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Oral Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748034/porphyromonas-gingivalis-may-interfere-with-conception-in-women
#1
Susanna Paju, Juha Oittinen, Henna Haapala, Sirkka Asikainen, Jorma Paavonen, Pirkko J Pussinen
In this observational and prospective study, we investigated if microbiological and serological markers of periodontitis associated with conception in 256 non-pregnant women (Mage = 29.2 years; range 19-42 years). Clinical oral and gynecological examinations were performed, major periodontal pathogens in the saliva were detected, and serum and saliva antibodies against major periodontal pathogens were analyzed. The follow-up period for becoming pregnant was 12 months. Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly (p = 0...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740972/in-vivo-microbiologic-evaluation-of-polytetrafluoroethylene-and-cotton-as-endodontic-spacer-materials
#2
Tina Olsson, Daniel Chan, James D Johnson, Avina Paranjpe
OBJECTIVE: Spacers are commonly placed between the canal orifice and the temporary material between endodontic treatment appointments. This prevents the temporary restoration material from obstructing the canal orifices and allows for easy removal. Various endodontic spacers are currently used, including polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape. Previous in-vitro studies have demonstrated the advantages of using PTFE over using cotton; however, no in-vivo studies have demonstrated this. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate which spacer showed less bacterial leakage between endodontic treatments...
July 20, 2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733908/assessment-of-cultivable-oral-bacterial-flora-from-important-venomous-snakes-of-india-and-their-antibiotic-susceptibilities
#3
Innus K Shaikh, Prashant P Dixit, Balasaheb S Pawade, Mugdha Potnis-Lele, Babasaheb P Kurhe
Snakebite is a common, frequently devastating, occupational, socio-economic hazard, and it has a great impact on the rural population of India. Snakebite is a major cause of the human morbidity and mortality since ancient times, as it not only affects the victim by systemic envenomation but also by wound infections originating from deadly pathogenic microorganisms from the oral cavity of the offending snake. The pathogens from the oral cavity of the snake tend to initiate an infection, resulting in gas gangrene, soft tissue necrosis, and permanent physical disabilities...
July 21, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723316/when-green-and-red-mycology-meet-impressions-from-an-interdisciplinary-forum-on-virulence-mechanisms-of-phyto-and-human-pathogenic-fungi
#4
Yidong Yu, Bernhard Hube, Jörg Kämper, Vera Meyer, Sven Krappmann
Fungal infections pose a constant threat to plants and humans, but detailed knowledge about pathogenesis, immunity, or virulence is rather scarce. Due to the fact that a certain overlap in the armoury of infection exists between plant- and human-pathogenic fungi, an interdisciplinary forum was held in October 2016 at the Institute for Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene in Erlangen under the organisational umbrella from two special interest groups of German microbial societies. Scientific exchange and intense discussion of this timely topic was fostered by bringing together renowned experts in their respective fields to present their thoughts and recent findings in the course of a plenary lecture and six themed sessions, accompanied by oral and poster contributions of young researchers...
July 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713765/prevalence-of-periodontal-pathogens-in-a-group-of-participants-from-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-geographic-region-with-minimal-periodontal-disease
#5
Zoubeida Al Yahfoufi, Wahib Hadchiti
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of the three putative periodontal pathogens such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. a), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. g), and Prevotella intermedia (P. i) in a group of Arab participants from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region who had minimal periodontal disease and no history of periodontal treatment and further to analyze the association among these three microorganisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-four participants of varied demographics and oral/dental care habits were screened for this study...
June 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705217/monitoring-clinical-and-microbiological-evolution-of-a-cystic-fibrosis-patient-over-26%C3%A2-years-experience-of-a-brazilian-cf-centre
#6
Cassiana da Costa Ferreira Leite, Tania Wrobel Folescu, Mônica de Cássia Firmida, Renata Wrobel Folescu Cohen, Robson Souza Leão, Flávia Alvim Dutra de Freitas, Rodolpho Mattos Albano, Claudia Henrique da Costa, Elizabeth Andrade Marques
BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients believed to be associated with poor prognosis and patient-to-patient transmissibility. Little is known about clinical outcomes after B. vietnamiensis chronic colonization/infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33 yo male patient had diagnosis of CF by 7 yo, after recurrent pneumonia during infancy and lobectomy (left upper lobe) at 6 yo. Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) was first isolated by 13 yo, and the patient fulfilled the criteria for chronic colonization by 15 yo...
July 14, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701438/community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-literature-review-and-clinical-update
#7
REVIEW
Kassandra Loewen, Yoko Schreiber, Mike Kirlew, Natalie Bocking, Len Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To provide information on the prevalence and treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and the distinction between community-associated MRSA and health care-associated MRSA. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched from 2005 to 2016. Epidemiologic studies were summarized and the relevant treatment literature was based on level I evidence. MAIN MESSAGE: The incidence of community-associated MRSA infection is rising...
