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Oral Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352461/clinical-and-microbiological-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-in-the-treatment-of-mucositis-and-peri-implantitis-a-triple-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
M Galofré, D Palao, M Vicario, J Nart, D Violant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Oral probiotics appear to improve the treatment of periodontal diseases but there is limited evidence on their efficacy in the treatment of peri-implant diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate, clinically and microbiologically, the effect of the oral probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri Prodentis, as adjuvant to non-surgical mechanical therapy in implants with mucositis or peri-implantitis, placed in patients with a history of periodontal disease...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351806/isolated-septic-arthritis-of-hip-joint-a-rare-presentation-of-melioidosis-a-case-report
#2
N P Weerasinghe, H M M Herath, T M U Liyanage
BACKGROUND: Despite, Sri Lanka lies in the melioidosis endemic belt between 5°N and 10°N surrounded by countries known to have endemic melioidosis for many years, comparatively fewer cases of melioidosis infection have been reported in Sri Lanka. Melioidosis has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation, ranging from severe pneumonia to abscess formation in various organs. Isolated septic arthritis, which is a rare but well-recognized manifestation of melioidosis, could be the sole presenting problem in some patients with melioidosis...
January 19, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350154/use-of-pristinamycin-for-macrolide-resistant-mycoplasma-genitalium-infection
#3
Tim R H Read, Jørgen S Jensen, Christopher K Fairley, Mieken Grant, Jennifer A Danielewski, Jenny Su, Gerald L Murray, Eric P F Chow, Karen Worthington, Suzanne M Garland, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Catriona S Bradshaw
High levels of macrolide resistance and increasing fluoroquinolone resistance are found in Mycoplasma genitalium in many countries. We evaluated pristinamycin for macrolide-resistant M. genitalium in a sexual health center in Australia. Microbiologic cure was determined by M. genitalium-specific 16S PCR 14-90 days after treatment began. Of 114 persons treated with pristinamycin, infection was cured in 85 (75%). This percentage did not change when pristinamycin was given at daily doses of 2 g or 4 g or at 3 g combined with 200 mg doxycycline...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339395/efficacy-and-safety-of-finafloxacin-versus-ciprofloxacin-in-the-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections-an-explorative-randomized-phase-ii-clinical-study
#4
F Wagenlehner, M Nowicki, C Bentley, M Lückermann, S Wohlert, C Fischer, A Vente, K Naber, A Dalhoff
INTRODUCTION: The broad spectrum C-8-cyano-fluoroquinolone finafloxacin displays enhanced activity at acidic conditions. This phase II clinical study compared efficacy and safety of finafloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients with complicated urinary tract infection and/or pyelonephritis. RESULTS: A 5-day regimen with finafloxacin 800 mg q.d. (FINA05) had similar results as a 10-day regimen with finafloxacin 800 mg q.d. (FINA10). Combined microbiological and clinical responses at test of cure visit (TOC) were 70% for FINA05, 68% for FINA10, and 57% for a 10-day ciprofloxacin regimen (CIPRO10) in 193 (64 for FINA05, 68 for FINA10 and 61 for CIPRO10) patients of the microbiological intent-to-treat (mITT) population...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339394/population-pharmacokinetics-of-finafloxacin-in-healthy-volunteers-and-patients-with-complicated-urinary-tract-infections
#5
Max Taubert, Mark Lückermann, Andreas Vente, Axel Dalhoff, Uwe Fuhr
Background: Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with increased antibacterial activity at acidic pH and reduced susceptibility to several resistance mechanisms. A phase II study revealed a good efficacy/safety profile in patients with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) while pharmacokinetics was characterized by highly variable concentration vs. time profiles, suggesting the need for an elaborated pharmacokinetic model.Methods: Data from three clinical trials were evaluated; 127 healthy volunteers were dosed orally (N=77) or intravenously (N=50) and 139 patients with cUTI received finafloxacin intravenously...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333776/-clinical-and-microbiologic-follow-up-evaluations-after-non-surgical-periodontal-treatment-with-nd-yag-laser-and-scaling-and-root-planning
#6
Yin Yanli, Xu Chunmei, Wu Yafei, Zhao Lei
OBJECTIVE: Our research aimed to detect the efficacy of non-surgical periodontal treatment with Nd: YAG laser and scaling and root planning (SRP) for chronic periodontitis. METHODS: We recruited chronic periodontitis patients who have more than four teeth with clinical pocket depth of 4-8 mm. These teeth were distributed in four different zones within the oral cavity. Moreover, the teeth were single root teeth and not adjacent to each other. The subordinated teeth were randomized into four groups, as follows: no treatment (C group), simple SRP (SRP group), Nd: YAG laser after SRP treatment (SRP+L group), and SRP after Nd: YAG laser treatment (L+SRP group)...
