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Narcotic abuse

Chang Liu, Yanlan Huang, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008-2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger vehicles who were tested for both alcohol and drugs (n = 79,932)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Andrew C Eppstein, Bryan Sakamoto
Opioids are important for surgical pain control but may not be appropriate for patients with narcotic abuse histories or opioid intolerance. We describe a laparoscopic bilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy performed without perioperative or postoperative narcotics. Postoperative analgesia involves a novel technique using 2 different bupivacaine formulations that act synergistically to avoid lag time and provide extended pain relief during the acute surgical recovery phase.
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Nassia Kioukia-Fougia, Nikolaos Georgiadis, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Fotini Vasilaki, Persefoni Fragiadaki, Evangelia Meimeti, Christina Tsitsimpikou
BACKGROUND: The modern way of life involves high stress levels, poor eating habits, lack of exercise, obesity and other detrimental health factors. Nutritional supplements (NS) are complexes of nutrients with variant activity that may infer reversal to nutrient depletion. They tend to be popular amongst social categories associated with the healthy life style, such as the elite and amateur athletes, military people and the general population. OBJECTIVE: An overview of the state of play with regards to nutritional supplements -natural and synthetic-, is important both from toxicological and commercial point of view...
September 23, 2016: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Rachel B Seymour, Daniel Leas, Meghan K Wally, Joseph R Hsu
BACKGROUND: Prescription narcotic overdoses and abuse have reached alarming numbers. To address this epidemic, integrated clinical decision support within the electronic medical record (EMR) to impact prescribing behavior was developed and tested. METHODS: A multidisciplinary Expert Panel identified risk factors for misuse, abuse, or diversion of opioids or benzodiazepines through literature reviews and consensus building for inclusion in a rule within the EMR. We ran the rule "silently" to test the rule and collect baseline data...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Kieron Barclay, Mikko Myrskylä, Per Tynelius, Daniel Berglind, Finn Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that birth order is an important predictor of later life health as well as socioeconomic attainment. In this study, we examine the relationship between birth order and hospitalization for alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. METHODS: We study the relationship between birth order and hospitalization related to alcohol and narcotics use before and after the age of 20 using Swedish register data for cohorts born 1987-1994. We apply Cox proportional hazard models and use sibling fixed effects, eliminating confounding by factors shared by the siblings...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2015: American Family Physician
Richard N Rosenthal, Michelle R Lofwall, Sonnie Kim, Michael Chen, Katherine L Beebe, Frank J Vocci
IMPORTANCE: The effectiveness of buprenorphine treatment of opioid dependence is limited by suboptimal medication adherence, abuse, and diversion. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 6-month buprenorphine implants are noninferior to daily sublingual buprenorphine as maintenance treatment for opioid-dependent patients with stable abstinence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Outpatient, randomized, active-controlled, 24-week, double-blind, double-dummy study conducted at 21 US sites from June 26, 2014, through May 18, 2015...
July 19, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
S N Levich, L O Marchenko, V V Yusupov, E O Filippova
One of the major problems in the acquisition of units of the Armed Forces is timely detection of individuals with deviant behaviour, which are prone to delinquent and addictive behaviour. The article presents the results of an analysis of existing methodologies aiming to identify servicemen abusing and occasionally using narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. The characteristics of the proposed new automated complex psychological diagnosis socially determined behavioural disorders and methods is given...
April 2016: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Lakshmi Kant Pathak, Vimala Vijayaraghavan
We present a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by intranasal abuse of the prescription narcotic hydrocodone. The patient's clinical course was complicated by acute respiratory failure. A chest radiograph showed diffuse bilateral opacities. The patient was treated with noninvasive ventilation, a high dose of intravenous steroids, and bronchodilators, resulting in improvement of symptoms and radiographic appearance.
July 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Theodore J Cicero
From teenagers dying from heroin overdoses to crime tied to Vicodin and OxyContin addiction to road fatalities in which sedatives and muscle relaxants are involved, 20,000 deaths in the United States in 2014 were attributed to problems associated with narcotics and prescription drug use. Our author, whose research involves the neurobiological basis of drug addiction, traces the history and evolution of narcotics and leans on his clinical experience to discuss why certain drugs are powerful, addicting-and dangerous...