July 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697102/secnidazole-treatment-of-bacterial-vaginosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Sharon L Hillier, Paul Nyirjesy, Arthur S Waldbaum, Jane R Schwebke, Franklin G Morgan, Nikki A Adetoro, Carol J Braun
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate secnidazole as a single oral dose treatment for bacterial vaginosis in a phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. METHODS: In a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled study, women with bacterial vaginosis who met all Amsel criteria (discharge; pH 4.7 or greater; 20% or greater clue cells; positive whiff test) were randomized one to one to one at 24 U.S. centers to 1 or 2 g secnidazole compared with placebo...
July 7, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685557/the-use-of-chlorhexidine-in-mouthguards
#9
S D Ercole, M Tieri, D Fulco, D Martinelli, D Tripodi
Sports mouthguards have the potential to become a microbial reservoir, to produce oral and systemic diseases and cause changes in environmental oral factors, inhibiting the protective effect of saliva. The aim of this study was to monitor, in vivo, oral environmental changes caused by chlorhexidine and sports mouthguards and in vitro, the effects of microbial strains, saliva and chlorhexidine on Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate (EVA) material. Seventy-two athletes were analyzed at different time points: before training session (T0), post-training (TA), post-training with mouthguard (TB), post-training with mouthguard and chlorhexidine (TC)...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669650/next-generation-dna-sequencing-of-tissues-from-infected-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#10
M Malone, K Johani, S O Jensen, I B Gosbell, H G Dickson, H Hu, K Vickery
We used next generation DNA sequencing to profile the microbiome of infected Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFUs). The microbiota was correlated to clinical parameters and treatment outcomes to determine if directed antimicrobial therapy based on conventional microbiological cultures are relevant based on genomic analysis. Patients≥18years presenting with a new Diabetic Foot Infection (DFI) who had not received topical or oral antimicrobials in the two weeks prior to presentation, were eligible for enrolment. Tissue punch biopsies were obtained from infected DFUs for analysis...
June 27, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664712/comparative-study-on-usefulness-of-gentamycin-containing-collagen-implants-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-osteitis-and-osteomyelitis-of-the-craniofacial-skeleton
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Paweł J Zawadzki, Konrad Perkowski, Michał Kotlarski, Anna Pietruczuk-Padzik, Lidia Chomicz
<b>Introduction and objective.</b> A reduction in incidences of peri-surgical complications due to infections is achieved by antibiotic prophylaxis The objective of the study was to assess the usefulness of gentamycin-containing collagen implants (GCCI) in the treatment of patients with osteitis and osteomyelitis of the craniofacial skeleton. <b>Materials and method.</b> The retrospective study included 103 patients with osteitis and osteomyelitis. 54 patients were treated intra-operatively with GCCI (Garamycin, EusaPharma, Europe)...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662142/effects-of-the-probiotic-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-on-the-non-surgical-treatment-of-periodontitis-a-histomorphometric-microtomographic-and-immunohistochemical-study-in-rats
#12
Milla S T Ricoldi, Flávia A C Furlaneto, Luiz F F Oliveira, Gustavo C Teixeira, Jéssica P Pischiotini, André L G Moreira, Edilson Ervolino, Maricê N de Oliveira, Cristina S B Bogsan, Sérgio L Salvador, Michel R Messora
Lactobacillus probiotics have been investigated in periodontitis. However, the effects of the genus Bifidobacterium on periodontitis are hardly known. This study evaluated the effects of the probiotic (PROB) Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) HN019 as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in rats with experimental periodontitis (EP). At baseline, 32 rats were assigned to 4 groups: C (control), PROB, EP-SRP and EP-SRP-PROB. In groups EP-SRP and EP-SRP-PROB, the mandibular first molars of the animals received a ligature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657701/clinical-effects-of-stabilized-stannous-fluoride-dentifrice-in-reducing-plaque-microbial-virulence-i-microbiological-and-receptor-cell-findings
#13
Malgorzata Klukowska, John Christian Haught, Sancai Xie, Ben Circello, Cheryl S Tansky, Deepa Khambe, Tom Huggins, Donald J White
OBJECTIVES: Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), or bacterial endotoxins, bind with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on host cells of the periodontium, thereby contributing to the periodontal pathogenicity of oral bacteria. Stannous fluoride (SnF2), an antibacterial fluoride that treats and controls gingivitis, has been shown to react with lipophilic domains/anionic charges in LPS and LTA. The effects of bacterial species and dental plaque on toll receptors can be studied using genetically engineered cell lines containing linked toll receptors on their surfaces...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655424/risk-factors-for-early-return-visits-to-the-emergency-department-in-patients-with-urinary-tract-infection
#14
Sarah Jorgensen, Mira Zurayk, Samantha Yeung, Jill Terry, Maureen Dunn, Paul Nieberg, Annie Wong-Beringer
BACKGROUND: Optimal management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the emergency department (ED) is challenging due to high patient turnover, decreased continuity of care, and treatment decisions made in the absence of microbiologic data. We sought to identify risk factors for return visits in ED patients treated for UTI. METHODS: A random sample of 350 adult ED patients with UTI by ICD 9/10 codes was selected for review. Relevant data was extracted from medical charts and compared between patients with and without ED return visits within 30days (ERVs)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650087/educational-strategies-and-art-effect-on-salivary-characteristics-a-controlled-clinical-trial
#15
Camila Nobre de Freitas, Paula Midori Castelo, Karina Guedes de Sousa, Gabriela Caroline Alonso, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Marlise Inês Klein, Taís de Souza Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate educational strategies and ART-restoration impact on salivary physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. DESIGN: Two groups of 6-7-yr-old children were included: GART , with at least one decayed primary molar (n=36), submitted to 4 sessions of oral health educational strategy (OHES) and ART-restoration; GC , a paired caries-free group (n=36), submitted to 4 sessions of OHES. Three evaluations were carried out: baseline, one week after OHES and one month after OHES or ART, when biofilm and gingivitis frequencies, salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity, calcium and phosphorus concentrations were assessed...