December 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331021/onset-progression-and-resolution-of-experimental-peri-implant-mucositis-at-different-abutment-surfaces-a-randomized-controlled-two-center-study
#7
F Schwarz, J Becker, C Sara, D Hazar, T Iglhaut, G Iglhaut
OBJECTIVES: To assess the onset, progression and resolution of experimentally induced peri-implant mucositis lesions at abutments with different microstructures in humans. MATERIAL & METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, interventional two-center study, a total of 28 patients had received 28 target implants and were randomly allocated to either partially microgrooved- (test) or machined (control) healing abutments. The study was accomplished in 3 phases, including a wound healing period (WH) following implant placement (12 weeks), a plaque exposure phase (EP - 21 days) and a resolution phase (RP - 16 weeks)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327449/clinical-microbiological-and-cytomorphometric-evaluation-of-low-level-laser-therapy-as-an-adjunct-to-periodontal-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-periodontitis
#8
M S Petrović, I Y Kannosh, J M Milašin, D S Mihailović, R R Obradović, S R Bubanj, L G Kesić
OBJECTIVE: A clinical prospective study was designed to evaluate microbiological, cytomorphometric and clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to periodontal therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. METHODS: Sixty subjects were included and randomly assigned into 2 groups: SRP (scaling root planning) group (n = 30) and LLLT + SRP group (n = 30). Clinical parameters were measured before intervention, after the fifth treatment, and after a month...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325875/fatal-thoracic-empyema-involving-campylobacter-rectus-a-case-report
#9
A Noël, A Verroken, L Belkhir, H Rodriguez-Villalobos
We report the case of a 69-year-old man admitted for septic shock secondary to necrotic pneumoniae complicated by thoracic empyema of fatal issue. Microbiological examination of pleural liquid revealed a mixed anaerobic flora involving Campylobacter rectus and Actinomyces meyeri. Campylobacter rectus is an infrequent anaerobic pathogen of oral origin To our knowledge, this is the first case report of fatal C. rectus - associated thoracic empyema, and only the second reported case in which identification was successfully performed by MALDI-TOF MS...
January 8, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287070/a-diagnostic-and-epidemiologic-investigation-of-acute-febrile-illness-afi-in-kilombero-tanzania
#10
Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Ondari D Mogeni, Newton Wamola, Wanze Kohi, Victor Omballa, Melvin Ochieng, Shirley Lidechi, Juma Bonventure, Caroline Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Barry S Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel M Montgomery
INTRODUCTION: In low-resource settings, empiric case management of febrile illness is routine as a result of limited access to laboratory diagnostics. The use of comprehensive fever syndromic surveillance, with enhanced clinical microbiology, advanced diagnostics and more robust epidemiologic investigation, could enable healthcare providers to offer a differential diagnosis of fever syndrome and more appropriate care and treatment. METHODS: We conducted a year-long exploratory study of fever syndrome among patients ≥ 1 year if age, presenting to clinical settings with an axillary temperature of ≥37...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284155/a-retrospective-analysis-comparing-oral-stepdown-therapy-for-enterobacteriaceae-bloodstream-infections-fluoroquinolones-versus-beta-lactams
#11
Nicholas J Mercuro, Patricia Stogsdill, Minkey Wungwattana
Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections (EB-BSI) are a common manifestation of Gram-negative sepsis, and are initially managed with empiric intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Upon stabilization and source control, patients are often transitioned to an oral agent. The fluoroquinolone (FQ) class plays a prominent role in stepdown therapy for severe infections due to favorable pharmacokinetic parameters; however, serious adverse effects have been documented with their use. Two hundred and twenty-four adults with EB-BSI initiated on empiric IV antibiotics with stepdown to oral beta-lactam (BLM) (n= 84) or FQ (n= 140) were included to compare clinical success and identify risk factors for treatment failure...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279602/new-therapeutic-perceptions-in-a-patient-with-complicated-herpes-simplex-virus-1-keratitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Dimitrios Kalogeropoulos, Aliki Geka, Konstantinos Malamos, Maria Kanari, Chris Kalogeropoulos
BACKGROUND Keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) can have detrimental effects on the cornea leading to loss of vision. Modern therapies can contribute to the prevention of anatomical and functional damage. CASE REPORT An 80-year-old male with complicated HSV-1 keratitis of the left eye (confirmed diagnosis after microbiological investigation) presented three months after antiviral treatment with corneal blurring, severe epitheliopathy, thinning of the stroma, and neovascularization. At the time he was referred, the visual acuity of his left eye was very low, as he could only count fingers at a one-foot distance...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260773/-the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-oropharyngeal-candidiasis-in-the-hiv-infected-patients-at-the-late-stages-of-the-disease
#13
A O Charushin, A M Elovikov, I P Charushina, N N Vorob'eva, G G Katretskaya
