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Oral Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101333/behaviour-change-interventions-to-influence-antimicrobial-prescribing-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-reports-from-uk-state-of-the-art-scientific-conferences
#1
T M Rawson, L S P Moore, A M Tivey, A Tsao, M Gilchrist, E Charani, A H Holmes
BACKGROUND: To improve the quality of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions the application of behavioural sciences supported by multidisciplinary collaboration has been recommended. We analysed major UK scientific research conferences to investigate AMS behaviour change intervention reporting. METHODS: Leading UK 2015 scientific conference abstracts for 30 clinical specialties were identified and interrogated. All AMS and/or antimicrobial resistance(AMR) abstracts were identified using validated search criteria...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100279/severe-community-acquired-adenovirus-pneumonia-treated-with-oral-ribavirin-a-case-report
#2
Byung Woo Yoon, Yong Geon Song, Seung Hyeun Lee
BACKGROUND: Adenovirus is a common pathogen of acute upper respiratory infection in children and is generally self-limiting. Severe adenovirus infections have been reported in immunocompromised hosts especially bone marrow transplantation recipients due to hematologic malignancy. Severe adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts has rarely been reported and optimal treatment has not been established. We report a case of community-acquired severe adenovirus pneumonia which was successfully treated with early administration of oral ribavirin...
January 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093536/noma-overview-of-a-neglected-disease-and-human-rights-violation
#3
REVIEW
M Leila Srour, Klaas Marck, Denise Baratti-Mayer
Noma is an orofacial gangrene affecting malnourished children and mainly observed in tropical countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. Epidemiological data on noma are scarce, but a current estimate of the global incidence is 30,000-40,000 cases per year, with a mortality rate of approximately 85% and a burden of disease calculated to be a loss of 1-10 million disability-adjusted life years. The etiology of noma is multifactorial with malnutrition as an ever present factor, often in combination with concomitant diseases, such as measles, malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and poor oral hygiene...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066103/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-topical-sertaconazole-versus-topical-terbinafine-in-localized-dermatophytosis-a-randomized-observer-blind-parallel-group-study
#4
Dattatreyo Chatterjee, Sudip Kumar Ghosh, Sukanta Sen, Saswati Sarkar, Avijit Hazra, Radharaman De
OBJECTIVE: Epidermal dermatophyte infections most commonly manifest as tinea corporis or tinea cruris. Topical azole antifungals are commonly used in their treatment but literature suggests that most require twice-daily application and provide lower cure rates than the allylamine antifungal terbinafine. We conducted a head-to-head comparison of the effectiveness of the once-daily topical azole, sertaconazole, with terbinafine in these infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized, observer-blind, parallel group study (Clinical Trial Registry India [CTRI]/2014/09/005029) with adult patients of either sex presenting with localized lesions...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045312/black-stains-a-microbiological-analysis-and-a-view-on-familiarity-and-susceptibility-to-tooth-decay-of-patients-in-childhood
#5
D Tripodi, D Martinelli, M Pasini, M R Giuca, S D'Ercole
AIM: Assess prevalence, familial predisposition and susceptibility to caries of Black Stains (BS). Evaluate the microbiological composition of BS, saliva and subgingival plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty nine subjects with BS (test group) and 120 subjects without BS (control group) were analysed for oral status. For each BS-patient, a BS-deposit, 1 ml of saliva and subgingival plaque were collected and microbiologically analysed. Five deciduous teeth with BS were observed under SEM...
December 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042438/the-treatment-of-peri-implant-diseases-a-new-approach-using-hybenx-%C3%A2-as-a-decontaminant-for-implant-surface-and-oral-tissues
#6
M A Lopez, M Andreasi Bassi, L Confalone, F Silvestre, C Arcuri
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the efficacy of HyBeNX® to decontaminate the implant surface, both in the case mucositis and severe peri-implantitis and to allow future bone regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe three case reports of peri-implantitis successfully treated with HyBeNX®. In our study, we have used microbiological tests to demonstrate the efficacy of HyBeNX® in decreasing bacterial load. RESULTS: The microbiological results of the clinical cases described show that there was a reduction in the total bacterial count after treatment...
