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Oral Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641352/-do-general-surgeons-feel-adequately-prepared-for-the-complex-questions-associated-with-the-handling-of-multi-resistant-pathogens-results-of-the-mr2-survey
#1
Matthias May, Philipp J Spachmann, Steffen Lebentrau, Harald Schumacher, Christian Gilfrich, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Malte Vetterlein, Sabine Brookman-May, Martin Schostak, Florian M Wagenlehner, Maximilian Burger, Alexander Novotny, Robert Obermaier
Background At the present time, there is no evidence available as to the knowledge of general surgeons regarding multi-resistant pathogens (MRP) and the rational use of antibiotic medication (antibiotic stewardship/ABS) compared with physicians from other disciplines. Methods As part of the MR2 survey (Multiinstitutional Reconnaissance of practice with MultiResistant bacteria - a survey focussing on German hospitals), a questionnaire comprising 4 + 35 items was distributed to urologists, internists, gynaecologists and general surgeons in 18 hospitals...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619977/infectious-crystalline-keratopathy-after-descemet%C3%A3-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-s-stripping-endothelial-keratoplasty
#2
Ashley J Porter, Graham A Lee, Kevin Whitehead
A 68-year-old woman presented with infectious crystalline keratopathy 4 months after she underwent a combined phacoemulsification and Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty for Fuch's endothelial dystrophy in her left eye. After 5 months of topical moxifloxacin 1%, the infiltrate responded well but had not completely resolved, with the resulting endothelial failure requiring a penetrating keratoplasty 9 months after the initial operation. Microbiology identified Enterococcus faecalis with the histopathology demonstrating bacterial colonies within the graft interface...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597967/anidulafungin-for-the-treatment-of-candidaemia-caused-by-candida-parapsilosis-analysis-of-pooled-data-from-six-prospective-clinical-studies
#3
Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Matteo Bassetti, Marcio Nucci, Maria Rita Capparella, Jean L Yan, Jalal Aram, Patricia A Hogan
Concerns with echinocandin use for infections caused by Candida parapsilosis complex species have driven the need for data to support echinocandin clinical efficacy in such patients. Data from six prospective studies were pooled to assess efficacy and safety of anidulafungin in patients with candidaemia caused by C. parapsilosis. Patient-level data were pooled from patients with microbiologically confirmed candidaemia due to C. parapsilosis treated with anidulafungin. Patients received a 200 mg intravenous (IV) loading dose of anidulafungin (day 1) and 100 mg daily thereafter...
June 9, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592223/feline-leprosy-due-to-mycobacterium-lepraemurium
#4
Carolyn R O'Brien, Richard Malik, Maria Globan, George Reppas, Christina McCowan, Janet A Fyfe
OBJECTIVES: This paper, the second in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to Mycobacterium lepraemurium, the most common cause of feline leprosy worldwide. METHODS: Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with M lepraemurium infection. RESULTS: A total of 145 cases of feline leprosy were scrutinised; 114 'new' cases were sourced from the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory records, veterinary pathology laboratories or veterinarians, and 31 cases were derived from six published studies...
July 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589386/navigating-the-jungles-of-tropical-infectious-gastrointestinal-pathology-a-pattern-based-approach-to-the-endoscopic-biopsy
#5
Tomas Slavik, Gregory Y Lauwers
International travels and global human migration have had the unforeseen consequence of increasing the exposure of histopathologists in developed countries to the pathology of tropical infectious disease. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is often the primary site of infection due to the faecal-oral route of transmission and the high risk of exposure to contaminated water, food or soil when travelling to these regions. Whilst current microbiologic techniques are far more sensitive than histology in detecting infectious pathogens, the histopathologist nonetheless retains a pivotal role in diagnosing tropical GIT disease...
