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Oral Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440853/antibiotic-strategies-for-eradicating-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Simon C Langton Hewer, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs in most people with cystic fibrosis. Once chronic infection is established, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is virtually impossible to eradicate and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Early infection may be easier to eradicate.This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2006, 2009 and 2014. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antibiotic treatment of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children and adults with cystic fibrosis eradicates the organism, delays the onset of chronic infection, and results in clinical improvement...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438498/performance-of-maldi-tof-ms-for-identification-of-oral-prevotella-species
#2
Mervi Gürsoy, Inka Harju, Jaakko Matomäki, Anne Bryk, Eija Könönen
During the past decade, the clinically relevant genus Prevotella has expanded considerably. Prevotella species can be isolated from nearly all types of oral infections but also from various non-oral infections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been introduced in clinical microbiology laboratories as a convenient method for identifying bacterial isolates from clinical specimens. Here we tested the diagnostic accuracy of a total of 123 oral Prevotella isolates, selected based on their biochemical profile, by Bruker MALDI-TOF MS...
April 21, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438086/feline-leprosy-due-to-candidatus-mycobacterium-tarwinense
#3
Carolyn R O'Brien, Richard Malik, Maria Globan, George Reppas, Christina McCowan, Janet A Fyfe
OBJECTIVES: This paper, the first in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to Candidatus 'Mycobacterium tarwinense', the most common cause of feline leprosy in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with Candidatus 'M tarwinense' infection...
May 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432161/aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-pneumonia-with-chest-and-abdominal-wall-involvement
#4
Iris Storms, Marre van den Brand, Peter Schneeberger, Nico van 't Hullenaar
A 54-year-old man presented with a productive cough, chest pain, fever and weight loss. Initial analysis revealed a palpable chest wall mass and consolidation in the left lower lobe and pleural abnormalities on imaging. At that point no infectious cause or malignancy was identified. Microbiological analysis of a needle biopsy from a newly developed abdominal wall mass revealed growth of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy for 1 year. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative coccobacillus and is part of the normal oral flora...
April 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429817/investigation-of-bacterial-viability-from-incubated-saliva-by-application-of-flow-cytometry-and-hyphenated-separation-techniques
#5
Bogusław Buszewski, Maciej Milanowski, Tomasz Ligor, Paweł Pomastowski
The aim of the study was determination of bacterial viability in saliva samples and finding a correlation between microbiological and volatile profiles of saliva depending on incubation time. Bacteria colonizing healthy oral cavities were also identified. Twelve healthy adults donated unstimulated saliva samples. Flow cytometry, optical density measurements and colony-forming unit (CFU) counting method were employed for analyses of native and inoculated saliva after 0, 1, 2, 24 and 48 h of incubation. Volatile profiles were acquired using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS)...
April 21, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417331/use-of-high-dose-oral-valacyclovir-during-an-intravenous-acyclovir-shortage-a-retrospective-analysis-of-tolerability-and-drug-shortage-management
#6
Milena M McLaughlin, Sarah H Sutton, Ashley O Jensen, John S Esterly
INTRODUCTION: In late 2011, a shortage of IV acyclovir led to the need to empirically substitute high-dose oral valacyclovir (HDVA) to conserve IV acyclovir for patients with confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis or encephalitis. This report describes the management of the most recent national IV acyclovir shortage by the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) at Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH), Chicago, IL, USA, and the use of HDVA. Secondarily, we assessed the safety and tolerability of HDVA as an alternate to IV acyclovir during this shortage...
