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Oral Microbiology

Alessandra Vecchione, Francesco Celandroni, Diletta Mazzantini, Sonia Senesi, Antonella Lupetti, Emilia Ghelardi
Recent guidelines indicate that oral probiotics, living microorganisms able to confer a health benefit on the host, should be safe for human consumption, when administered in a sufficient amount, and resist acid and bile to exert their beneficial effects (e.g., metabolic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, competitive). This study evaluated quantitative and qualitative aspects and the viability in simulated gastric and intestinal juices of commercial probiotic formulations available in Italy. Plate counting and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used to enumerate and identify the contained organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Ollie Yiru Yu, Irene Shuping Zhao, May Lei Mei, Edward Chin-Man Lo, Chun-Hung Chu
Mechanistic studies on demineralization-remineralization play a critical role in investigating caries pathogenicity, testing effects of new caries prevention methods, and developing new caries-preventing products. Simulating the cariogenic challenges in the mouth, various demineralization-remineralization models have been used for cariology research. This review aimed to provide an overview of the common mechanistic studies on demineralization-remineralization for cariology research in recent literature. Most mechanistic studies were in vitro studies ( n = 294, 84%) among the 350 cariology studies indexed in the Web of Science from 2014 to 2016...
June 18, 2017: Dent J (Basel)
Dirk Ziebolz, David Douglas, Donya Douglas, Jan Schmickler, Daniel Patschan, Gerhard A Müller, Rainer Haak, Jana Schmidt, Gerhard Schmalz, Susann Patschan
OBJECTIVE: Recent literature reveals worse periodontal health condition in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, roles of AS-related parameters, periodontal condition, and their association appear unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating dental and periodontal health as well as potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria in patients with AS compared to healthy control subjects (HC). METHODS: Dental examination comprised dental findings (DMF-T), periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss (CAL), papillary bleeding index, and microbiological analysis based on polymerase chain reaction of selected potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria...
March 20, 2018: Rheumatology International
Ivana Mareković, Zrinka Bošnjak, Karla Jurić, Mario Ćorić, Sanja Popović-Grle
Nitroxoline (NTX), 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline is an oral antibiotic with mechanism of bacteriostatic activity that is based on chelation of divalent cations required for bacterial RNA polymerase. Susceptibility to NTX of 100 Escherichia coli urine isolates was determined at the Department of Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb during September and October 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion and the results were interpreted according to the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Amos Lal, Alwyn Rapose
BACKGROUND: Gonococcal infection can present with wide spectrum of symptoms, most commonly involving the genitals. This case highlights a rare presentation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection primarily with skin involvement without uro-genital disease. CASE: A 33-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with complaints of painful swelling of his penis. In the emergency room, he underwent incision and drainage of the abscess under local anaesthesia. After microbiological evaluation, he was found to have skin abscess caused by N...
March 16, 2018: Infection
Marco van Zwetselaar, Balthazar Nyombi, Tolbert Sonda, Happiness Kumburu, Nyasatu Chamba, Marieke C J Dekker, Kajiru G Kilonzo, Sarah J Urasa, Blandina T Mmbaga
BACKGROUND: Aeromonas species have been documented to yield false positive results in microbiological tests for Vibrio cholerae. They share many biochemical properties with Vibrio species, with which they were jointly classified in the family Vibrionaceae until genotypic information provided new insights. Aeromonas species are increasingly associated with gastrointestinal infections, albeit with great apparent variation in pathogenicity and virulence both between and within species of the genus...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
V Jung-Schroers, M Adamek, S Harris, H Syakuri, A Jung, I Irnazarow, D Steinhagen
The effect of dietary β-glucan on the bacterial community in the gut of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was examined after oral application of Aeromonas hydrophila. Carp received either feed supplemented with 1% MacroGard® , a β-1,3/1,6-glucan, or a β-glucan-free diet. Fourteen days after feeding, half of the carp from each group were intubated with 109 colony-forming units (CFU) of a pathogenic strain of A. hydrophila. Gut samples were taken 12 hr to 7 days after application and analysed using microbiological and molecular biological techniques (NGS, RT-PCR-DGGE)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
James Baker, Andrew Dickman, Stephen Mason, John Ellershaw
BACKGROUND: A continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) is an effective method of multiple drug administration commonly encountered in end of life care when the oral route is compromised. At present, current practice is to limit syringe driver infusion time to a maximum of 24 hours as dictated by available chemical stability data. However, the ability to deliver prescribed medication by a CSCI over 48 hours may have numerous benefits in both patient care and health service resource utilisation...