June 6, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587974/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-sitafloxacin-vs-ertapenem-as-a-switch%C3%A2-therapy-after-treatment-for-acute-pyelonephritis-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-a-pilot-study
#6
Chitprasong Malaisri, Angsana Phuphuakrat, Arrug Wibulpolprasert, Pitak Santanirand, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul
BACKGROUND: The overuse and misuse of carbapenems have contributed to the antibiotic resistance crisis. The role of oral fluoroquinolones as a switch therapy for the treatment of urinary tract infection from Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of sitafloxacin and ertapenem for non-bacteremic acute pyelonephritis caused by ESBL-EC. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial of patients with acute pyelonephritis caused by ESBL-EC was performed as a pilot study...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575389/prospective-randomized-double-blind-phase-2-dose-ranging-study-comparing-efficacy-and-safety-of-imipenem-cilastatin-plus-relebactam-with-imipenem-cilastatin-alone-in-patients-with-complicated-urinary-tract-infections
#7
Matthew Sims, Valeri Mariyanovski, Patrick McLeroth, Wayne Akers, Yu-Chieh Lee, Michelle L Brown, Jiejun Du, Alison Pedley, Nicholas A Kartsonis, Amanda Paschke
Objectives: The β-lactamase inhibitor relebactam can restore imipenem activity against imipenem non-susceptible pathogens. Methods: To explore relebactam's safety, tolerability and efficacy, we conducted a randomized (1:1:1), controlled, Phase 2 trial comparing imipenem/cilastatin+relebactam 250 mg, imipenem/cilastatin+relebactam 125 mg and imipenem/cilastatin alone in adults with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) or acute pyelonephritis, regardless of baseline pathogen susceptibility...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566081/-a-rarely-isolated-bacterium-in-microbiology-laboratories-streptococcus-uberis
#8
Canan Eryıldız, Şebnem Bukavaz, Şaban Gürcan, Osman Hatipoğlu
Streptococcus uberis is a gram-positive bacterium that is mostly responsible for mastitis in cattle. The bacterium rarely has been associated with human infections. Conventional phenotyphic methods can be inadequate for the identification of S.uberis; and in microbiology laboratories S.uberis is confused with the other streptococci and enterococci isolates. Recently, molecular methods are recommended for the accurate identification of S.uberis isolates. The aim of this report is to present a lower respiratory tract infection case caused by S...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559203/is-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-an-effective-treatment-for-chronic-periodontitis-in-diabetes-mellitus-and-cigarette-smokers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Nawwaf Al-Hamoudi
BACKGROUND: To determine whether treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) improves clinical, microbiological and immunological outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cigarette smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP). METHODS: Databases (MEDLINE, PubMed; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register) were searched up to and including May 2017. The addressed PICO question was: "Does aPDT as an adjunct to SRP improves clinical, microbiological and immunological outcomes in T2DM and smokers with CP?" RESULTS: Six randomized clinical trials were included...
May 27, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556062/clinical-and-microbiological-effects-of-the-adjunctive-use-of-probiotics-in-the-treatment-of-gingivitis-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#10
Eduardo Montero, Margarita Iniesta, Marta Rodrigo, María José Marín, Elena Figuero, David Herrera, Mariano Sanz
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of a probiotic combination in the treatment of gingivitis and to assess its impact on the subgingival microbiota. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in gingivitis subjects during 6 weeks. Test treatment consisted on the administration of two oral tablets per day containing the probiotic strains Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus acidilactici; the control group received the same tablets but without live bacteria...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555497/ldtmav2-a-nonclassical-transpeptidase-and-susceptibility-of-mycobacterium-avium-to-carbapenems
#11
Rohini Mattoo, Evan P Lloyd, Amit Kaushik, Pankaj Kumar, Julie L Brunelle, Craig A Townsend, Gyanu Lamichhane
AIM: Mycobacterium avium infections, especially in immune-compromised individuals, present a significant challenge as therapeutic options are limited. In this study, we investigated if M. avium genome encodes nonclassical transpeptidases and if newer carbapenems are effective against this mycobacteria. MATERIALS & METHODS: Biochemical and microbiological approaches were used to identify and characterize a nonclassical transpeptidase, namely L,D-transpeptidase, in M...
May 30, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547773/dental-and-periodontal-health-and-microbiological-and-salivary-conditions-in-patients-with-or-without-diabetes-undergoing-haemodialysis
#12
Gerhard Schmalz, Nora Schiffers, Sandra Schwabe, Radovan Vasko, Gerhard A Müller, Rainer Haak, Rainer F Mausberg, Dirk Ziebolz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the dental and periodontal health, as well as the microbiological and salivary conditions, of patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) who are receiving haemodialysis. METHODS: One-hundred and fifty-nine haemodialysis patients were included and divided into groups according to the pre-existing diabetes status: DM or no DM. The oral examination included dental findings and assessment of the periodontal situation...