July 2016: Oral & Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028395/microbiological-assessment-of-moringa-oleifera-extracts-and-its-incorporation-in-novel-dental-remedies-against-some-oral-pathogens
#7
Hanaa Elgamily, Amani Moussa, Asmaa Elboraey, Hoda El-Sayed, Marwa Al-Moghazy, Aboelfetoh Abdalla
AIM: To assess the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of different parts of Moringa oleifera plant using different extraction methods in attempts to formulate natural dental remedies from this plant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three solvents extracts (Ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate) of different parts of Egyptian Moringa tree were prepared and tested against oral pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method; As well as to incorporate the plant extract to formulate experimental toothpaste and mouthwash...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017477/executive-summary-of-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infection-guidelines-of-the-spanish-society-of-clinical-microbiology-and-infectious-diseases-seimc
#8
Marina de Cueto, Luis Aliaga, Juan-Ignacio Alós, Andres Canut, Ibai Los-Arcos, Jose Antonio Martínez, Jose Mensa, Vicente Pintado, Dolors Rodriguez-Pardo, Jose Ramon Yuste, Carles Pigrau
Most urinary tract infections (UTI) are uncomplicated infections occurring in young women. An extensive evaluation is not required in the majority of cases, and they can be safely managed as outpatients with oral antibiotics. Escherichia coli is by far the most common uropathogen, accounting for >80% of all cases. Other major clinical problems associated with UTI include asymptomatic bacteriuria, and patients with complicated UTI. Complicated UTIs are a heterogeneous group associated with conditions that increase the risk of acquiring infection or treatment failure...
December 22, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017464/a-review-of-pat-strategies-in-secondary-solid-oral-dosage-manufacturing-of-small-molecules
#9
REVIEW
Stephan Laske, Amrit Paudel, Otto Scheibelhofer
Pharmaceutical solid oral dosage product manufacturing is a well-established, yet revolutionizing area. To this end, process analytical technology (PAT) involves interdisciplinary and multivariate (chemical, physical, microbiological, and mathematical) methods for material (e.g., materials, intermediates, products) and process (e.g., temperature, pressure, throughput, etc.) analysis. This supports rational process modeling and enhanced control strategies for improved product quality and process efficiency. Therefore, it is often difficult to orient and find the relevant, integrated aspects of the current state-of-the-art...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994423/assessment-of-streptococcus-mutans-in-healthy-versus-gingivitis-and-chronic-periodontitis-a-clinico-microbiological-study
#10
Sneha Dani, Ashwin Prabhu, K R Chaitra, N C Desai, Sudhir R Patil, Ranjan Rajeev
BACKGROUND: Dental caries and periodontal disease are most common oral diseases. Streptococcus mutans are considered to be the major pathogens in initiation of dental caries. Evidence shows that periodontal disease and caries share a number of contributory factors. Thus in view of these findings it would be worthwhile to examine whether Streptococcus mutans persist within the saliva and subgingival environment of the periodontitis patients and to determine whether there is any association between Streptococcus mutans colonization, pH of saliva and sub-gingival plaque pH in periodontal diseases before therapy...
October 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965958/a-dormant-microbial-component-in-the-development-of-preeclampsia
#11
REVIEW
Douglas B Kell, Louise C Kenny
Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex, multisystem disorder that remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. Four main classes of dysregulation accompany PE and are widely considered to contribute to its severity. These are abnormal trophoblast invasion of the placenta, anti-angiogenic responses, oxidative stress, and inflammation. What is lacking, however, is an explanation of how these themselves are caused. We here develop the unifying idea, and the considerable evidence for it, that the originating cause of PE (and of the four classes of dysregulation) is, in fact, microbial infection, that most such microbes are dormant and hence resist detection by conventional (replication-dependent) microbiology, and that by occasional resuscitation and growth it is they that are responsible for all the observable sequelae, including the continuing, chronic inflammation...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940642/new-insights-into-the-role-of-the-porcine-intestinal-yeast-kazachstania-slooffiae-in-intestinal-environment-of-weaned-piglets
#12
Vladimir Urubschurov, Kirsten Büsing, Gertraude Freyer, Daniel P R Herlemann, Wolfgang-Bernhard Souffrant, Annette Zeyner
Kazachstania slooffiae is a porcine intestinal yeast which role in the intestinal environment is largely unexplored. Therefore, the impact of K. slooffiae on growth performance, intestinal microbial metabolites and the microbiota of weaned piglets was investigated in this study. Forty-eight German Landrace pigs were weaned at day 27 or 28 of life and grouped into one control and three treatment groups. During the five-week experiment, piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water. On day 5, 6 and 7 post weaning, pigs were orally supplemented with either placebo, or K...
