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Oral Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780746/a-novel-herbal-formulation-versus-chlorhexidine-mouthwash-in-efficacy-against-oral-microflora
#1
K S Vinod, K S Sunil, Priyanka Sethi, Ram Chand Bandla, Subhasini Singh, Deepak Patel
Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare and to analyze the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine and new formulated herbal mouthwash after using for 14 days. The objective was to signify whether the noval herbal combination could be a better alternative mouthwash to Chlorhexidine (CHX). Materials and Methods: This is a double-blinded, random controlled research study conducted in the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology. A total of 200 dental students were selected randomly, comprising of two groups, 100 in each, aged between 18 and 22 years with gingival index of score II...
March 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766842/continuous-low-dose-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-urinary-tract-infection-in-adults-who-perform-clean-intermittent-self-catheterisation-the-antic-rct
#2
Robert Pickard, Thomas Chadwick, Yemi Oluboyede, Catherine Brennand, Alexander von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Doreen McClurg, Jennifer Wilkinson, Laura Ternent, Holly Fisher, Katherine Walton, Elaine McColl, Luke Vale, Ruth Wood, Mohamed Abdel-Fattah, Paul Hilton, Mandy Fader, Simon Harrison, James Larcombe, Paul Little, Anthony Timoney, James N'Dow, Heather Armstrong, Nicola Morris, Kerry Walker, Nikesh Thiruchelvam
BACKGROUND: People carrying out clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC) to empty their bladder often suffer repeated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Continuous once-daily, low-dose antibiotic treatment (antibiotic prophylaxis) is commonly advised but knowledge of its effectiveness is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit, harms and cost-effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent UTIs in people who perform CISC. DESIGN: Parallel-group, open-label, patient-randomised 12-month trial of allocated intervention with 3-monthly follow-up...
May 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764190/delafloxacin-an-improved-fluoroquinolone-developed-through-advanced-molecular-engineering
#3
Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi, Davide Pecori, Glenn Tillotson
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens current clinical practice across a range of infection types. Delafloxacin, a non-zwitterionic fluoroquinolone recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, has been developed to address some of these challenges. Uniquely delafloxacin has increased intracellular penetration and enhanced antibacterial activity under acidic conditions, an environment seen in many infection sites including abscesses. Delafloxacin is active against a wide range of Gram-positive and -negative species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and many fluoroquinolone-resistant strains...
May 16, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756429/bacterial-osteomyelitis-microbiological-clinical-therapeutic-and-evolutive-characteristics-of-344-episodes
#4
E García Del Pozo, J Collazos, J A Cartón, D Camporro, V Asensi
OBJECTIVE: Osteomyelitis is a difficult-to-cure infection, with high relapse rate despite adequate therapy. Large published osteomyelitis series in adults are rare. METHODS: A total of 344 adult osteomyelitis patients were studied and followed > 12 months after hospital discharge. Demographic, microbiological, clinical, therapeutic and outcome data were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age was 52.5 ± 18.3 years and 233 (67.7%) were male. Main osteomyelitis types were post-surgical (31...
May 11, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750587/the-microbiologic-profile-of-dacryocystitis
#5
Stella Y Chung, Leon Rafailov, Roger E Turbin, Paul D Langer
PURPOSE: Recent studies suggest an increasing incidence of gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in dacryocystitis. Since patients are often treated empirically without culture data, a changing microbiologic profile will markedly affect the success of oral treatment. To provide current guidelines for the treatment of this common condition, we investigated the microbiology and antibiogram of dacryocystitis seen at our institution. METHODS: The charts of all patients presenting with acute and/or chronic dacryocystitis in University Hospital, Newark, from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed...
May 11, 2018: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747810/oral-health-interventions-using-chlorhexidine-effects-on-the-prevalence-of-oral-opportunistic-pathogens-in-stroke-survivors-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Normaliza Ab Malik, Fathilah Abdul Razak, Sa'ari Mohamad Yatim, Otto Lok Tao Lam, Lijian Jin, Leonard S W Li, Colman McGrath
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of oral opportunistic pathogens among stroke survivors, both before and after oral health care interventions. METHODS: A multicenter randomized clinical trial was conducted on hospitalized stroke survivors. Those in the control group were given standard care of oral hygiene (a manual toothbrush and toothpaste), whereas those in the test group were given intense care of oral hygiene (a powered toothbrush and 1% chlorhexidine oral gel)...
June 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740814/risk-assessment-models-to-predict-caries-recurrence-after-oral-rehabilitation-under-general-anaesthesia-a-pilot-study
#7
Yai-Tin Lin, Ashish Chetan Kalhan, Yng-Tzer Joseph Lin, Tosha Ashish Kalhan, Chein-Chin Chou, Xiao Li Gao, Chin-Ying Stephen Hsu
OBJECTIVES: Oral rehabilitation under general anaesthesia (GA), commonly employed to treat high caries-risk children, has been associated with high economic and individual/family burden, besides high post-GA caries recurrence rates. As there is no caries prediction model available for paediatric GA patients, this study was performed to build caries risk assessment/prediction models using pre-GA data and to explore mid-term prognostic factors for early identification of high-risk children prone to caries relapse post-GA oral rehabilitation...