April 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414681/what-can-erode-through-lungs-bone-and-skin
#7
J M Manalac, D Shankaranayanan, J Paul-Olivier, L Guidry, N R Sells
CASE: A 51 year old African American Man without significant past history presented with three weeks of persistent cough productive of copious yellow sputum. He denied fevers, chills, hemoptysis, dyspnea, weight or appetite changes, sick contacts, recent travel. On physical examination, the patient was afebrile and appeared comfortable. He had decreased air entry of the left lower lobe with dullness to percussion. A 5x3 cm fluctuant mass was incidentally found on the left anterior chest wall at the level of the 11th rib with yellow expressible exudate at which time the patient reported a minor trauma sustained 3 weeks prior...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396692/efficacy-of-propolis-on-the-denture-stomatitis-treatment-in-older-adults-a-multicentric-randomized-trial
#8
Gisela de M S Pina, Erica N Lia, Andresa A Berretta, Andresa P Nascimento, Elina C Torres, Andrei F M Buszinski, Tatiana A de Campos, Eduardo B Coelho, Vicente de P Martins
Our hypothesis tested the efficacy and safety of a mucoadhesive oral gel formulation of Brazilian propolis extract compared to miconazole oral gel for the treatment of denture stomatitis due to Candida spp. infection in older adults. Forty patients were randomly allocated in a noninferiority clinical trial into two groups. The control group (MIC) received 20 mg/g miconazole oral gel and the study group (PROP) received mucoadhesive formulation containing standardized extract of 2% (20 mg/g) propolis (EPP-AF®) during 14 days...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389992/detection-of-biofilms-in-biopsies-from-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients-in-vitro-biofilm-forming-ability-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-in-biofilm-mode-of-growth-of-isolated-bacteria
#9
Mariagrazia Di Luca, Elena Navari, Semih Esin, Melissa Menichini, Simona Barnini, Andrej Trampuz, Augusto Casani, Giovanna Batoni
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is the most common illness among chronic disorders that remains poorly understood from a pathogenic standpoint and has a significant impact on patient quality of life, as well as healthcare costs. Despite being widespread, little is known about the etiology of the CRS. Recent evidence, showing the presence of biofilms within the paranasal sinuses, suggests a role for biofilm in the pathogenesis. To elucidate the role of biofilm in the pathogenesis of CRS, we assessed the presence of biofilm at the infection site and the ability of the aerobic flora isolated from CRS patients to form biofilm in vitro...
April 8, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384980/anti-bacterial-efficacy-of-terminalia-chebula-terminalia-bellirica-embilica-officinalis-and-triphala-on-salivary-streptococcus-mutans-count-a-linear-randomized-cross-over-trial
#10
Smariti Saxena, Nagesh Lakshminarayan, Shanmukha Gudli, Manish Kumar
INTRODUCTION: From the oral health perspective, it is well established that microorganisms have an important role in caries aetiology. From the dawn of civilization, herbal plants have served an array of roles. Triphala a tradtional herbal Ayurvedic formula consists of three native fruits of india including Terminalia Chebula (T. chebula), Terminalia Bellirica (T. bellirica) and Embilica Officinalis (E. officinalis). As per Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) Triphala is prepared by combining a 1:1:1 mixture of ground dry fruits called myrobalans...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384863/comparative-evaluation-of-fosfomycin-activity-with-other-antimicrobial-agents-against-e-coli-isolates-from-urinary-tract-infections
#11
Ahmed Sardar, Sreekanth Reddy Basireddy, Anwar Navaz, Manisha Singh, Vasanti Kabra
INTRODUCTION: Fosfomycin is a broad spectrum anti-microbial agent with activity against various bacterial agents. It is a bactericidal antibiotic which interferes with cell wall synthesis. Fosfomycin is rapidly absorbed orally and majority of the drug is excreted unchanged in urine with very high concentration levels achieved in urine after a single oral dose. Urine levels remain high for prolonged period which makes it a suitable drug in the treatment of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372916/oral-therapy-microbiological-findings-and-comorbidity-influence-the-outcome-of-prosthetic-joint-infections-undergoing-2-stage-exchange
#12
Tiziana Ascione, Pasquale Pagliano, Giovanni Balato, Massimo Mariconda, Renato Rotondo, Silvano Esposito
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate potential predictive factors of an unfavorable outcome in patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) undergoing 2-stage exchange. METHODS: Patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage exchange and observed over a 5-year period (2009-2013) were included. Cure was defined by the disappearance of infection after a 96-week follow-up period. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fisher exact test, and the multivariate analysis...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367891/comparison-of-nonsurgical-periodontal-therapy-with-oral-hygiene-instruction-alone-for-chronic-periodontitis
#13
Maaz Asad, Alwani W Abdul Aziz, Renukanth P C Raman, Himratul-Aznita W Harun, Tara Bai T Ali, Karuthan Chinna, Rathna D Vaithilingam
We evaluated changes in clinical variables and microbiological profiles of periodontopathogens among 56 patients with moderate to severe CP who were randomly assigned to oral hygiene instruction (OHI; n = 28) or nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT; n = 28). Periodontal variables were assessed and subgingival plaque samples were obtained from deep pockets (≥5 mm) at baseline and 3 months after treatment. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360373/successful-treatment-of-pd-peritonitis-due-to-morganella-morganii-resistant-to-third-generation-cephalosporins-a-case-report
#14
Vaibhav Keskar, Mohan Biyani, Syed Obaid Amin, Greg Knoll
Morganella morganii is a rare cause of peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Most of the reported cases have resorted to a switch to hemodialysis. We herein report a case of peritonitis due to M. morganii resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, which was treated successfully with intraperitoneal (IP) tobramycin followed by oral ciprofloxacin. Early microbiologic diagnosis is essential in the treatment of peritonitis from rare microorganisms such as Morganella morganii, and appropriate antibiotic therapy is the key to avoiding catheter loss and subsequent switch to hemodialysis...