September 2015: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
Kh Todadze, S Mosia
Injecting drug user size estimation studies carried out in 2009, 2012 and 2015 revealed growing trends of drug abuse in Georgia:estimated number of people who inject drugs (PWID) have been increased from 40000 and 45000 to 50000. Since Soviet period the most popular injective narcotics have been opioids: home-made opium, heroine, buprenorphine and home-made desomorphine ("Krokodile") replacing each other on the black market. Self-made desomorphine typically contains big amounts of different toxic substances and causes significant somatic disorders, especially skin, bone, blood infections, liver and kidney failure; is highly addictive, associates with frequent injections that enhance injecting-related harm, including the risk of HIV transmission, in comparison with typical opioids...
May 2016: Georgian Medical News
Ellen Meara, Jill R Horwitz, Wilson Powell, Lynn McClelland, Weiping Zhou, A James O'Malley, Nancy E Morden
BACKGROUND: In response to rising rates of opioid abuse and overdose, U.S. states enacted laws to restrict the prescribing and dispensing of controlled substances. The effect of these laws on opioid use is unclear. METHODS: We tested associations between prescription-opioid receipt and state controlled-substances laws. Using Medicare administrative data for fee-for-service disabled beneficiaries 21 to 64 years of age who were alive throughout the calendar year (8...
July 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Norah Baker
Chronic pain and its associated syndrome have become increasingly prevalent in primary care. With the increase in narcotic use and subsequent adverse events, primary care physicians often seek safer alternatives to treating this condition. Prescribing narcotics necessitates using methods to screen for high abuse risk and protect against misuse. With the understanding of how chronic pain is related to mental illnesses such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, mindfulness techniques and behavioral therapy can be used to help decrease the dependence on dangerous opioid medications and help patients understand, accept, and cope with their chronic pain...
June 2016: Primary Care
Vikas Sharma, Kanittha Chamroonswasdi, Suwat Srisorrachatr
We conducted a survey to determine the rate of adherence to and factors associated with compliance with a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) among injecting drug users in Nepal. We conducted face-to-face structured interviews with 165 methadone treatment patients aged 20-54 years during 5-20 April 2015. Data analysis included percentages, means, standard deviations, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. Seventy-two point one percent of respondents had good adherence to a MMTP...
March 2016: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Alfhild Grönbladh, Erik Nylander, Mathias Hallberg
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. However, whether the direct effects of AAS on endorphins, dopamine, serotonin and GABA etc. and on the corresponding and related systems lead to dependence needs to be further elucidated...
May 5, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Jay Baruch
I could have been more understanding, especially when police brought a man I'll call Mr. Atkins to the emergency room for depression and suicidal ideation. But it was 3:00 a.m. and the ER was a carnival of disease and discontent, a parade of drunk drivers and folks who practiced conflict resolution with knives and bullets. A patient well known for her drug abuse wasn't done yelling at me for refusing to write her a narcotic script when a nurse tweaked at my elbow to please come speak with Mr. Atkins, who was making a case to walk out...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
Casey B Cottrill, Steven C Matson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews
Benjamin R Biteman, Jeffrey N Harr, Fred Brody
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]...
April 29, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Jérôme A J Becker, Brigitte L Kieffer, Julie Le Merrer
Unified theories of addiction are challenged by differing drug-seeking behaviors and neurobiological adaptations across drug classes, particularly for narcotics and psychostimulants. We previously showed that protracted abstinence to opiates leads to despair behavior and social withdrawal in mice, and we identified a transcriptional signature in the extended amygdala that was also present in animals abstinent from nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol. Here we examined whether protracted abstinence to these four drugs would also share common behavioral features, and eventually differ from abstinence to the prototypic psychostimulant cocaine...
April 28, 2016: Addiction Biology
Chang Liu, Yanlan Huang, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008-2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger vehicles who were tested for both alcohol and drugs (n = 79,932)...
2016: Injury Epidemiology
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