2018: PloS One
M A Sohn, A Agha, P Steiner, A Hochrein, M Komm, R Ruppert, P Ritschl, F Aigner, I Iesalnieks
PURPOSE: Damage control strategy (DCS) is a two-staged procedure for the treatment of perforated diverticular disease complicated by generalized peritonitis. The aim of this retrospective multicenter cohort study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of an ongoing peritonitis at the time of second surgery. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent DCS for perforated diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon with generalized peritonitis at four surgical centers were included...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Alessandro Cucchi, Federica Molè, Lucia Rinaldi, Claudio Marchetti, Giuseppe Corinaldesi
PURPOSE: The primary prevention of peri-implantitis onset is a key factor in long-term implant success, and the evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of different implant surfaces is fundamental in this way. The aim of this study was to assess if implants with collars coated with anatase were less subjected to bacterial colonization than implants with noncoated collars, and to investigate how implant bacterial colonization varies over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients in need of implant-supported rehabilitation were selected to have two adjacent implants placed, one with an anatase-coated collar and one with the collar uncoated...
March 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Elerson Gaetti-Jardim, Ellen Cristina Gaetti Jardim, Christiane Marie Schweitzer, Júlio Cesar Leite da Silva, Murilo Moura Oliveira, Danilo Chizzolini Masocatto, Cauê Monteiro Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: This case-control study aimed to evaluate the effects of conventional radiotherapy (RT) on the prevalence and populations of oral microorganisms in head and neck cancer patients who did not receive adequate preventive dental care. It was hypothesized that side effects of radiotherapy could be associated with radiation dose, microbiological aspects, and socioeconomic conditions of the patients. DESIGN: Twenty-eight dentate patients with head and neck cancer submitted to RT were included in the study...
January 8, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Venkataramana Kandi, Parimala Reddy Basireddy
Introduction Medical education involves training necessary to become a physician or a surgeon. This includes various levels of training like undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate training. Medical education can be quite complex, since it involves training in pre-clinical subjects (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry), the para-clinical subjects (microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and forensic medicine), and a discrete group of clinical subjects that include general medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, ear, nose and throat specialization, paediatrics, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and orthopaedics, and many other clinical specializations and super specialities (cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
Eugenia Bruzzese, Antonietta Giannattasio, Alfredo Guarino
Antibiotic therapy is not necessary for acute diarrhea in children, as rehydration is the key treatment and symptoms resolve generally without specific therapy. Searching for the etiology of gastroenteritis is not usually needed; however, it may be necessary if antimicrobial treatment is considered. The latter is left to the physician evaluation in the absence of clear indications. Antimicrobial treatment should be considered in severely sick children, in those who have chronic conditions or specific risk factors or in specific settings...
2018: F1000Research
Achla Bharti Yadav, Mala Kamboj, Anjali Narwal, Anju Devi
Statement of the Problem: Histopathology is a gold standard diagnostic tool for oral lesions. Nonspecific and overlapping microscopic features often pose diagnostic challenges in routine practice. In such conditions, deeper sections have utility to enhance the sensitivity and accuracy of the diagnosis. Purpose: To analyze the percentage of deeper sections requested and to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of these deeper sections in routine oral histopathology practice...
March 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Keith S Kaye, Tanaya Bhowmick, Symeon Metallidis, Susan C Bleasdale, Olexiy S Sagan, Viktor Stus, Jose Vazquez, Valerii Zaitsev, Mohamed Bidair, Erik Chorvat, Petru Octavian Dragoescu, Elena Fedosiuk, Juan P Horcajada, Claudia Murta, Yaroslav Sarychev, Ventsislav Stoev, Elizabeth Morgan, Karen Fusaro, David Griffith, Olga Lomovskaya, Elizabeth L Alexander, Jeffery Loutit, Michael N Dudley, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
Importance: Meropenem-vaborbactam is a combination carbapenem/beta-lactamase inhibitor and a potential treatment for severe drug-resistant gram-negative infections. Objective: To evaluate efficacy and adverse events of meropenem-vaborbactam in complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), including acute pyelonephritis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, multicenter, multinational, randomized clinical trial (TANGO I) conducted November 2014 to April 2016 and enrolling patients (≥18 years) with complicated UTI, stratified by infection type and geographic region...