March 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349914/outcome-of-single-vs-multiple-visit-endodontic-therapy-of-nonvital-teeth-a-meta-analysis
#15
Dulce O Almeida, Sônia Cl Chaves, Ronaldo A Souza, Felipe F Soares
INTRODUCTION: Endodontic therapy is a specialized procedure more demanded by patients within public oral health care in the country. Then, single-visit endodontic therapy may offer advantages to the health care services, to the professionals, and to the patients by reducing access barriers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A meta-analysis was done and the variables evaluated were periapical repair, microbiological control, and postobturation pain in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving endodontic treatment of nonvital teeth at single- or multiple visits...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349509/a-new-emerging-oral-infection-raoultella-planticola-in-a-boy-with-haematological-malignancy
#16
E Bardellini, F Amadori, R F Schumacher, I Foresti, A Majorana
BACKGROUND: Oral mucositis is a common complication in pediatric cancer patients, affecting up to 80% of children. Due to neutropenia and disruption of the mucosal barrier, chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is often complicated by super-infections. CASE REPORT: A 16-years old male with stage 3 Burkitt's lymphoma developed chemotherapy induced oral mucositis grade 3 (according to WHO scale). Ulcers were quickly growing (reaching a maximum diameter of 3 cm) and became greyish in colour, resulting in dysphagia and pain...
March 27, 2017: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346212/stability-of-extemporaneously-prepared-hydroxycarbamide-oral-suspensions
#17
Djamila Kabiche, Issa-Bella Balde, Elyes Majoul, Sofiane Kabiche, Elodie Bourguignon, Jean-Eudes Fontan, Salvatore Cisternino, Jöel Schlatter
Hydroxycarbamide, available as tablets, is a pharmacological agent for fetal hemoglobin induction such as sickle cell anemia. The need for alternative dosage form options for patients unable to take tablets led hospital pharmacies to prepare solutions and suspensions. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of hydroxycarbamide in Ora-Plus in combination with either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF, Ora-Blend, or Ora-Blend SF suspending agents. The studied samples were compounded into 100-mg/mL suspensions and stored in 60-mL amber glass bottles at room (22°C to 25°C) or refrigerated (4°C to 8°C) temperature...
March 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345244/association-between-serum-and-oral-matrix-metalloproteinase-8-levels-and-periodontal-health-status
#18
B Noack, T Kipping, T Tervahartiala, T Sorsa, T Hoffmann, K Lorenz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) is involved in a wide range of pathologies including periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The association between periodontitis and CVD has been repeatedly recognized. The aim of the study was to analyze to what extent circulating active MMP-8 (aMMP-8) is associated with periodontal disease status and oral fluid aMMP-8 levels in otherwise healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, aMMP-8 was measured in serum of 59 volunteers, comprising 19 periodontally healthy subjects, 20 patients with gingivitis as well as 20 with periodontitis...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344947/factors-associated-with-odontogenic-bacteraemia-in-orthodontic-patients
#19
O D Umeh, O O Sanu, I L Utomi, F O Nwaokorie
BACKGROUND: Various researches have investigated factors associated with the prevalence and intensity of bacteraemia following oral procedures including orthodontic procedures. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender, plaque and gingival indices on the occurrence of odontogenic bacteraemia following orthodontic treatment procedures. SETTING: Orthodontic Clinic, Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria...
April 2016: Journal of the West African College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344783/retrospective-report-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-observed-in-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-from-ocular-samples-at-mount-sinai-hospital-2010-to-2015
#20
Marko Oydanich, Tanis C Dingle, Camille L Hamula, Claudia Ghisa, Penny Asbell
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major threat to global public health. Thus, the surveillance of changes in antimicrobial resistance in local and global settings is a paramount necessity. While many studies have tracked antimicrobial resistance, only a small percentage surveyed ocular isolates. The purpose of this study was to report the in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples in New York, NY from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective review of ocular isolates was conducted...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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