May 8, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731572/quantitative-analysis-of-dental-age-estimation-by-incremental-line-of-cementum
#8
G Swetha, Kiran Kumar Kattappagari, Chandra Shekar Poosarla, Lalith Prakash Chandra, Sridhar Reddy Gontu, Venkata Ramana Reddy Badam
Aim: This study aims to examine the correlation between age and number of incremental lines in human dental cementum among single-rooted teeth (incisors and canines) and to assess the best tooth to estimate age group by studying cementum under phase-contrast microscope and to assess the use of cementum in age estimation. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology. A sample of eighty single-rooted undecalcified longitudinal ground sections is prepared from freshly collected teeth with age noted separately and observed under phase-contrast microscope, photographed and counted...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710295/effect-of-5-day-nitrofurantoin-vs-single-dose-fosfomycin-on-clinical-resolution-of-uncomplicated-lower-urinary-tract-infection-in-women-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Angela Huttner, Anna Kowalczyk, Adi Turjeman, Tanya Babich, Caroline Brossier, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Katarzyna Kosiek, Begoña Martinez de Tejada, Xavier Roux, Shachaf Shiber, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Elodie von Dach, Dafna Yahav, Leonard Leibovici, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Johan W Mouton, Stephan Harbarth
Importance: The use of nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin has increased since guidelines began recommending them as first-line therapy for lower urinary tract infection (UTI). Objective: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy of nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin in women with uncomplicated cystitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multinational, open-label, analyst-blinded, randomized clinical trial including 513 nonpregnant women aged 18 years and older with symptoms of lower UTI (dysuria, urgency, frequency, or suprapubic tenderness), a positive urine dipstick result (with detection of nitrites or leukocyte esterase), and no known colonization or previous infection with uropathogens resistant to the study antibiotics...
May 1, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696199/microbiological-and-clinical-effects-of-an-oral-hygiene-regimen
#10
Violet I Haraszthy, Prem K Sreenivasan
Objective: This study compared the additional effect of rinsing with a fluoride-free and alcohol-free 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthwash to brushing alone on dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and supragingival plaque bacteria. Methods: Adult subjects [n = 68] completed a washout period prior to baseline evaluations that evaluated gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, dental plaque, and pocket probing depths along with microbiological analysis of supragingival plaque for bacteria...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696011/topical-colloidal-silver-for-the-treatment-of-recalcitrant-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#11
Mian L Ooi, Katharina Richter, Catherine Bennett, Luis Macias-Valle, Sarah Vreugde, Alkis J Psaltis, Peter-John Wormald
Background: The management of recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is challenged by difficult-to-treat polymicrobial biofilms and multidrug resistant bacteria. This has led to the search for broad-spectrum non-antibiotic antimicrobial therapies. Colloidal silver (CS) has significant antibiofilm activity in vitro and in vivo against S. aureus, MRSA , and P. aeruginosa . However, due to the lack of scientific efficacy, it is only currently used as an alternative medicine. This is the first study looking at the safety and efficacy of CS in recalcitrant CRS...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691010/characterization-and-microbiological-evaluation-of-chitosan-alginate-microspheres-for-cefixime-vaginal-administration
#12
F Maestrelli, M Jug, M Cirri, I Kosalec, P Mura
Chitosan-alginate microspheres (MS) were developed for cefixime vaginal administration, to overcome problems associated with its oral administration. The effect of increasing drug-loading amount, by keeping the chitosan-alginate content constant, was investigated. Mucoadhesion studies indicated that all formulations assured in situ permanence longer than 2 h. Entrapment efficiency increased with drug loading concentration in the starting solution, reaching a plateau at 30 mg/mL indicative of the achievement of an optimal drug-to-polymer ratio...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678677/photodynamic-inactivation-of-candida-ssp-on-denture-stomatitis-a-clinical-trial-involving-palatal-mucosa-and-prosthesis-disinfection
#13
André M de Senna, Martha M F Vieira, Rosa Maria Machado-de-Sena, Aparecido O Bertolin, Silvia C Núñez, Martha S Ribeiro
Denture stomatitis (DS) is the most common oral fungal infection in denture wearers. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been showing to be an effective technique in vivo against fungi, including fungal infections in the oral cavity. The disinfection of both oral mucosa and denture may represent a real advantage in terms of fungus control. This clinical study was designed to explore methylene blue (MB)-mediated PDI on oral mucosa and prosthesis of patients with DS. Subjects with DS were divided into two groups...
