MarketScan were used to examine out-of-pocket costs and contraceptive use patterns for all reversible prescription contraceptives before and after the implementation of the contraceptive mandate for privately insured women ages 13 to 45...
March 2, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera Escobar, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Peter Vickerman
INTRODUCTION: A number of antiretroviral HIV prevention products are efficacious in preventing HIV infection. However, the sexual and reproductive health needs of many women extend beyond HIV prevention, and research is ongoing to develop multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that offer dual HIV and pregnancy protection. We do not yet know if these products will be an efficient use of constrained health resources. In this paper, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of combinations of candidate multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs), in South Africa among general population women and female sex workers (FSWs)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Selin Elmaoğulları, Zeyra Aycan
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major gynecologic complaint of adolescents admitting to hospital. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is the most common clinical presentation of AUB. Anovulatory cycles owing to immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the leading etiology of HMB and there is an accompanying bleeding disorder in almost %20 of patients with HMB. Additionally, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are possible causes of AUB...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Gulsum Uysal, Hatice Akkaya, Fulya Cagli, Sadan Tutus, Ahter T Tayyar
Pain relief of two different oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in severe primary dysmenorrhoea (PD) was compared. Sixty-six nulliparous patients with severe PD requiring contraception were evaluated. Group 1 comprised 33 healthy controls. Patients with severe PD were divided into two groups. Patients in Group 2 were administered oestradiol valerate/dienogest and patients in Group 3 were administered ethinylestradiol/drospirenone. Doppler indices of both uterine arteries (left and right) including systolic/diastolicrates (S/D), pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) were measured, and a visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied to patients before treatment...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Neidin Eustace, Kiran M Sarma, Jane Murphy, Gerard J Molloy
We examine the association between a six-facet model of conscientiousness and adherence to the Oral Contraceptive Pill (OCP), to investigate if these 6 facets can account for variation in adherence to the OCP. Cross-sectional data were collected from an opportunity sample of 243 female participants who were current users of the OCP, via online survey. Data were analysed using correlation and standard regression. The 60-item Chernyshenko Conscientiousness Scale (CCS), the 10-item IPIP Conscientiousness (IPIP C) subscale and the 5-item OCP Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) were employed...
March 13, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Ekwutosi M Okoroh, Debra J Kane, Rebekah E Gee, Lyn Kieltyka, Brittni N Frederiksen, Katharyn M Baca, Kristin M Rankin, David A Goodman, Charlan D Kroelinger, Wanda D Barfield
Rates of short interval pregnancies resulting in unintended pregnancies remain high in the United States and contribute to adverse reproductive health outcomes. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods have annual failure rates of less than 1% compared with 9% for oral contraceptive pills, and are an effective strategy to reduce unintended pregnancies. To increase access to LARCs in the immediate postpartum period, several State Medicaid programs, including those in Iowa (IA) and Louisiana (LA), recently established reimbursement policies to remove the barriers to reimbursement of immediate postpartum LARC insertion...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
S Geoffron, J Cohen, M Sauvan, G Legendre, J M Wattier, E Daraï, H Fernandez, N Chabbert-Buffet
The available literature, from 2006 to 2017, on hormonal treatment has been analysed as a contribution to the HAS-CNGOF task force for the treatment of endometriosis. Available data are heterogeneous and the general level of evidence is moderate. Hormonal treatment is usually offered as the primary option to women suffering from endometriosis. It cannot be used in women willing to conceive. In women who have not been operated, the first line of hormonal treatment includes combined oral contraceptives (COC) and the levonorgestrel-releasing intra uterine system (52mg LNG-IUS)...
March 10, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Paolo Vercellini, Laura Buggio, Maria Pina Frattaruolo, Alessandra Borghi, Dhouha Dridi, Edgardo Somigliana
Available medical treatments for symptomatic endometriosis act by inhibiting ovulation, reducing serum oestradiol levels, and suppressing uterine blood flows. For this, several drugs can be used with a similar magnitude of effect, in terms of pain relief, independently of the mechanism of action. Conversely, safety, tolerability, and cost differ. Medications for endometriosis can be categorized into low-cost drugs including oral contraceptives (OCs) and most progestogens, and high-cost drugs including dienogest and GnRH agonists...