June 26, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641352/-do-general-surgeons-feel-adequately-prepared-for-the-complex-questions-associated-with-the-handling-of-multi-resistant-pathogens-results-of-the-mr2-survey
#16
Matthias May, Philipp J Spachmann, Steffen Lebentrau, Harald Schumacher, Christian Gilfrich, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Malte Vetterlein, Sabine Brookman-May, Martin Schostak, Florian M Wagenlehner, Maximilian Burger, Alexander Novotny, Robert Obermaier
Background At the present time, there is no evidence available as to the knowledge of general surgeons regarding multi-resistant pathogens (MRP) and the rational use of antibiotic medication (antibiotic stewardship/ABS) compared with physicians from other disciplines. Methods As part of the MR2 survey (Multiinstitutional Reconnaissance of practice with MultiResistant bacteria - a survey focussing on German hospitals), a questionnaire comprising 4 + 35 items was distributed to urologists, internists, gynaecologists and general surgeons in 18 hospitals...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619977/infectious-crystalline-keratopathy-after-descemet%C3%A3-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-s-stripping-endothelial-keratoplasty
#17
Ashley J Porter, Graham A Lee, Kevin Whitehead
A 68-year-old woman presented with infectious crystalline keratopathy 4 months after she underwent a combined phacoemulsification and Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty for Fuch's endothelial dystrophy in her left eye. After 5 months of topical moxifloxacin 1%, the infiltrate responded well but had not completely resolved, with the resulting endothelial failure requiring a penetrating keratoplasty 9 months after the initial operation. Microbiology identified Enterococcus faecalis with the histopathology demonstrating bacterial colonies within the graft interface...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597967/anidulafungin-for-the-treatment-of-candidaemia-caused-by-candida-parapsilosis-analysis-of-pooled-data-from-six-prospective-clinical-studies
#18
Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Matteo Bassetti, Marcio Nucci, Maria Rita Capparella, Jean L Yan, Jalal Aram, Patricia A Hogan
Concerns with echinocandin use for infections caused by Candida parapsilosis complex species have driven the need for data to support echinocandin clinical efficacy in such patients. Data from six prospective studies were pooled to assess efficacy and safety of anidulafungin in patients with candidaemia caused by C. parapsilosis. Patient-level data were pooled from patients with microbiologically confirmed candidaemia due to C. parapsilosis treated with anidulafungin. Patients received a 200 mg intravenous (IV) loading dose of anidulafungin (day 1) and 100 mg daily thereafter...
June 9, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592223/feline-leprosy-due-to-mycobacterium-lepraemurium
#19
Carolyn R O'Brien, Richard Malik, Maria Globan, George Reppas, Christina McCowan, Janet A Fyfe
OBJECTIVES: This paper, the second in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to Mycobacterium lepraemurium, the most common cause of feline leprosy worldwide. METHODS: Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with M lepraemurium infection. RESULTS: A total of 145 cases of feline leprosy were scrutinised; 114 'new' cases were sourced from the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory records, veterinary pathology laboratories or veterinarians, and 31 cases were derived from six published studies...
July 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589386/navigating-the-jungles-of-tropical-infectious-gastrointestinal-pathology-a-pattern-based-approach-to-the-endoscopic-biopsy
#20
Tomas Slavik, Gregory Y Lauwers
International travels and global human migration have had the unforeseen consequence of increasing the exposure of histopathologists in developed countries to the pathology of tropical infectious disease. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is often the primary site of infection due to the faecal-oral route of transmission and the high risk of exposure to contaminated water, food or soil when travelling to these regions. Whilst current microbiologic techniques are far more sensitive than histology in detecting infectious pathogens, the histopathologist nonetheless retains a pivotal role in diagnosing tropical GIT disease...
June 6, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
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