April 17, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666664/oral-fosfomycin-for-the-treatment-of-acute-and-chronic-bacterial-prostatitis-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli
#14
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Michael A Zhanel, James A Karlowsky
Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis in outpatients is commonly treated with oral fluoroquinolones; however, the worldwide dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli has resulted in therapeutic failures with fluoroquinolones. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin in the treatment of acute and chronic prostatitis caused by MDR E. coli . All English-language references on PubMed from 1986 to June 2017, inclusive, were reviewed from the search "fosfomycin prostatitis...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656039/maternal-adherence-to-guidance-on-breast-milk-collection-process
#15
M Carré, D Dumoulin, R Jounwaz, B Mestdagh, V Pierrat
INTRODUCTION: Breast milk expression with a breast pump increases the risk of contaminating milk with pathogenic bacteria; how to decontaminate breast pumps is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal adherence to updated French guidance on the breast milk collection process, including breast pump decontamination, and to identify potential sources of increased bacterial counts in breast milk in order to improve prevention messages to mothers. METHODS: Descriptive prospective study conducted between November 2015 and April 2016 in a French tertiary perinatal center...
April 11, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650301/-pulmonary-intravascular-talcosis-a-case-report
#16
J Reverso-Meinietti, F Vandenbos, K Risso, J Coyne, S Leroy, B Padovani, F Burel-Vandenbos
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary intravascular talcosis is a rare condition occurring in intravenous drug users injecting oral medications. Talc results in a foreign-body granulomatous reaction giving a radiological haematogenic miliary appearance mimicking miliary tuberculosis. Drug users represent a population at risk for both these conditions and their distinction may be challenging. CASE REPORT: We reported the case of a man, 33 year-old, intravenous drug addict, detected by the health services because he was the partner of a person who died of contagious and multi-resistant tuberculosis...
April 9, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642381/decision-tree-approach-to-the-impact-of-parents-oral-health-on-dental-caries-experience-in-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Shinechimeg Dima, Kung-Jeng Wang, Kun-Huang Chen, Yung-Kai Huang, Wei-Jen Chang, Sheng-Yang Lee, Nai-Chia Teng
Decision tree (DT) analysis was applied in this cross-sectional study to investigate caries experience in children by using clinical and microbiological data obtained from parent-child pairs. Thirty pairs of parents and children were recruited from periodontal and pediatric dental clinics. All participants were clinically examined for caries and periodontitis by a calibrated examiner. Cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria examinations were conducted. The Kendall rank correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between data variables obtained through clinical and microbiological examinations...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617982/gepotidacin-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-urogenital-gonorrhea-a-phase-2-randomized-dose-ranging-single-oral-dose-evaluation
#18
Stephanie N Taylor, David H Morris, Ann K Avery, Kimberly A Workowski, Byron E Batteiger, Courtney A Tiffany, Caroline R Perry, Aparna Raychaudhuri, Nicole E Scangarella-Oman, Mohammad Hossain, Etienne F Dumont
Background: In this phase 2 study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthylene bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitor, for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea. Methods: Adult participants with suspected urogenital gonorrhea were enrolled and completed baseline (day 1) and test-of-cure (days 4-8) visits. Pretreatment and posttreatment urogenital swabs were collected for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) culture and susceptibility testing...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614521/targeting-coagulase-activity-in-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-a-randomized-controlled-single-centre-trial-of-staphylothrombin-inhibition
#19
Marijke Peetermans, Laurens Liesenborghs, Kathelijne Peerlinck, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Olivier Gheysens, Karolien E Goffin, Marc F Hoylaerts, Marc Jacquemin, Jan Verhaegen, Willy E Peetermans, Peter Verhamme, Thomas Vanassche
BACKGROUND:   Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) bacteraemia is frequent and carries a high morbidity and mortality. Coagulases secreted by S. aureus initiate blood coagulation by directly activating prothrombin. This pathogen-activated coagulation is insensitive to most antithrombotic drugs, with the exception of small molecule direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs). DTIs inhibit the coagulase-prothrombin complex, or staphylothrombin, and improve outcome in preclinical models of S. aureus infection...
April 3, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608659/long-term-impact-of-oral-azithromycin-taken-by-gambian-women-during-labour-on-prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-s-pneumoniae-and-s-aureus-in-their-infants-follow-up-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Abdoulie Bojang, Bully Camara, Isatou Jagne Cox, Claire Oluwalana, Kodou Lette, Effua Usuf, Christian Bottomley, Benjamin P Howden, Umberto D'Alessandro, Anna Roca
Background: Oral azithromycin given to women in labour decreases maternal and neonatal bacterial carriage but increases azithromycin resistant bacteria during at least 4 weeks following the intervention. We assessed the prevalence of bacterial carriage and azithromycin resistance 12 months after treatment among study infants. Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) were collected between November 2014 and May 2015 from children 11-13 months old whose mothers had received azithromycin or placebo during labour...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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