February 15, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Mira A Kohorst, Deepti M Warad, Amulya A Nageswara Rao, Vilmarie Rodriguez
Rates of venous thromboembolism have increased in the adolescent population over the last two decades, likely due to advanced diagnostics, increased use of central venous catheters, chronic medical conditions, obesity, and oral contraceptive use. Of these factors, a modifiable risk factor for adolescents is obesity. Sedentary lifestyle and prolonged immobilization are additional prothrombotic risk factors that are often associated with obesity. With ever-increasing screen time, sedentary behavior has risen accordingly, especially among gamers...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
D A Davey
Major advances in menopause hormone therapy (MHT) hold promise in the future of better and safer care for women at and after the menopause. The principal advances are: (1) the critical window or 'window of opportunity' in the 10 years or so after the menopause, during which the benefits of MHT in healthy women exceed any risks; (2) use of transdermal instead of oral administration of estrogen to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism; (c) investigation of the use of oral micronized progesterone (MP) and vaginal MP to prevent endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma without any increased risk of breast cancer and venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens; vaginal MP prevents endometrial proliferation in the short term but the long-term effects in MHT remain to be established; (4) investigation into the use of intrauterine levonorgestrel-releasing devices (LNG-IUDs), which are an attractive form of MHT in perimenopausal women, providing contraception and reducing uterine bleeding, although the risk of breast cancer with LNG-IUDs requires clarification...
March 11, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Sebastian Łaźniak, Anna Lutkowska, Żaneta Wareńczak-Florczak, Anna Sowińska, Alexander Tsibulski, Andrzej Roszak, Stefan Sajdak, Pawel P Jagodziński
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported a significant contribution of NC_000008.10:g.128413305 G>T (rs6983267) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MYC enhancer region to the susceptibility of various cancers. However, the role of rs6983267 SNP in cervical cancer (CC) development and progression has not been demonstrated to date. Therefore, we evaluated the role of rs6983267 SNP in MYC expression in cervical cancers and non-cancerous cervical tissues. In addition, we assessed the role of this SNP in the development and progression of CC...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Polyanna Arruda, Marine Raquel Diniz da Rosa, Larissa Nadjara Alves Almeida, Leandro de Araujo Pernambuco, Anna Alice Almeida
Estradiol production varies cyclically, changes in levels are hypothesized to affect the voice. The main objective of this study was to investigate vocal acoustic and auditory-perceptual characteristics during fluctuations in the levels of the hormone estradiol during the menstrual cycle. A total of 44 volunteers aged between 18 and 45 were selected. Of these, 27 women with regular menstrual cycles comprised the test group (TG) and 17 combined oral contraceptive users comprised the control group (CG). The study was performed in two phases...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Tasneem S Alaqzam, Angela C Stanley, Pippa M Simpson, Veronica H Flood, Seema Menon
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the relationship of bleeding disorders to iron deficiency anemia. Additionally, this study was undertaken to examine all current treatment modalities used in a menorrhagia clinic with respect to heavy menstrual bleeding management to identify the most effective options for menstrual management in the setting of an underlying bleeding disorder. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANT, INTERVENTION, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Retrospective chart review of adolescent <21 years with heavy menstrual bleeding attending a multidisciplinary hematology-adolescent gynecology clinic...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
S G Meuth, T Ruck, O Aktas, H-P Hartung
BACKGROUND: The selective modulation of lymphocyte numbers and function is an attractive concept in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RMS). OBJECTIVE: Cladribine tablets (Mavenclad®), an oral RMS medication with an innovative treatment concept, have been available since August 2017. This review article summarizes the currently available clinical study data on cladribine tablets and aspects of their use in clinical practice. RESULTS: Cladribine tablets are administered during two treatment phases of 8-10 (two times 4-5) days with a 1-year interval...
March 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
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