December 8, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935660/biofilm-formation-in-haas-palatal-expanders-with-and-without-use-of-an-antimicrobial-agent-an-in-situ-study
#13
Cristhiane Ristum Bagatin, Marcela Cristina Damião Andrucioli, José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira, Mírian Aiko Nakane Matsumoto, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da Silva, Fábio Lourenço Romano, Paulo Nelson-Filho
Orthodontic appliances causes specific alterations in oral environment, including reduction of pH, increase of dental biofilm and elevation of salivary microbial levels, causing an increased risk for dental caries. This study evaluated, using microbial culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the in situ contamination by mutans streptococci (MS) of different surfaces of Haas palatal expanders with and without use of chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinses (CHX). Thirty-four patients were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 17/group), using placebo (Group I) and 0...
December 9, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920983/bacteremic-renal-stone-associated-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-nontypable-haemophilus-influenzae-a-rare-invasive-disease-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#14
Masanao Fujii, Harumi Gomi, Haruhiko Ishioka, Noriko Takamura
Haemophilus species are known to colonize the upper respiratory tract and can cause infections. However Haemophilus influenzae has been rarely described as a cause of genitourinary tract infection. We report a 44-year-old nonimmunocompromised Japanese man with bacteremic pyelonephritis caused by a nontypable H. influenzae associated with a left ureteral calculus. The organism was isolated from both blood and urine cultures. Treatment consisted of 14 days of intravenous ceftriaxone and oral amoxicillin one after than other and insertion of a left ureteral stent...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899019/antibiotic-resistance-in-severe-orofacial-infections
#15
Min Kyoung Kim, Sung-Kiang Chuang, Meredith August
PURPOSE: This study assessed the antibiotic resistance profile in patients with severe orofacial infections treated at a single institution from 2009 through 2014. Factors contributing to resistance were studied. The resistance profile was compared with that of a cohort of similar patients treated a decade previously to identify changes in antibiotic resistance. In addition, the effect of antibiotic resistance on in-hospital course was studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a 5-year retrospective cohort study...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898208/-design-and-implementation-of-an-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-program-in-primary-care-the-experience-at-a-second-level-hospital
#16
M Ruiz-Campuzano, E García-Vázquez, J J Hernández-Roca, J Gómez-Gómez, M Canteras-Jordana, E Mené-Fenor, A Hernández-Torres, A Peláez-Ballesta
OBJECTIVE: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs are a good assistance option in a wide variety of infectious diseases. Our aim was to design and implement an OPAT program in the area of influence of a second-level hospital, with no Home Hospitalization Service available, being necessary close collaboration between hospitalization and Primary Care teams, describe our cohort, analyse the antimicrobial treatment indicated and evaluate the prognostic and risk factors associated with readmission and mortality...
November 28, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898021/salivary-microbiome-diversity-in-caries-free-and-caries-affected-children
#17
Shan Jiang, Xiaoli Gao, Lijian Jin, Edward C M Lo
Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3-4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891338/non-o157-h7-shiga-toxin-producing-diarrhoeagenic-escherichia-coli-stec-in-southern-india-a-tinderbox-for-starting-epidemic
#18
Shashank Purwar, Subrana Roy, Sharada Metgud
INTRODUCTION: Outbreaks due to non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) resulting in Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS) have garnered much attention because of associated mortality transcending across continents and also because diarrhoea due to E.coli itself is rare in developed countries. The actual incidence of non-O157:H7 STEC in sporadic acute diarrhoea is not fully elucidated, both in developing as well as in developed countries. Due to larger extent of faecal-oral transmission in developing countries it is prudent to look for non-O157: H7 STEC in such epidemiological settings because of very high potential to spread across larger geographical regions and cause life threatening illness...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889361/adult-bronchiectasis-patients-a-first-look-at-the-united-states-bronchiectasis-research-registry
#20
Timothy R Aksamit, Anne E O'Donnell, Alan Barker, Kenneth N Olivier, Kevin L Winthrop, M Leigh Anne Daniels, Margaret Johnson, Edward Eden, David Griffith, Michael Knowles, Mark Metersky, Matthias Salathe, Byron Thomashow, Gregory Tino, Gerard Turino, Betsy Carretta, Charles L Daley
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the characteristics of adult bronchiectasis patients enrolled in the United States Bronchiectasis Research Registry (BRR). METHODS: The BRR is a database of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) patients enrolled at 13 sites within the United States. Baseline demographic, spirometric, imaging, microbiologic, and therapeutic data were entered into a central web-based database. Patients were subsequently analyzed by the presence NTM...
November 23, 2016: Chest
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