June 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542286/clinical-impact-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-on-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-study-on-1-790-patients-from-the-spanish-bronchiectasis-historical-registry
#13
David De la Rosa, Miguel-Angel Martínez-Garcia, Rosa Maria Giron, Montserrat Vendrell, Casilda Olveira, Luis Borderias, Luis Maiz, Antoni Torres, Eva Martinez-Moragon, Olga Rajas, Francisco Casas, Rosa Cordovilla, Javier de Gracia
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the coexistence of bronchiectasis (BE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in series of patients diagnosed primarily with BE. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of patients with BE associated with COPD included in the Spanish Bronchiectasis Historical Registry and compare them to the remaining patients with non-cystic fibrosis BE. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre observational study of historical cohorts, analysing the characteristics of 1,790 patients who had been included in the registry between 2002 and 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538501/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Pournima Navalkele, Bülent Özgönenel, Eric McGrath, Paul Lephart, Sharada Sarnaik
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of fatal sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, because of the inherent autosplenectomy that occurs in SCD. This risk is thwarted with oral penicillin prophylaxis during the first 5 years of life, and with stringent vaccination against S. pneumoniae alongside routine childhood immunization. But compared with the general African American pediatric population, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with SCD still remains high, resulting in hospitalization and fatality...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536781/oral-health-status-in-adult-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-acute-leukemia
#15
Rilana Busjan, Justin Hasenkamp, Gerhard Schmalz, Rainer Haak, Lorenz Trümper, Dirk Ziebolz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the oral health of adult patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. METHODS: Patients with initially diagnosed acute myeloid (AML) or lymphocytic (ALL) leukemia and a matched healthy control (HC) group were included. The oral investigation comprised inspection of the oral mucosa; the decayed (D), missing (M), and filled (F) teeth (DMF-T) index; and a detailed periodontal status. Subgingival biofilm samples were analyzed (polymerase chain reaction) for the presence of selected potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534040/elsberg-syndrome-a-rarely-recognized-cause-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-and-lower-thoracic-myelitis
#16
Filippo Savoldi, Timothy J Kaufmann, Eoin P Flanagan, Michel Toledano, Brian G Weinshenker
OBJECTIVE: Elsberg syndrome (ES) is an established but often unrecognized cause of acute lumbosacral radiculitis with myelitis related to recent herpes virus infection. We defined ES, determined its frequency in patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) with myelitis, and evaluated its clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic features and outcomes. METHODS: We searched the Mayo Clinic medical records for ES and subsequently for combinations of index terms to identify patients with suspected CES and myelitis...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527286/-possible-oral-transmission-of-chagas-disease-among-hydrocarbons-sector-workers-in-casanare-colombia-2014
#17
Liliana Patricia Zuleta-Dueñas, Ángela Johana López-Quiroga, Fernando Torres-Torres, Oneida Castañeda-Porras
INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent for Chagas disease, can be transmitted by oral intake of contaminated food or drinks. During epidemiological week 14 of 2014, two cases of acute Chagas disease were notified among hydrocarbons sector workers in Paz de Ariporo, Casanare. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the affected population, to establish control and prevention measures and to confirm the outbreak. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an outbreak investigation that included the following components: a) Search for symptomatic people compatible with Chagas disease according to the case definition for their referral to medical services; b) entomological survey (192/197 houses); c) sanitary inspection and microbiological analysis of food samples; and d) study of reservoirs...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526799/acquired-resistance-to-macrolides-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#18
Muhammad-Hariri Mustafa, Shaunak Khandekar, Michael M Tunney, J Stuart Elborn, Barbara C Kahl, Olivier Denis, Patrick Plésiat, Hamidou Traore, Paul M Tulkens, Francis Vanderbist, Françoise Van Bambeke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receive chronic treatment with macrolides for their antivirulence and anti-inflammatory properties. We, however, previously showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, considered as naturally resistant to macrolides, becomes susceptible when tested in a eukaryotic medium rather than a conventional broth.We therefore looked for specific macrolide resistance determinants in 333 CF isolates from four European CF centres in comparison with 48 isolates from patients suffering from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526565/efficacy-of-indefinite-chronic-oral-antimicrobial-suppression-for-prosthetic-joint-infection-in-the-elderly-a-comparative-study
#19
V Prendki, P Sergent, A Barrelet, E Oziol, E Beretti, M Berlioz-Thibal, F Bouchand, F A Dauchy, E Forestier, G Gavazzi, C Ronde-Oustau, J Stirnemann, A Dinh
BACKGROUND: During prosthetic joint infection (PJI), surgical management is sometimes impossible and indefinite chronic oral antimicrobial suppression (ICOAS) may be the only option. The outcomes of elderly patients who benefited from ICOAS with strictly palliative intent were evaluated. METHODS: A national retrospective cohort study was performed in France, involving patients aged >75 years with a PJI who were managed with planned life-long ICOAS from 2009 to 2014...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526080/post-weaning-diarrhea-in-pigs-risk-factors-and-non-colistin-based-control-strategies
#20
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, John Morris Fairbrother, Francis Beaudry, Ann Letellier
Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is one of the most serious threats for the swine industry worldwide. It is commonly associated with the proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the pig intestine. Colistin, a cationic antibiotic, is widely used in swine for the oral treatment of intestinal infections caused by E. coli, and particularly of PWD. However, despite the effectiveness of this antibiotic in the treatment of PWD, several studies have reported high rates of colistin resistant E. coli in swine...
May 19, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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