Oropharyngeal candidiasis in 512 HIV-infected patients at the late stages of the disease was studied with special reference to the clinical and microbiological characteristics of this condition. The diagnosis was established based on the results of the clinical and microbiological examination of the patients including investigation of the tissue samples taken from the oral cavity and the throat with the use of the device specially developed for this purpose. It was shown that the disease existed in various clinical forms the most common of which were monocomponent pathology represented by pseudomembranous candidiasis in 37...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258592/possible-therapeutic-effect-of-orally-administered-ribavirin-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#14
Byung Woo Yoon, Seung Hyeun Lee
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus usually causes self-limiting upper respiratory infection and occasionally causes pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Respiratory syncytial virus-induced severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome in immunocompetent adults has been rarely described. Unfortunately, optimal treatment has not been established for this potentially fatal condition. We report a case of respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome occurring in a previously healthy man successfully treated with orally administered ribavirin...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251672/the-role-of-omadacycline-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#15
Philippe Montravers, Alexy Tran Dinh, Sebastien Tanaka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most frequent infections, contributing to significant morbidity and healthcare costs. Although numerous antibiotics are available for this indication, several medical needs remain unmet, especially for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or mixed infections. This review summarizes the results achieved in the development of omadacycline, a new aminomethylcycline, which could have useful properties for the treatment of SSTIs...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238198/oral-microbiome-and-peri-implant-diseases-where-are-we-now
#16
REVIEW
Rafał Pokrowiecki, Agnieszka Mielczarek, Tomasz Zaręba, Stefan Tyski
Peri-implant infective diseases (PIIDs) in oral implantology are commonly known as peri-implant mucositis (PIM) and periimplantitis (PI). While PIM is restricted to the peri-implant mucosa and is reversible, PI also affects implant-supporting bone and, therefore, is very difficult to eradicate. PIIDs in clinical outcome may resemble gingivitis and periodontitis, as they share similar risk factors. However, recent study in the field of proteomics and other molecular studies indicate that PIIDs exhibit significant differences when compared to periodontal diseases...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233117/elizabethkingia-miricola-as-an-opportunistic-oral-pathogen-associated-with-superinfectious-complications-in-humoral-immunodeficiency-a-case-report
#17
Przemysław Zdziarski, Mariola Paściak, Klaudia Rogala, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal, Andrzej Gamian
BACKGROUND: Elizabethkingia miricola is a rare Gram-negative bacterium found in water and clinical specimens. Typical culturing methods often misidentify Elizabethkingia spp. as Flavobacterium or Chryseobacterium. Although diagnosis is based on culturing samples taken from sterile sites, such as blood, a proper identification of this bacterium requires an expertise that goes beyond the capabilities of a typical clinical laboratory. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency was admitted to our center...
December 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228383/oral-fungal-bacterial-biofilm-models-in-vitro-a-review
#18
Marlene Chevalier, Stephane Ranque, Isabelle Prêcheur
Inclusion of fungi as commensals in oral biofilm is an important innovation in oral biology, and this work aimed to review the literature on the available biofilm and related disease in vitro models. Actually, thousands of bacterial and around one hundred of fungal phylotypes can colonize the oral cavity. Taxonomic profiling combined with functional expression analysis has revealed that Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and prominent periodontopathogens are not always present or numerically important in candidiasis, caries, or periodontitis lesions...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226307/macrolides-for-treatment-of-haemophilus-ducreyi-infection-in-sexually-active-adults
#19
REVIEW
Laura Romero, Cesar Huerfano, Carlos F Grillo-Ardila
BACKGROUND: Chancroid is a genital ulcerative disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. This microorganism is endemic in Africa, where it can cause up to 10% of genital ulcers. Macrolides may be an effective alternative to treat chancroid and, based on their oral administration and duration of therapy, could be considered as first line therapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of macrolides for treatment of H ducreyi infection in sexually active adults...
December 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208798/a-clinical-and-microbiological-evaluation-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis
#20
Kamala Rajendra, Sadananda M Purnachandra, Parthkumar C Patel, Jochima Cota, Venkat R Singh, Ankur Vatsal
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of Helicobacter pylori in recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) with or without peptic ulcer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 42 patients were selected for the present study from outpatient Department of Oral Medicine, and divided into control (group I) and test groups (groups II, III). A total number of 15 patients suffering from RAS based on history and clinical examination was selected as group II. A total number of 12 patients suffering concomitantly from RAS and duodenal ulcer based on history and clinical examination were selected as group III...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
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