February 27, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Elisheva Friedman, Negin Alizadeh, Zvi Loewy
This study aims to consider the microbial distribution in oral disease, as well as gene analysis and expression, in elucidating: 1, the fundamental underpinnings of oral disease, and 2, the potential relationship between oral diseases and systemic health. A key focus is identifying the microbiota associated with oral disease manifestations characterized by both conventional microbiological and molecular methods. Variations in the observed microbial populations characterized by conventional and molecular approaches have been identified for caries, periodontitis, peri-implantitis, and stomatitis...
August 1, 2017: High Throughput
Ralf Bartenschlager, Thomas F Baumert, Jens Bukh, Michael Houghton, Stanley M Lemon, Brett D Lindenbach, Volker Lohmann, Darius Moradpour, Thomas Pietschmann, Charles M Rice, Robert Thimme, Takaji Wakita
The development and clinical implementation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Infection with any viral genotype can now be eliminated in more than 95% of patients with short courses of all-oral, well-tolerated drugs, even in those with advanced liver disease and liver transplant recipients. DAAs have proven so successful that some now consider hepatitis C virus (HCV) amenable to eradication, and continued research on the virus of little remaining medical relevance...
February 22, 2018: Virus Research
Nese Saltoglu, Onder Ergonul, Necla Tulek, Mucahit Yemisen, Ayten Kadanali, Gul Karagoz, Ayse Batirel, Oznur Ak, Cagla Sonmezer, Haluk Eraksoy, Atahan Cagatay, Serkan Surme, Salih A Nemli, Tuna Demirdal, Omer Coskun, Derya Ozturk, Nurgul Ceran, Filiz Pehlivanoglu, Gonul Sengoz, Turan Aslan, Yasemin Akkoyunlu, Oral Oncul, Hakan Ay, Lutfiye Mulazımoglu, Buket Erturk, Fatma Yilmaz, Gulsen Yoruk, Nuray Uzun, Funda Simsek, Taner Yildirmak, Kadriye Kart Yaşar, Meral Sonmezoglu, Yasar Küçükardali, Nazan Tuna, Oguz Karabay, Nail Ozgunes, Fatma Sargın
OBJECTIVES: We described the clinical outcome of the diabetic patients who had foot infections with multidrug resistant organisms. METHODS: We included the patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI) from 19 centers, between May 2011 and December 2015. Infection was defined according to IDSA DFI guidelines. Patients with severe infection, complicated moderate infection were hospitalized. The patients were followed-up for 6 months after discharge. RESULTS: In total, 791 patients with DFI were included, 531(67%) was male, median age was 62 (19-90)...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
F Aragón, M A Zea-Sevilla, J Montero, P Sancho, R Corral, C Tejedor, B Frades-Payo, V Paredes-Gallardo, A Albaladejo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to carry out an oral health assessment on a group of Alzheimer's patients and to establish a hypothesis regarding the implication of the characteristics of the disease and the treatment of oral health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 70 Alzheimer's patients, residents at the Alzheimer Center Reina Sofia Foundation (Madrid, Spain) and at the Alzheimer State Reference Center (Salamanca, Spain), and 36 controls (companions/acquaintances), were studied by oral examination and saliva sampling...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Yunmei Song, Zen Whey Chin, David Ellis, Ei Mon Phyo Lwin, Sean Turner, Desmond Williams, Sanjay Garg
PURPOSE: Results of a study to determine the stability of an extemporaneously compounded minoxidil oral suspension under various temperature and stress conditions are reported. METHODS: Commercially available minoxidil tablets (10 mg) were crushed to a fine powder, and predetermined amounts of 2 suspending vehicles were added to produce a 1-mg/mL suspension, which was stored in glass bottles at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C) or in a refrigerator (4 ± 2 °C). To simulate daily patient use, 5 days weekly 1 bottle of the suspension was removed from refrigerated storage and shaken and 0...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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